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Nucléaire et santé

BSE 22 janvier 2015 - no. 199

Documentation en Radioprotection d'EDF - DPI - Division Production Nucléaire

 


22 janvier 2015 - no. 199

 

Projets de publication

 

Articles

IMAIZUMI M, OHISHI W, NAKASHIMA E et al. - Association of radiation dose with prevalence of thyroid nodules among atomic bomb survivors exposed in childhood (2007-2011). – JAMA internal medicine, online 29/12/2014.

  • Abstract

Importance: Few studies have evaluated the association of radiation dose with thyroid nodules among adults exposed to radiation in childhood.

Objective: To evaluate radiation dose responses on the prevalence of thyroid nodules in atomic bomb survivors exposed in childhood.

Design, Setting, and Participants: This survey study investigated 3087 Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors who were younger than 10 years at exposure and participated in the thyroid study of the Adult Health Study at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. Thyroid examinations including thyroid ultrasonography were conducted between October 2007 and October 2011, and solid nodules underwent fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Data from 2668 participants (86.4% of the total participants; mean age, 68.2 years; 1213 men; and 1455 women) with known atomic bomb thyroid radiation doses (mean dose, 0.182 Gy; median dose, 0.018 Gy; dose range, 0-4.040 Gy) were analyzed.

Main Outcomes and Measures: The prevalence of all thyroid nodules having a diameter of 10 mm or more (consisting of solid nodules [malignant and benign] and cysts), prevalence of small thyroid nodules that were less than 10 mm in diameter detected by ultrasonography, and atomic bomb radiation dose-responses.

Results: Thyroid nodules with a diameter of 10 mm or more were identified in 470 participants (17.6%): solid nodules (427 cases [16.0%]), malignant tumors (47 cases [1.8%]), benign nodules (186 cases [7.0%]), and cysts (49 cases [1.8%]), and all were significantly associated with thyroid radiation dose. Excess odds ratios per gray unit were 1.65 (95% CI, 0.89-2.64) for all nodules, 1.72 (95% CI, 0.93-2.75) for solid nodules, 4.40 (95% CI, 1.75-9.97) for malignant tumors, 2.07 (95% CI, 1.16-3.39) for benign nodules, and 1.11 (95% CI, 0.15-3.12) for cysts. The interaction between age at exposure and the dose was significant for the prevalence of all nodules (P = .003) and solid nodules (P < .001), indicating that dose effects were significantly higher with earlier childhood exposure. No interactions were seen for sex, family history of thyroid disease, antithyroid antibodies, or seaweed intake. No dose-response relationships were observed for small (<10-mm diameter) thyroid nodules.

Conclusions and Relevance: Radiation effects on thyroid nodules exist in atomic bomb survivors 62 to 66 years after their exposure in childhood. However, radiation exposure is not associated with small thyroid nodules.

 

SMITH N, BROWN RM, WILLIAMS WJ et al. - Arrival of the Fukushima radioactivity plume in North American continental waters. – Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, online 29/12/2014, 6 p.

 

 

Vient de paraître

Articles

BAYSSON H – Radon dans les habitations en France : de l’exposition au risque. - EMC Pathologie professionnelle et de l’environnement, 01-03/2015, 186, 16-504-A-10, 6 p.

  • Résumé

Le radon, gaz radioactif d'origine naturelle, est présent dans l'air intérieur des habitations, mais à des concentrations variables, dépendant de la richesse en uranium et en radium des sous-sols. Il est responsable d'un peu plus du tiers de l'exposition de la population à la radioactivité. Son inhalation entraîne une irradiation alpha dans l'épithélium bronchique. L'impact sanitaire de l'exposition au radon et ses descendants a été appréhendé grâce aux études épidémiologiques mises en place sur les mineurs d'uranium dans les années 1960. Le caractère carcinogène du radon pour le poumon a été reconnu en 1988 par l'Agence internationale de recherche contre le cancer. Depuis, de nombreux travaux épidémiologiques ont permis de confirmer ce résultat, même à de faibles niveaux d'exposition, et d'affiner la connaissance de la relation exposition-risque. Un projet international européen a rassemblé 13 études cas-témoins utilisant un même protocole : questionnaire commun ; reconstruction de l'exposition domestique sur 30 ans ; intercomparaison des méthodes de mesure ; critères d'inclusion identiques ; reconstitution de la consommation tabagique. Au total, l'analyse a porté sur plus de 7000 cas et 14 000 témoins. Elle a montré que le risque de cancer du poumon augmentait en fonction de la concentration de radon dans les habitations. Cette relation exposition-risque était observée aussi bien chez les fumeurs que chez les non-fumeurs. Entre 2004 et 2007, ces résultats ont été corroborés par les publications des résultats de deux études similaires conduites en Chine et en Amérique du Nord. Ils confirment l'effet du radon domestique sur le risque de cancer du poumon et font du radon la deuxième cause de cancer pulmonaire, loin toutefois derrière le tabac.

 

AKIMOTO K - Annual and weekly cycles of radioactivity concentration observed in Fukushima city. – Health physics, 01/2015, 108, 1, 32-38.

  • Abstract

Weekly cycles in the radioactivity concentration of radiocesium measured in Fukushima City, Japan, are found embedded in an annual cycle of the same. The radioactivity concentration and fallout of radiocesium measured in Fukushima City during the period from June 2011 until July 2013 are analyzed to evaluate mainly their time dependences. Although on average the two quantities decrease at paces much faster than those of local dose rates, both of them show annual cycles, peaking during winter and spring and bottoming otherwise. These annual cycles, which are somewhat out of phase compared to those in Europe, are formed due to weathering. However, the local radioactivity concentration shows weekly cycles also, increasing on weekdays and decreasing at weekends. The causes of these weekly cycles are presumably vehicular traffic and precipitation. Therefore, both human and natural activities are playing important roles at different timescales on atmospheric migration of radiocesium deposited in Fukushima City.

 

BRAMLITT ET, SHONKA JJ - Radiation exposure of aviation crewmembers and cancer. - Health physics, 01/2015, 108, 1, 76-86.

  • Abstract

Crewmembers are exposed to galactic cosmic radiation on every flight and occasionally to solar protons on polar flights. Data are presented showing that the proton occasions are seven times more frequent than generally believed. Crewmembers are also exposed to neutrons and gamma rays from the sun and to gamma rays from terrestrial thunderstorms. Solar neutrons and gamma rays (1) expose the daylight side of Earth, (2) are most intense at lower latitudes, (3) may be as or more frequent than solar protons, and (4) have relativistic energies. The U.S. agency responsible for crewmember safety only considers the galactic component with respect to its recommended 20 mSv y(-1) limit, but it has an estimate for a thunderstorm dose of 30 mSv. In view of overlooked sources, possible over-limit doses, and lack of dosimetry, dose reconstructions are needed. However, using the agency dose estimates and the compensation procedure for U.S. nuclear weapon workers, the probability of crewmember cancers can be at least as likely as not. Ways to improve the quality of dose estimates are suggested, and a worker's compensation program specific to aviation crewmembers is recommended.

 

TSUBOKURA M, KATO S, NOMURA S et al. - Absence of internal radiation contamination by radioactive cesium among children affected by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant disaster. - Health physics, 01/2015, 108, 1, 39-43.

  • Abstract

Chronic internal radiation contamination accounts for a substantial fraction of long-term cumulative radiation exposure among residents in radiation-contaminated areas. However, little information is available on ongoing chronic internal radiation contamination among residents near the crippled Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Using a whole body counter, internal radiation contamination levels among elementary and middle school students who commute to 22 schools located within Minamisoma city were assessed between May and July 2013 (26 to 28 mo after the disaster). Of 3,299 elementary and middle school students in the city, 3,255 individuals (98%) were screened through school health check-ups. Not a single student was detected with internal radiation contamination due to radioactive cesium. The study found no risk of chronic internal radiation exposure among residents near the crippled nuclear power plant. Current food inspection by local governments, volunteers, and farmers has been functioning well within Fukushima prefecture. However, food management by screening suspected contamination along with whole body counter screening are key public health interventions and should be continued to avoid further internal radiation exposure in radiation-contaminated areas.

 

XING ZW, JIANG EH, DU JY et al. - Long-term follow-up of the genital organs and eye lenses in three cases of acute radiation sickness from a 60Co radiation accident in China. - Health physics, 01/2015, 108, 1, 1-7.

  • Abstract

A follow-up study aimed primarily at investigating late radiation effects on the genital organs and eye lenses was performed between 1999 and 2010 on three individuals who suffered from acute radiation sickness in China. The examination included a medical history, a physical examination, ultrasonography, laboratory analysis, and an ophthalmologic examination. In Case 1, amenorrhea occurred after exposure to a Co source. The uterus and ovaries were significantly narrowed in the second year following exposure. The estradiol level decreased significantly during the first 3 y; progesterone was lowest in the second year; and levels of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone increased, especially in the first year. The lenses in both eyes appeared opaque 6 mo after the exposure, resulting in a gradual deterioration in visual acuity. In Case 2 (8 y old), the levels of testosterone and estradiol were normal. In Case 3, the levels of testosterone and estradiol were also normal, but the sperm count was 0 from 6 mo to 1 y, and the proportion of abnormal sperm was increased from 3-5 y after the accident. The lenses in Case 3 also began to turn opaque in the ninth year after the accident. In Case 1, the ovarian function was reduced, leading to amenorrhea and early menopause. In Case 3, the sperm count was reduced and the number of abnormal sperm was increased due to testicular damage by radiation. Radiation-induced cataracts occurred in both Case 1 and Case 3.

 

MOSKALEV A, SHAPOSHNIKOV M, PLYUSNINA E et al. – Exhaustive data mining comparison of the effects of low doses of ionizing radiation, formaldehyde and dioxins. - BMC Genomics, 19/12/2014, 15, suppl 12, S5, 7 p.

 

COATES R - Radiation protection : where are we after Fukushima ? - Journal of radiological protection, 12/2014, 34, 4, E13-E1625.

 

CULLINGS HM, PIERCE DA, KELLERER AM – Accounting for neutron exposure in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. - Radiation research, 12/2014, 182, 6, 587-598.

  • Abstract

The Japanese atomic bomb survivors that were directly exposed to both γ rays and neutrons have been followed by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF). The estimation of the γ-ray risks requires some adjustment for the greater biological effect of the neutrons per unit dose. Because the small neutron doses and the predominant γ-ray doses are highly correlated, the neutron relative biological effectiveness (RBE) cannot be reliably estimated from the survivors' data and information from radiobiology must be invoked. As data became available on neutron doses, RERF has used a constant neutron RBE value of 10, even though radiobiological studies indicate that the RBE values appear to have considerably larger values at low doses. The approximation RBE = 10 assumes that if the RBE is variable it takes roughly this value in the range of total dose most relevant for linear risk estimation, namely about 1 Gy. We consider some possible RBE functions to explain the correct use and the impact of a dose-dependent RBE. However, we do not advocate any particular choice or even that a variable RBE be employed. Rather we show that the assumed neutron RBE, within a wide range of choices, is far less important to the outcome of risk assessment of the RERF data than generally believed. Some of these misperceptions have been related to the consideration of variable RBE functions, and without due attention to the fact that in the case of the A-bomb survivors' data, the mixed field of neutrons and γ rays must be considered. Therefore, the RBE value of neutrons is much lower than the RBE in pure neutron fields that are used in radiobiological experiments. Thus, applying the pure neutron field RBE to the mixed-field A-bomb radiation can lead to an overestimation of the actual neutron RBE for moderate total dose levels of 1 Gy by a factor of more than four. While in a pure neutron exposure the RBE depends on the neutron dose, in the mixed field it depends on both components of exposure, and in particular, we show that in the RERF setting the RBE depends mainly on the accompanying γ-ray dose.

 

HAYANO RS, WATANABE YN, NOMURA S et al. - Whole-body counter survey results 4 months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident in Minamisoma City, Fukushima. - Journal of radiological protection, 12/2014, 34, 4, 787-799.

 

IVANOV VK, KASHCHEEV VV, CHEKIN SY et al. – Estimating the lifetime risk of cancer associated with multiple CT scans. - Journal of radiological protection, 12/2014, 34, 4, 825-841.

  • Abstract

Multiple CT scans are often done on the same patient resulting in an increased risk of cancer. Prior publications have estimated risks on a population basis and often using an effective dose. Simply adding up the risks from single scans does not correctly account for the survival function. A methodology for estimating personal radiation risks attributed to multiple CT imaging using organ doses is presented in this article. The estimated magnitude of the attributable risk fraction for the possible development of radiation-induced cancer indicates the necessity for strong clinical justification when ordering multiple CT scans.

 

LIU JJ, FREEDMAN DM, LITTLE MP et al. – Work history and mortality risks in 90,268 US radiological technologists. - Occupational and environmental medicine, 12/2014, 71, 12, 819-835.

  • Abstract

OBJECTIVES: There have been few studies of work history and mortality risks in medical radiation workers. We expanded by 11 years and more outcomes our previous study of mortality risks and work history, a proxy for radiation exposure.

METHODS: Using Cox proportional hazards models, we estimated mortality risks according to questionnaire work history responses from 1983 to 1989 through 2008 by 90,268 US radiological technologists. We controlled for potential confounding by age, birth year, smoking history, body mass index, race and gender.

RESULTS: There were 9566 deaths (3329 cancer and 3020 circulatory system diseases). Mortality risks increased significantly with earlier year began working for female breast (p trend=0.01) and stomach cancers (p trend=0.01), ischaemic heart (p trend=0.03) and cerebrovascular diseases (p trend=0.02). The significant trend with earlier year first worked was strongly apparent for breast cancer during baseline through 1997, but not 1998-2008. Risks were similar in the two periods for circulatory diseases. Radiological technologists working ≥5 years before 1950 had elevated mortality from breast cancer (HR=2.05, 95% CI 1.27 to 3.32), leukaemia (HR=2.57, 95% CI 0.96 to 6.68), ischaemic heart disease (HR=1.13, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.33) and cerebrovascular disease (HR=1.28, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.69). No other work history factors were consistently associated with mortality risks from specific cancers or circulatory diseases, or other conditions.

CONCLUSIONS: Radiological technologists who began working in early periods and for more years before 1950 had increased mortality from a few cancers and some circulatory system diseases, likely reflecting higher occupational radiation exposures in the earlier years.

 

SAKATA R, GRANT EJ, FURUKAWA K et al. - Long-term effects of the rain exposure shortly after the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. - Radiation research, 12/2014, 182, 6, 599-606.

  • Abstract

The "black rain" that fell after the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki has been generally believed to contain radioactive materials. During 1949-1961 the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission conducted surveys that included a query about exposure to the rain that fell a short time after the bombings. This article presents the first report of those data in relation to possible adverse health outcomes. This study looked at Life Span Study subjects who were in either city at the time of bombing and had an estimated direct radiation dose from the bombs (n = 86,609). The mortality data from 1950-2005 and cancer incidence data from 1958-2005 were used. Excess relative risks (ERRs) of subjects who were exposed to rain compared to those who reported no rain exposure were calculated using a Poisson regression model. In Hiroshima 11,661 subjects (20%) reported that they were exposed to rain, while in Nagasaki only 733 subjects (2.6%) reported rain exposure. To avoid outcome dependent biases (i.e., recall of exposure after a health outcome has already occurred), the primary analyses were based on events that occurred during 1962-2005. No significant risks due to rain exposure were observed for death due to all causes, all solid cancer or leukemia in Hiroshima. In Nagasaki there was no significantly elevated rain exposure-associated risks for 1962-2005, however, for 1950-2005 there was a weak association for all-cause mortality (ERR = 0.08; 95% confidence interval 0.00006, 0.17; P = 0.05). For incidence of solid cancer and leukemia, no significantly elevated rain exposure risks were observed in either city. These results failed to show deleterious health effects from rain exposure. While these data represent the most extensive set of systematically collected data on rain exposure of the atomic bomb survivors, they are limited by substantial uncertainties regarding exposures and missing individual data, so cautious interpretation is advised.

 

GLUGLA M - Les systèmes de détritiation d’ITER. – Rayonnements ionisants, 10-12/2014, 4, 6-15. (pas de résumé disponible)

 

JEFROY F, HERY M – Recours à la sous-traitance : l’expérience de l’IRSN et de l’INRS. – Hygiène et sécurité, 09/2014, 236, 44-48.

 

Norme

AFNOR - Mesurage de la radioactivité dans l'environnement - Air - Radon 220 : méthode de mesure intégrée pour la détermination de l'activité volumique moyenne avec des détecteurs passifs solides de traces nucléaires. – 26/12/2014, NF ISO 16641, 27 p.

  • Résumé

Le présent document décrit uniquement les méthodes de mesure intégrées du radon 220 impliquant un prélèvement passif. Il fournit des informations sur le mesurage de l’activité volumique moyenne du radon 220 dans l’air, basé sur un prélèvement passif, de mise en oeuvre facile et peu coûteuse, ainsi que sur les conditions d’utilisation des dispositifs de mesure. Le présent document traite des échantillons prélevés sans interruption sur des périodes comprises entre quelques mois à un an. Ce type de mesure peut être également appliqué pour déterminer l’activité volumique du radon 222.

 

Rapports

Institute of medicine, National Research Council – Research on health effects of low-level ionizing radiation exposure. Opportunities for the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute. – National Academies Press, 2014, 179 p.

 

National Research Council – Analysis of cancer risks in populations near nuclear facilities. Phase 2. Pilot planning. – 2014, 35 p.

 

CE – Medical radiation exposure of the European population. Part 1/2. Radiation protection no. 180. – 12/2014, 181 p.

 

CE – Diagnostic reference levels in thirty-six European countries. Part 2/2. Radiation protection no. 180. – 12/2014, 73 p.

 

Réglementation

INRS – Les maladies professionnelles. Régime général (coll. Aide-mémoire juridique). – 12/2014, TJ19, 77 p.

 

 

Autres informations

Congrès

SEPR, AIRP, SFRP, SPR - 2nd European workshop on the ethical dimensions of the radiological protection system. Madrid (Espagne), 4-6 février 2015.

 

ICRP 2015. 3rd International symposium on the system of radiological protection. Séoul (Corée du sud), 20-22 otobre 2015.

 

 

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BSE 27 février 2015 - no. 200

Documentation en Radioprotection d'EDF - DPI - Division Production Nucléaire

 


27 février 2015 - no. 200

 

Projets de publication

Article

SPYCHER BD, LUPATSCH JE, ZWAHLEN M et al. - Background ionizing radiation and the risk of childhood cancer : a census-based nationwide cohort study. – Environmental health perspectives, online 23 février 2015, 29 p.

 

Vient de paraître

Articles

MOLLER AP, MOUSSEAU TA – Strong effects of ionizing radiation from Chernobyl on mutation rates. - Scientific reports, 10/02/2015, 5:8363, 6 p.

 

XU P, LUO H, HUANG GL et al. - Exposure to ionizing radiation during dental x-rays is not associated with risk of developing meningioma : a meta-analysis based on seven case-control studies. – PlosOne, 06/02/2015, 10, 2, 12 p.

 

SMITH JN, BROWN RM, WILLIAMS WJ et al. - Arrival of the Fukushima radioactivity plume in North American continental waters. – Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 03/02/2015, 112, 5, 1310-1315.

 

BERRINGTON DE GONZALEZ A, WONG J, KLEINERMAN R et al. – Risk of second cancers according to radiation therapy technique and modality in prostate cancer survivors. - International journal of radiation oncology biology physics, 01/02/2015, 91, 2, 295-302.

  • abstract

PURPOSE: Radiation therapy (RT) techniques for prostate cancer are evolving rapidly, but the impact of these changes on risk of second cancers, which are an uncommon but serious consequence of RT, are uncertain. We conducted a comprehensive assessment of risks of second cancer according to RT technique (>10 MV vs ≤10 MV and 3-dimensional [3D] vs 2D RT) and modality (external beam RT, brachytherapy, and combined modes) in a large cohort of prostate cancer patients.

METHODS AND MATERIALS: The cohort was constructed using the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare database. We included cases of prostate cancer diagnosed in patients 66 to 84 years of age from 1992 to 2004 and followed through 2009. We used Poisson regression analysis to compare rates of second cancer across RT groups with adjustment for age, follow-up, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and comorbidities. Analyses of second solid cancers were based on the number of 5-year survivors (n=38,733), and analyses of leukemia were based on number of 2-year survivors (n=52,515) to account for the minimum latency period for radiation-related cancer.

RESULTS: During an average of 4.4 years' follow-up among 5-year prostate cancer survivors (2DRT = 5.5 years; 3DRT = 3.9 years; and brachytherapy = 2.7 years), 2933 second solid cancers were diagnosed. There were no significant differences in second solid cancer rates overall between 3DRT and 2DRT patients (relative risk [RR] = 1.00, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.91-1.09), but second rectal cancer rates were significantly lower after 3DRT (RR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.40-0.88). Rates of second solid cancers for higher- and lower-energy RT were similar overall (RR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.89-1.06), as were rates for site-specific cancers. There were significant reductions in colon cancer and leukemia rates in the first decade after brachytherapy compared to those after external beam RT.

CONCLUSIONS: Advanced treatment planning may have reduced rectal cancer risks in prostate cancer survivors by approximately 3 cases per 1000 after 15 years. Despite concerns about the neutron doses, we did not find evidence that higher energy therapy was associated with increased second cancer risks.

 

ZABLOTSKA LB, NADYROV EA, ROZHKO AV et al. - Analysis of thyroid malignant pathologic findings identified during 3 rounds of screening (1997-2008) of a cohort of children and adolescents from Belarus exposed to radioiodines after the Chernobyl accident. - Cancer, 01/02/2015, 121, 3, 457-466.

  • abstract

BACKGROUND: Recent studies of children and adolescents who were exposed to radioactive iodine-131 (I-131) after the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident in Ukraine exhibited a significant dose-related increase in the risk of thyroid cancer, but the association of radiation doses with tumor histologic and morphologic features is not clear.

METHODS: A cohort of 11,664 individuals in Belarus who were aged ≤18 years at the time of the accident underwent 3 cycles of thyroid screening during 1997 to 2008. I-131 thyroid doses were estimated from individual thyroid activity measurements taken within 2 months after the accident and from dosimetric questionnaire data. Demographic, clinical, and tumor pathologic characteristics of the patients with thyroid cancer were analyzed using 1-way analysis of variance, chi-square tests or Fisher exact tests, and logistic regression.

RESULTS: In total, 158 thyroid cancers were identified as a result of screening. The majority of patients had T1a and T1b tumors (93.7%), with many positive regional lymph nodes (N1; 60.6%) but few distant metastases (M1; <1%). Higher I-131 doses were associated with higher frequency of solid and diffuse sclerosing variants of thyroid cancer (P < .01) and histologic features of cancer aggressiveness, such as lymphatic vessel invasion, intrathyroidal infiltration, and multifocality (all P < .03). Latency was not correlated with radiation dose. Fifty-two patients with self-reported thyroid cancers which were diagnosed before 1997 were younger at the time of the accident and had a higher percentage of solid variant cancers compared with patients who had screening-detected thyroid cancers (all P < .0001).

CONCLUSIONS: I-131 thyroid radiation doses were associated with a significantly greater frequency of solid and diffuse sclerosing variants of thyroid cancer and various features of tumor aggressiveness.

 

ALIYU AS, RAMLI AT – The world's high background natural radiation areas (HBNRAs) revisited : a broad overview of the dosimetric, epidemiological and radiobiological issues. - Radiation measurements, 02/2015, 73, 51-59.

  • abstract

The residents of the world's high background natural radiation areas (HBNRAs), such as Ramsar (in Iran), Guarapari (in Brazil), Orissa and Kerala (in India) and Yangjiang (in China) have lived in these areas for generations under extraordinary radiation fields. The failure of earlier epidemiological studies to report any substantial increase in cancer incidence in HBNRAs has raised some controversy regarding the validity of the linear no-threshold hypothesis. This paper reviews some of the most recent studies of HBNRAs with the intent of stimulating greater research interest in the dosimetric, epidemiological and radiobiological issues related to the world's HBNRAs and proposes solutions to the challenges facing HBNRA studies. This paper may serve as a useful reference for some of the harder-to-find literature.

 

BOLLAERTS K, SONCK M. SIMONS K et al. - Thyroid cancer incidence around the Belgian nuclear sites : surrogate exposure modelling. - Cancer epidemiology, 02/2015, 39, 1, 48-54.

 

BOUVILLE A, TOOHEY RE, BOICE JD et al. – Dose reconstruction for the million worker study : status and guidelines. - Health physics, 02/2015, 108, 2, 206-220.

  • abstract

The primary aim of the epidemiologic study of one million U.S. radiation workers and veterans [the Million Worker Study (MWS)] is to provide scientifically valid information on the level of radiation risk when exposures are received gradually over time and not within seconds, as was the case for Japanese atomic bomb survivors. The primary outcome of the epidemiologic study is cancer mortality, but other causes of death such as cardiovascular disease and cerebrovascular disease will be evaluated. The success of the study is tied to the validity of the dose reconstruction approaches to provide realistic estimates of organ-specific radiation absorbed doses that are as accurate and precise as possible and to properly evaluate their accompanying uncertainties. The dosimetry aspects for the MWS are challenging in that they address diverse exposure scenarios for diverse occupational groups being studied over a period of up to 70 y. The dosimetric issues differ among the varied exposed populations that are considered: atomic veterans, U.S. Department of Energy workers exposed to both penetrating radiation and intakes of radionuclides, nuclear power plant workers, medical radiation workers, and industrial radiographers. While a major source of radiation exposure to the study population comes from external gamma- or x-ray sources, for some of the study groups, there is a meaningful component of radionuclide intakes that requires internal radiation dosimetry assessments. Scientific Committee 6-9 has been established by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) to produce a report on the comprehensive organ dose assessment (including uncertainty analysis) for the MWS. The NCRP dosimetry report will cover the specifics of practical dose reconstruction for the ongoing epidemiologic studies with uncertainty analysis discussions and will be a specific application of the guidance provided in NCRP Report Nos. 158, 163, 164, and 171. The main role of the Committee is to provide guidelines to the various groups of dosimetrists involved in the MWS to ensure that certain dosimetry criteria are considered: calculation of annual absorbed doses in the organs of interest, separation of low and high linear-energy transfer components, evaluation of uncertainties, and quality assurance and quality control. It is recognized that the MWS and its approaches to dosimetry are a work in progress and that there will be flexibility and changes in direction as new information is obtained with regard to both dosimetry and the epidemiologic features of the study components. This paper focuses on the description of the various components of the MWS, the available dosimetry results, and the challenges that have been encountered. It is expected that the Committee will complete its report in 2016.

 

BRENT RL - Protection of the gametes embryo/fetus from prenatal radiation exposure. - Health physics, 02/2015, 108, 2, 242-274.

  • abstract

There is no convincing evidence of germline mutation manifest as heritable disease in the offspring of humans attributable to ionizing radiation, yet radiation clearly induces mutations in microbes and somatic cells of rodents and humans. Doses to the embryo estimated to be in the range of 0.15-0.2 Gy during the pre-implantation and pre-somite stages may increase the risk of embryonic loss. However, an increased risk of congenital malformations or growth retardation has not been observed in the surviving embryos. These results are primarily derived from mammalian animal studies and are referred to as the "all-or-none phenomenon." The tissue reaction effects of ionizing radiation (previously referred to as deterministic effects) are congenital malformations, mental retardation, decreased intelligence quotient, microcephaly, neurobehavioral effects, convulsive disorders, growth retardation (height and weight), and embryonic and fetal death (miscarriage, stillbirth). All these effects are consistent with having a threshold dose below which there is no increased risk. The risk of cancer in offspring that have been exposed to diagnostic x-ray procedures while in utero has been debated for 55 y. High doses to the embryo or fetus (e.g., >0.5 Gy) increase the risk of cancer. Most pregnant women exposed to x-ray procedures and other forms of ionizing radiation today received doses to the embryo or fetus <0.1 Gy. The risk of cancer in offspring exposed in utero at exposures <0.1 Gy is controversial and has not been fully resolved. Diagnostic imaging procedures using ionizing radiation that are clinically indicated for the pregnant patient and her fetus should be performed because the clinical benefits outweigh the potential oncogenic risks.

 

EVANGELIOU N, BALKANSKI Y, COZIC A et al. – Fire evolution in the radioactive forests of Ukraine and Belarus : future risks for the population and the environment. - Ecological monographs, 02/2015, 85, 1, 49-72.

  • abstract

In this paper, we analyze the current and future status of forests in Ukraine and Belarus that were contaminated after the nuclear disaster in 1986. Using several models, together with remote-sensing data and observations, we studied how climate change in these forests may affect fire regimes. We investigated the possibility of 137Cs displacement over Europe by studying previous fire events, and examined three fire scenarios that depended on different emission altitudes of 137Cs, assuming that 10% of the forests were affected by fires. Field

measurements and modeling simulations confirmed that numerous radioactive contaminants are still present at these sites in extremely large quantities.

Forests in Eastern Europe are characterized by large, highly fire-prone patches that are conducive to the development of extreme crown fires. Since 1986, there has been a positive correlation between extreme fire events and drought in the two contaminated regions. Litter carbon storage in the area has doubled since 1986 due to increased tree mortality and decreased decomposition rates; dead trees and accumulating litter in turn can provide fuel for wildfires that pose a high risk of redistributing radioactivity in future years. Intense fires in 2002, 2008, and 2010 resulted in the displacement of 137Cs to the south; the cumulative amount of 137Cs re-deposited over Europe was equivalent to 8% of that deposited following the initial Chernobyl disaster. However, a large amount of 137Cs still remains in these forests, which could be remobilized along with a large number of other dangerous, long-lived, refractory radionuclides. We predict that an expanding flammable area associated with climate change will lead to a high risk of radioactive contamination with characteristic fire peaks in the future. Current fire-fighting infrastructure in the region is inadequate due to understaffing and lack of funding. Our data yield the first cogent predictions for future fire incidents and provide scientific insights that could inform and spur evidence-based policy decisions concerning highly contaminated regions around the world, such as those of Chernobyl.

 

GUNDERMAN RB, GONDA AS – Radiums girls. - Radiology, 02/2015, 274, 2, 314-318.

(pas d’abstract disponible)

 

LAND CB, KWON D, HOFFMAN FO et al. – Accounting for shared and unshared dosimetric uncertainties in the dose response for ultrasound-detected thyroid nodules after exposure to radioactive fallout. - Radiation research, 02/2015, 183, 2, 159-173.

  • abstract

Dosimetic uncertainties, particularly those that are shared among subgroups of a study population, can bias, distort or reduce the slope or significance of a dose response. Exposure estimates in studies of health risks from environmental radiation exposures are generally highly uncertain and thus, susceptible to these methodological limitations. An analysis was published in 2008 concerning radiation-related thyroid nodule prevalence in a study population of 2,994 villagers under the age of 21 years old between August 1949 and September 1962 and who lived downwind from the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site in Kazakhstan. This dose-response analysis identified a statistically significant association between thyroid nodule prevalence and reconstructed doses of fallout-related internal and external radiation to the thyroid gland; however, the effects of dosimetric uncertainty were not evaluated since the doses were simple point "best estimates". In this work, we revised the 2008 study by a comprehensive treatment of dosimetric uncertainties. Our present analysis improves upon the previous study, specifically by accounting for shared and unshared uncertainties in dose estimation and risk analysis, and differs from the 2008 analysis in the following ways: 1. The study population size was reduced from 2,994 to 2,376 subjects, removing 618 persons with uncertain residence histories; 2. Simulation of multiple population dose sets (vectors) was performed using a two-dimensional Monte Carlo dose estimation method; and 3. A Bayesian model averaging approach was employed for evaluating the dose response, explicitly accounting for large and complex uncertainty in dose estimation. The results were compared against conventional regression techniques. The Bayesian approach utilizes 5,000 independent realizations of population dose vectors, each of which corresponds to a set of conditional individual median internal and external doses for the 2,376 subjects. These 5,000 population dose vectors reflect uncertainties in dosimetric parameters, partly shared and partly independent, among individual members of the study population. Risk estimates for thyroid nodules from internal irradiation were higher than those published in 2008, which results, to the best of our knowledge, from explicitly accounting for dose uncertainty. In contrast to earlier findings, the use of Bayesian methods led to the conclusion that the biological effectiveness for internal and external dose was similar. Estimates of excess relative risk per unit dose (ERR/Gy) for males (177 thyroid nodule cases) were almost 30 times those for females (571 cases) and were similar to those reported for thyroid cancers related to childhood exposures to external and internal sources in other studies. For confirmed cases of papillary thyroid cancers (3 in males, 18 in females), the ERR/Gy was also comparable to risk estimates from other studies, but not significantly different from zero. These findings represent the first reported dose response for a radiation epidemiologic study considering all known sources of shared and unshared errors in dose estimation and using a Bayesian model averaging (BMA) method for analysis of the dose response.

 

LEE Y, KIM YJ, CHOI YJ et al. – Radiation-induced changes in DNA methylation and their relationship to chromosome aberrations in nuclear power plant workers. - International journal of radiation biology, 02/2015, 91, 2, 142-149.

  • abstract

Purpose : We investigated the association between occupational radiation exposure and DNA methylation changes in nuclear power plant workers. We also evaluated whether radiation- induced DNA methylation alterations are associated with chromosome aberrations.

Materials and methods : The study population included 170 radiation-exposed workers and 30 controls. We measured global, long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1), and satellite 2 methylation levels in blood leukocyte DNA. The analysis of chromosome aberrations was performed on peripheral lymphocytes.

Results : Global DNA methylation levels were lower in radiation-exposed workers than in controls. The methylation levels were negatively associated with the recent 1.5-year radiation dose in a multiple linear regression model (β = - 0.0088, p ≤ 0.001); the levels increased proportionally with the total cumulative dose in radiation-exposed workers. LINE-1 methylation levels were higher in radiation-exposed workers than in controls and were significantly associated with the total cumulative radiation dose in a multiple linear regression model (β = - 0.031, p = 0.035). Global DNA methylation levels were also correlated with chromosome aberrations among workers. Workers with low global methylation levels had a higher frequency of chromosome aberrations than did subjects with high global methylation levels.

Conclusion : Occupational exposure to low-dose radiation could affect DNA methylation levels, and the radiation-induced DNA methylation alterations may be associated with chromosome aberrations.

 

PATIL R, SZABO E, FELLS JI et al. - Combined mitigation of the gastrointestinal and hematopoietic acute radiation syndromes by an LPA2 receptor-specific nonlipid agonist. – Chemistry and biology, 02/2015, 22, 2, 206-216.

 

RINGEN K, DEMENT J, WELCH L et al. – Mortality of older construction and craft workers employed at department of energy (DOE) nuclear sites : follow-up through 2011. - American journal of industrial medicine, 02/2015, 58, 2, 152-167.

  • abstract

BACKGROUND: The Building Trades National Medical Screening Program (BTMed) was established in 1996 to provide occupational medicine screening examinations for construction workers who have worked at US Department of Energy nuclear sites. Workers participating in BTMed between 1998 and 2011 were followed to determine their vital status and mortality experience through December 31, 2011.

METHODS: The cohort includes 18,803 BTMed participants and 2,801 deaths. Cause-specific Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMRs) were calculated based on US death rates.

RESULTS: Mortality was elevated for all causes, all cancers, cancers of the trachea, bronchus, and lung and lymphatic and hematopoietic system, mesothelioma, COPD, and asbestosis.

CONCLUSIONS: Construction workers employed at DOE sites have a significantly increased risk for occupational illnesses. Risks are associated with employment during all time periods covered including after 1980. The cancer risks closely match the cancers identified for DOE compensation from radiation exposures. Continued medical surveillance is important.

 

SUZUKI K, MITSUTAKE N, SAENKO V et al. – Radiation signatures in childhood thyroid cancers after the Chernobyl accident : possible roles of radiation in carcinogenesis. - Cancer science, 02/2015, 106, 2, 127-133.

 

THOMPSON PA, KWAMENA NO, ILIN M et al. – Levels of tritium in soils and vegetation near Canadian nuclear facilities releasing tritium to the atmosphere : implications for environmental models. - Journal of environmental radioactivity, 02/2015, 140, 105-113.

  • abstract

Concentrations of organically bound tritium (OBT) and tritiated water (HTO) were measured over two growing seasons in vegetation and soil samples obtained in the vicinity of four nuclear facilities and two background locations in Canada. At the background locations, with few exceptions, OBT concentrations were higher than HTO concentrations: OBT/HTO ratios in vegetation varied between 0.3 and 20 and values in soil varied between 2.7 and 15. In the vicinity of the four nuclear facilities OBT/HTO ratios in vegetation and soils deviated from the expected mean value of 0.7, which is used as a default value in environmental transfer models. Ratios of the OBT activity concentration in plants ([OBT]plant) to the OBT activity concentration in soils ([OBT]soil) appear to be a good indicator of the long-term behaviour of tritium in soil and vegetation. In general, OBT activity concentrations in soils were nearly equal to OBT activity concentrations in plants in the vicinity of the two nuclear power plants. [OBT]plant/[OBT]soil ratios considerably below unity observed at one nuclear processing facility represents historically higher levels of tritium in the environment. The results of our study reflect the dynamic nature of HTO retention and OBT formation in vegetation and soil during the growing season. Our data support the mounting evidence suggesting that some parameters used in environmental transfer models approved for regulatory assessments should be revisited to better account for the behavior of HTO and OBT in the environment and to ensure that modelled estimates (e.g., plant OBT) are appropriately conservative.

 

ROSEN EM, DAY R, SINGH VK - New approaches to radiation protection. – Frontiers in oncology, 20/01/2015, 4, 381, 15 p.

 

GOYAL N, CAMACHO F, MANGANO J et al. – Evaluating for a geospatial relationship between radon levels and thyroid cancer in Pennsylvania. - Laryngoscope, 01/2015, 125, 1, E45-49.

 

SHEN BM, JI YQ, TIAN Q et al. - Determination of total tritium in urine from residents living in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Qinshan, China. – International journal of environmental research and public health, 01/2015, 12, 1, 888-894.

 

SZUMIEL I - Ionizing radiation-induced oxidative stress, epigenetic changes and genomic instability : the pivotal role of mitochondria. - International journal of radiation biology, 01/2015, 91, 1, 1-12.

  • abstract

Purpose: To review the data concerning the role of endogenously generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the non-targeted ionizing radiation (IR) effects and in determination of the cell population's fate, both early after exposure and after many generations.

Conclusions: The short-term as well as chronic oxidative stress responses mainly are produced due to ROS generation by the electron transport chain (ETC) of the mitochondria and by the cytoplasmic NADPH oxidases. Whether the induction of the oxidative stress and its consequences occur or are hampered in a single cell largely depends on the interaction between the nucleus and the cellular population of several hundred or thousands of mitochondria that are genetically heterogeneous. High intra-mitochondrial ROS level is damaging the mitochondrial (mt) DNA and its mutations affect the epigenetic control mechanisms of the nuclear (n) DNA, by decreasing the activity of methyltransferases and thus, causing global DNA hypomethylation. These changes are transmitted to the progeny of the irradiated cells. The chronic oxidative stress is the main cause of the late post-radiation effects, including cancer, and this makes it an important adverse effect of exposure to IR and a target for radiological protection.

 

TANG FR, LOKE WK - Molecular mechanisms of low dose ionizing radiation-induced hormesis, adaptive responses, radioresistance, bystander effects, and genomic instability. - International journal of radiation biology, 01/2015, 91, 1, 13-27.

  • abstract

Purposes: To review research progress on the molecular mechanisms of low dose ionizing radiation (LDIR)-induced hormesis, adaptive responses, radioresistance, bystander effects, and genomic instability in order to provide clues for therapeutic approaches to enhance biopositive effects (defined as radiation-induced beneficial effects to the organism), and control bionegative effects (defined as radiation-induced harmful effects to the organism) and related human diseases.

Conclusions: Experimental studies have indicated that Ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM), extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), phospho-c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and protein 53 (P53)-related signal transduction pathways may be involved in LDIR-induced hormesis; MAPK, P53 may be important for adaptive response; ATM, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), ERK, JNK, reactive oxygen species (ROS), P53 for radioresistance; COX-2, ERK, MAPK, ROS, tumor necrosis factor receptor alpha (TNFα) for LDIR-induced bystander effect; whereas ATM, ERK, MAPK, P53, ROS, TNFα-related signal transduction pathways are involved in LDIR-induced genomic instability. These results suggest that different manifestations of LDIR-induced cellular responses may have different signal transduction pathways. On the other hand, LDIR-induced different responses may also share the same signal transduction pathways. For instance, P53 has been involved in LDIR-induced hormesis, adaptive response, radioresistance and genomic instability. Current data therefore suggest that caution should be taken when designing therapeutic approaches using LDIR to induce beneficial effects in humans.

 

KRASNOV V, KRYUKOV V, SAMEDOVA E et al. - Early aging in Chernobyl clean-up workers : long-term study. – BioMed research international, 2015, 2015 :948473, 5 p.

 

Compte-rendu de congrès

CE – Radiation induced long-term health effects after medical exposure. Radiation protection no. 182. EU Scientific seminar. Luxembourg, 19 novembre 2013. – 2015, 68 p.

 

Norme

AFNOR – Radioprotection - Sources radioactives scellées - Exigences générales et classification. – 14/02/2015, NF EN ISO 2919, 32 p.

  • résumé

Le présent document établit un système de classification des sources radioactives scellées selon leurs performances d'essais, et spécifie des prescriptions générales, des essais de qualification et en cours de production ainsi que des prescriptions relatives au marquage et à la certification. Il décrit une série d'essais permettant au fabricant de sources radioactives scellées d'évaluer la sécurité de son produit dans les conditions d'emploi, et à l'utilisateur de choisir les types de sources adaptés pour l'application voulue, notamment lorsque se pose le problème de la protection contre la dispersion des matières radioactives et donc de l'exposition à un rayonnement ionisant. Le présent document peut aussi servir de guide aux autorités réglementaires.

 

Rapports

AIEA - International peer review mission on mid-and-long-term roadmap towards the decommissioning of TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station units 1-4 (3rd mission). Preliminary report. – 17/02/2015, 16 p.

 

IRSN - Recommandations sur les bonnes pratiques en matière de radioprotection des travailleurs dans la perspective de l’abaissement de la limite réglementaire de dose équivalente pour le cristallin. – IRSN, PRP-HOM 2013-00010, 27 p.

 

CE – General guidelines on risk management in external beam radiotherapy. Radiation protection no. 181. – 2015, 72 p. + 205 p.(annexes)

 

ICRP – Publication 127 : Radiological protection in ion beam radiotherapy. – Annals of the ICRP, 2014, 43, 4, 1-113 p.

  • abstract

The goal of external-beam radiotherapy is to provide precise dose localisation in the treatment volume of the target with minimal damage to the surrounding normal tissue. Ion beams, such as protons and carbon ions, provide excellent dose distributions due primarily to their finite range, allowing a significant reduction of undesired exposure of normal tissue. Careful treatment planning is required for the given type and localisation of the tumour to be treated in order to maximise treatment efficiency and minimise the dose to normal tissue. Radiation exposure in outof- field volumes arises from secondary neutrons and photons, particle fragments, and photons from activated materials. These unavoidable doses should be considered from the standpoint of radiological protection of the patient. Radiological protection of medical staff at ion beam radiotherapy facilities requires special attention.

Appropriate management and control are required for the therapeutic equipment and the air in the treatment room that can be activated by the particle beam and its secondaries. Radiological protection and safety management should always conform with regulatory requirements. The current regulations for occupational exposures in photon radiotherapy are applicable to ion beam radiotherapy with protons or carbon ions. However, ion beam radiotherapy requires a more complex treatment system than conventional radiotherapy, and appropriate training of staff and suitable quality assurance programmes are recommended to avoid possible accidental exposure of patients, to minimise unnecessary doses to normal tissue, and to minimise radiation exposure of staff.

 

 

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BSE 24 novembre 2015 - no. 209

Nucléaire & Santé Actualités

Bibliographie Sélective Express

Documentation en Radioprotection d'EDF - DPI - Division Production Nucléaire

24 novembre 2015 - no. 209

Vient de paraître

Articles

GARNIER-LAPLACE J, BEAUGELIN-SEILLER K, DELLA-VEDOVA C et al. - Radiological dose reconstruction for birds reconciles outcomes of Fukushima with knowledge of dose-effect relationships. - Scientific reports, 16/11/2015, 5, 16594, 13 p.

KREUZER M, FENSKE N, SCHNELZER M et al. - Lung cancer risk at low radon exposure rates in German uranium miners. – British journal of cancer, 03/11/2015, 113, 9, 1367-1369.

  • abstract

BACKGROUND: A determination of the risk of lung cancer at low levels of radon exposure is important for occupational radiation protection.

METHODS: The risk of death from lung cancer at low radon exposure rates was investigated in the subcohort of 26 766 German uranium miners hired in 1960 or later.

RESULTS: A clear association between lung cancer mortality (n=334 deaths) and cumulative exposure to radon in working level months (WLM) was found. The excess relative risk per WLM was 0.013 (95% confidence intervals: 0.007; 0.021).

 

CONCLUSIONS: The present findings provide strong evidence for an increased lung cancer risk after long-term exposure to low radon exposure rates among Wismut miners. The results are compatible to those from residential radon studies and miner studies restricted to low levels.

ZABLOTSKA LB, NADYROV EA, POLYANSKAYA ON et al. – Risk of thyroid follicular adenoma among children and adolescents in Belarus exposed to iodine-131 after the Chornobyl accident. - American journal of epidemiology, 01/11/2015, 182, 9, 781-790.

  • abstract

Several studies reported an increased risk of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents exposed to radioactive iodines, chiefly iodine-131 ((131)I), after the 1986 Chornobyl (Ukrainian spelling) nuclear power plant accident. The risk of benign thyroid tumors following such radiation exposure is much less well known. We have previously reported a novel finding of significantly increased risk of thyroid follicular adenoma in a screening study of children and adolescents exposed to the Chornobyl fallout in Ukraine. To verify this finding, we analyzed baseline screening data from a cohort of 11,613 individuals aged ≤18 years at the time of the accident in Belarus (mean age at screening = 21 years). All participants had individual (131)I doses estimated from thyroid radioactivity measurements and were screened according to a standardized protocol. We found a significant linear dose response for 38 pathologically confirmed follicular adenoma cases. The excess odds ratio per gray of 2.22 (95% confidence interval: 0.41, 13.1) was similar in males and females but decreased significantly with increasing age at exposure (P < 0.01), with the highest radiation risks estimated for those exposed at <2 years of age. Follicular adenoma radiation risks were not significantly modified by most indicators of past and current iodine deficiency. The present study confirms the (131)I-associated increases in risk of follicular adenoma in the Ukrainian population and adds new evidence on the risk increasing with decreasing age at exposure.

BERNHARDSSON C, RAAF CL, MATTSSON S - Spatial variability of the dose rate from 137Cs fallout in settlements in Russia and Belarus more than two decades after the Chernobyl accident. – Journal of environmental radioactivity, 11/2015, 149, 144-149.

  • abstract

Radionuclides from the 1986 Chernobyl accident were released and dispersed during a limited period of time, but under widely varying weather conditions. As a result, there was a high geographical variation in the deposited radioactive fallout per unit area over Europe, depending on the released composition of fission products and the weather during the 10 days of releases. If the plume from Chernobyl coincided with rain, then the radionuclides were unevenly distributed on the ground. However, large variations in the initial fallout also occurred locally or even on a meter scale. Over the ensuing years the initial deposition may have been altered further by different weathering processes or human activities such as agriculture, gardening, and decontamination measures. Using measurements taken more than two decades after the accident, we report on the inhomogeneous distribution of the ground deposition of the fission product (137)Cs and its influence on the dose rate 1 m above ground, on both large and small scales (10(ths) of km(2) - 1 m(2)), in the Gomel-Bryansk area close to the border between Belarus and Russia. The dose rate from the deposition was observed to vary by one order of magnitude depending on the size of the area considered, whether human processes were applied to the surface or not, and on location specific properties (e.g. radionuclide migration in soil).

CASEY JA, OGBURN EL, RASMUSSEN SG et al. – Predictors of indoor radon concentrations in Pennsylvania, 1989-2013. – Environmental health perspectives, 11/2015, 123,11, 1130-1137.

DE VATHAIRE F, HADDY N, ALLODJI RS et al. - Thyroid radiation dose and other risk factors of thyroid carcinoma following childhood cancer. – Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism, 11/2015, 100, 11, 4282-4290.

  • abstract

CONTEXT: Thyroid carcinoma is a frequent complication of childhood cancer radiotherapy. The dose response to thyroid radiation dose is now well established, but the potential modifier effect of other factors requires additional investigation.

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the role of potential modifiers of the dose response.

DESIGN: We followed a cohort of 4338 5-year survivors of solid childhood cancer treated before 1986 over an average of 27 years. The dose received by the thyroid gland and some other anatomical sites during radiotherapy was estimated after reconstruction of the actual conditions in which irradiation was delivered.

RESULTS: Fifty-five patients developed thyroid carcinoma. The risk of thyroid carcinoma increased with a radiation dose to the thyroid of up to two tenths of Gy, then leveled off for higher doses. When taking into account the thyroid radiation dose, a surgical or radiological splenectomy (>20 Gy to the spleen) increased thyroid cancer risk (relative risk [RR] = 2.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-4.0), high radiation doses (>5 Gy) to pituitary gland lowered this risk (RR = 0.2; 95% CI, 0.1-0.6). Patients who received nitrosourea chemotherapy had a 6.6-fold (95% CI, 2.5-15.7) higher risk than those who did not. The excess RR per Gy of radiation to the thyroid was 4.7 (95% CI, 1.7-22.6). It was 7.6 (95% CI,

1.6-33.3) if body mass index at time of interview was equal or higher than 25 kg/m(2), and 4.1 (95% CI, 0.9-17.7) if not (P for interaction = .1).

CONCLUSION: Predicting thyroid cancer risk following childhood cancer radiation therapy probably requires the assessment of more than just the radiation dose to the thyroid. Chemotherapy, splenectomy, radiation dose to pituitary gland, and obesity also play a role.

DE VATHAIRE F, SCWHARTZ B, EL-FAYECH C et al. – Risk of a second kidney carcinoma following childhood cancer : role of chemotherapy and radiation dose to kidneys. - Journal of urology, 11/2015, 194, 5, 1390-1395.

  • abstract

PURPOSE: Kidney carcinoma is a rare second malignancy following childhood cancer.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: We sought to quantify risk and assess risk factors for kidney carcinoma following treatment for childhood cancer. We evaluated a cohort of 4,350 patients who were 5-year cancer survivors and had been treated for cancer as children in France and the United Kingdom. Patients were treated between 1943 and 1985, and were followed for an average of 27 years. Radiation dose to the kidneys during treatment was estimated with dedicated software, regardless of the site of childhood cancer.

RESULTS: Kidney carcinoma developed in 13 patients. The cumulative incidence of kidney carcinoma was 0.62% (95% CI 0.27%-1.45%) at 40 years after diagnosis, which was 13.3-fold higher (95% CI 7.1-22.3) than in the general population. The absolute excess risk strongly increased with longer duration of followup (p <0.0001). Compared to the general population, the incidence of kidney carcinoma was 5.7-fold higher (95% CI 1.4-14.7) if radiotherapy was not performed or less than 1 Gy had been absorbed by the kidney but 66.3-fold higher (95% CI 23.8-142.5) if the radiation dose to the kidneys was 10 to 19 Gy and 14.5-fold higher (95% CI 0.8-63.9) for larger radiation doses to the kidney. Treatment with chemotherapy increased the risk of kidney carcinoma (RR 5.1, 95% CI 1.1-22.7) but we were unable to identify a specific drug or drug category responsible for this effect.

CONCLUSIONS: Moderate radiation dose to the kidneys during childhood cancer treatment increases the risk of a second kidney carcinoma. This incidence will be further increased when childhood cancer survivors reach old age.

KITAHARA CM, LINET MS, DROZDOVITCH V et al. – Cancer and circulatory disease risks in US radiologic technologists associated with performing procedures involving radionuclides. - Occupational and environmental medicine, 11/2015, 72, 11, 770-776.

  • abstract

OBJECTIVES: The number of nuclear medicine procedures has increased substantially over the past several decades, with uncertain health risks to the medical workers who perform them. We estimated risks of incidence and mortality from cancer and circulatory disease associated with performing procedures involving the use of radionuclides.

METHODS: From a nationwide cohort of 90 955 US radiologic technologists who completed a mailed questionnaire during 1994-1998, 22 039 reported ever performing diagnostic radionuclide procedures, brachytherapy, radioactive iodine therapy, or other radionuclide therapy. We calculated multivariable-adjusted HRs and 95% CIs for incidence (through 2003-2005) and mortality (through 2008) associated with performing these procedures.

RESULTS: Ever (versus never) performing radionuclide procedures was not associated with risks for most end points examined. However, we observed increased risks for squamous cell carcinoma of the skin (HR=1.29, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.66) with ever performing diagnostic radionuclide procedures, for myocardial infarction incidence (HR=1.37, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.70), all-cause mortality (HR=1.10, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.20) and all-cancer mortality (HR=1.20, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.43) with ever performing brachytherapy, and for mortality from all causes (HR=1.14, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.30), breast cancer (HR=2.68, 95% CI 1.10 to 6.51), and myocardial infarction (HR=1.76, 95% CI 1.02 to 3.04) with ever performing other radionuclide therapy procedures (excluding brachytherapy and radioactive iodine); increasing risks were also observed with greater frequency of performing these procedures, particularly before 1980.

CONCLUSIONS: The modest health risks among radiologic technologists performing procedures using radionuclides require further examination in studies with individual dose estimates, more detailed information regarding types of procedures performed and radionuclides used, and longer follow-up.

KOYA PK, JAIKRISHAN G, SUDHEER KR et al. - Sex ratio at birth : scenario from normal- and high-level natural radiation areas of Kerala coast in south-west India. – Radiation and environmental biophysics, 11/2015, 54, 4, 453-463.

  • abstract

Newborns were monitored for congenital malformations in four government hospitals located in high-level (ambient dose >1.5 mGy/year) and normal-level (≤1.5 mGy/year) natural radiation areas of Kerala, India, from August 1995 to December 2012. Sex ratio at birth (SRB) among live singleton newborns and among previous children, if any, of their mothers without history of any abortion, stillbirth or twins is reported here. In the absence of environmental stress or selective abortion of females, global average of SRB is about 1050 males to 1000 females. A total of 151,478 singleton, 1031 twins, 12 triplets and 1 quadruplet deliveries were monitored during the study period. Sex ratio among live singleton newborns was 1046 males (95 % CI 1036-1057) for 1000 females (77,153 males:73,730 females) and was comparable to the global average. It was similar in high-level and normal-level radiation areas of Kerala with SRB of 1050 and 1041, respectively. It was consistently more than 1000 and had no association with background radiation levels, maternal and paternal age at birth, parental age difference, gravida status, ethnicity, consanguinity or year of birth. Analysis of SRB of the children of 139,556 women whose reproductive histories were available suggested that couples having male child were likely to opt for more children and this, together with enhanced rate of males at all birth order, was skewing the overall SRB in favour of male children. Though preference for male child was apparent, extreme steps of sex-selective abortion or infanticide were not prevalent.

LAIDRA K, RAHU K, TEKKEL M et al. - Mental health and alcohol problems among Estonian cleanup workers 24 years after the Chernobyl accident. – Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology, 11/2015, 50, 11, 1753-1760.

  • abstract

PURPOSE: To study the long-term mental health consequences of the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident among cleanup workers from Estonia.

METHODS: In 2010, 614 Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers and 706 geographically and age-matched population-based controls completed a mail survey that included self-rated health, the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL), alcohol symptoms (AUDIT), and scales measuring depressive, anxiety, agoraphobia, fatigue, insomnia, and somatization symptoms. Respondents were dichotomized into high (top quartile) and low symptom groups on each measure.

RESULTS: Logistic regression analysis detected significant differences between cleanup workers and controls on all measures even after adjustment for ethnicity, education, marital status, and employment status. The strongest difference was found for somatization, with cleanup workers being three times more likely than controls to score in the top quartile (OR = 3.28, 95 % CI 2.39-4.52), whereas for alcohol problems the difference was half as large (OR = 1.52, 95 % CI 1.16-1.99). Among cleanup workers, arrival at Chernobyl in 1986 (vs. later) was associated with sleep problems, somatization, and symptoms of agoraphobia.

CONCLUSION: The toll of cleanup work was evident 24 years after the Chernobyl accident among Estonian cleanup workers indicating the need for focused mental health interventions.

 

RUHM W, WOLOSCHAK GE, SHORE RE et al. - Dose and dose-rate effects of ionizing radiation : a discussion in the light of radiological protection. – Radiation and environmental biophysics, 11/2015, 54, 4, 379-401.

  • abstract

The biological effects on humans of low-dose and low-dose-rate exposures to ionizing radiation have always been of major interest. The most recent concept as suggested by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is to extrapolate existing epidemiological data at high doses and dose rates down to low doses and low dose rates relevant to radiological protection, using the so-called dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor (DDREF). The present paper summarizes what was presented and discussed by experts from ICRP and Japan at a dedicated workshop on this topic held in May 2015 in Kyoto, Japan. This paper describes the historical development of the DDREF concept in light of emerging scientific evidence on dose and dose-rate effects, summarizes the conclusions recently drawn by a number of international organizations (e.g., BEIR VII, ICRP, SSK, UNSCEAR, and WHO), mentions current scientific efforts to obtain more data on low-dose and low-dose-rate effects at molecular, cellular, animal and human levels, and discusses future options that could be useful to improve and optimize the DDREF concept for the purpose of radiological protection.

SELMANSBERGER M, BRASELMANN H, HESS J et al. - Genomic copy number analysis of Chernobyl papillary thyroid carcinoma in the Ukrainian-American Cohort. – Carcinogenesis, 11/2015, 36, 11, 1381-1387.

  • abstract

One of the major consequences of the 1986 Chernobyl reactor accident was a dramatic increase in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) incidence, predominantly in patients exposed to the radioiodine fallout at young age. The present study is the first on genomic copy number alterations (CNAs) of PTCs of the Ukrainian-American cohort (UkrAm) generated by array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of CNA profiles revealed a significant enrichment of a subgroup of patients with female gender, long latency (>17 years) and negative lymph node status. Further, we identified single CNAs that were significantly associated with latency, gender, radiation dose and BRAF V600E mutation status. Multivariate analysis revealed no interactions but additive effects of parameters gender, latency and dose on CNAs. The previously identified radiation-associated gain of the chromosomal bands 7q11.22-11.23 was present in 29% of cases. Moreover, comparison of our radiation-associated PTC data set with the TCGA data set on sporadic PTCs revealed altered copy numbers of the tumor driver genes NF2 and CHEK2. Further, we integrated the CNA data with transcriptomic data that were available on a subset of the herein analyzed cohort and did not find statistically significant associations between the two molecular layers. However, applying hierarchical clustering on a 'BRAF-like/RAS-like' transcriptome signature split the cases into four groups, one of which containing all BRAF-positive cases validating the signature in an independent data set.

SADETZKI S, CHETRIT A, SGAN-COHEN HD et al. - Long-term effects of exposure to ionizing irradiation on periodontal health status. The tinea capitis cohort study. - Front public health, 19/11/2015, 3, 226, 8 p.

WATANABE Y, ICHIKAWA S, KUBOTA M et al. – Morphological defects in native Japanese fir trees around the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. - Scientific reports, 28/08/2015, 5, 13232, 7 p.

 

Comptes-rendus de congrès

TOKONAMI S, MC LAUGHLIN J, CHEN J et al. - 9th International symposium on the natural radiation environment (NRE-IX). Hirosaki (Japon), 22-26 septembre 2014. – Radiation protection dosimetry, 01/11/2015, 167, 1-3, 1-383.

 

Guide

ASN – Guide no. 7 : Transport à usage civil de colis ou de substances radioactives sur la voie publique. Tome 3 : conformité des modèles de colis non soumis à agrément. – 13/11/2015, 23 p.

 

Normes

AFNOR - Qualité de l'eau - Détermination de l'activité volumique du tritium - Méthode par comptage des scintillations en milieu liquide. – 21/11/2015, NF EN ISO 9698, 36 p.

  • résumé

Le présent document spécifie les conditions de détermination de l'activité volumique du tritium dans des échantillons d'eau environnementale ou d'eau tritiée ([3H]H2O) par comptage des scintillations en milieu liquide.

AFNOR – Qualité de l'eau - Mesurage des activités alpha globale et bêta globale des eaux non salines - Méthode de comptage par scintillation liquide. - 23/10/2015, NF EN ISO 11704, 20 p.

  • résumé

Le présent document spécifie une méthode de détermination des activités alpha globale et bêta globale dans les eaux, pour les radionucléides qui ne sont pas volatils à 80 °C. Les isotopes du radon et leurs produits de désintégration à période courte ne sont pas inclus dans la détermination. La méthode est applicable aux eaux brutes et potables ayant un résidu sec inférieur à 5 g/l et lorsque aucune correction n'est nécessaire pour l'affaiblissement lumineux de couleur.

AFNOR –- Qualité de l'eau - Détermination de l'activité volumique du carbone 14 - Méthode par comptage des scintillations en milieu liquide. - 23/10/2015, NF EN ISO 13162, 31 p.

  • résumé

Le présent document spécifie les conditions de détermination de l’activité volumique du 14C dans des échantillons d’eau environnementale ou d’eau contenant du 14C par comptage des scintillations en milieu liquide. La méthode est applicable à l’analyse de toute molécule organique soluble dans l’eau qui se mélange bien au cocktail scintillant. Elle ne s’applique pas pour les micelles ou les «grosses» particules (lipides, acide fulvique, acide humique, etc.) qui se mélangent mal au cocktail scintillant et à l’eau. Une partie de l’énergie bêta est perdue sans excitation du cocktail scintillant et les résultats sont sous-estimés. La méthode n’est pas applicable à l’analyse du 14C organiquement lié ; sa détermination nécessite un traitement chimique supplémentaire (tel qu’une oxydation chimique, une combustion). Les activités volumiques du 14C inférieures à 106 Bq l-1 peuvent être déterminées sans dilution de l’échantillon.

AFNOR –- Qualité de l'eau - Détermination simultanée des activités volumiques du tritium et du carbone 14 - Méthode par comptage des scintillations en milieu liquide. - 09/10/2015, NF EN ISO 13168, 25 p.

  • résumé

Le présent document s'applique aux compteurs à scintillations en milieu liquide et requiert la préparation d'une source scintillante obtenue en mélangeant l'échantillon et un cocktail scintillant hydrophile. Le présent document décrit les conditions de mesurage de l'activité des émetteurs bêta purs par scintillation en milieu liquide adaptées au mesurage simultané du tritium et du carbone 14 dans des échantillons d’eau de l'environnement. Le présent document est applicable à tous les types d'eaux ayant une activité volumique de 5 Bq.l-1 à 106 Bq.l-1 (limite supérieure des compteurs à scintillations en milieu liquide pour le comptage direct). Il est possible de réaliser une dilution pour obtenir une solution d’activité compatible avec l’instrument de mesure. Le présent document est applicable aux eaux brutes et aux eaux filtrées selon l’EN 872. Le domaine de mesure est lié à la méthodologie utilisée : nature de la prise d’essai, préparation du mélange scintillant — prise d'essai, ensemble de mesure. D’autre part, le domaine de mesure est lié aux niveaux d’activité des autres nucléides interférents présents dans l’échantillon.

 

Numéros de revue

ASN - Les enjeux du démantèlement. Mise à jour des normes de base en radioprotection. L’approche HERCA/WENRA. – Contrôle, 10/2015, no.199, 60 p.

Role of the immune system and inflammation in ionizing radiation effects. - Cancer letters, 28/11/2015, 368, 2, 153-290.

 

Rapports

AIEA – Preparedness and response for a nuclear or radiological emergency. General safety requirements no. GSR Part 7. – 11/2015, 136 p.

NCRP – Commentary no. 24. Health effects of low doses of radiation : perspectives on integrating radiation biology and epidemiology. – 2015, 78 p.

AIEA – Security of nuclear material in transport. Implementing guide. Nuclear security series no. 26-G. – 10/2015, 120 p.

IRSN – Baromètre 2015 : la perception des risques et de la sécurité par les français. – 07/2015, 160 p.

 

 

Autres informations

 

Notes d’information

IRSN - Mieux estimer la dose aux espèces non humaines pour évaluer les conséquences écologiques des expositions chroniques aux rayonnements ionisants dans les territoires contaminés après l’accident de Fukushima. – 24/11/2015, 4 p.

IRSN - Point sur la situation d’un ancien salarié de TEPCO auquel le ministère de la santé japonais a accordé le 20 octobre 2015 une compensation financière. – 12/11/2015, 2 p.

 

 

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BSE 31 mars 2015 - no. 201

Documentation en Radioprotection d'EDF - DPI - Division Production Nucléaire

 


31 mars 2015 - no. 201

 

Vient de paraître

 

Articles

ORITA M, HAYASHIDA N, TAIRA Y et al. - Measurement of individual doses of radiation by personal dosimeter is important for the return of residents from evacuation order areas after nuclear disaster. – Plos One, 25/03/2015, 10, 3, e0121990, 11 p.

 

STRAM DO, PRESTON DL, SOKOLNIKOV M et al. - Shared dosimetry error in epidemiological dose-response analyses. - Plos One, 23/03/2015, 10, 3, e0119418, 18 p.

 

CUCINOTTA FA - A new approach to reduce uncertainties in space radiation cancer risk predictions. - Plos One, 19/03/2015, 10, 3, e0120717, 15 p.

 

COEYTAUX K, BEY E, CHRISTENSEN D et al. - Reported radiation overexposure accidents worldwide, 1980-2013: a systematic review. - Plos One, 19/03/2015, 10, 3, e0118709, 26 p.

 

SFEN – Fukushima 2015 : état des lieux et perspectives. – 11/03/2015, 7 p.

 

MCCURRY J – The Fukushima disaster : 4 years on. – Lancet, 11/03/2015, 385, 9973, e23-e24. 

 

ZEVALLOS JP, HARTMAN CM, KRAMER JR et al. – Increased thyroid cancer incidence corresponds to increased use of thyroid ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration : a study of the Veterans Affairs health care system. - Cancer, 01/03/2015, 121, 5, 741-746.

  • abstract

BACKGROUND: Thyroid cancer incidence has increased in the last several decades and may represent either a true increase in the number of cases or increased screening. The objective of this study was to examine thyroid cancer incidence and the use of thyroid ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration (FNA) screening in the Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system. The authors hypothesized that the incidence of thyroid cancer would correspond to increases in the use of these diagnostic modalities.

METHODS: This was a multiyear, cross-sectional study using VA administrative data from 2000 to 2012. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to identify trends in thyroid cancer incidence and the use of thyroid ultrasound and FNA.

RESULTS: An increase in thyroid cancer incidence occurred from 10.3 per 100,000 individuals in 2000 to 21.5 per 100,000 individuals in 2012. The rate of thyroid ultrasound use increased from 125.6 per 100,000 individuals in 2001 to 572.1 per 100,000 individuals in 2012, and the rate of thyroid FNA use increased from 7.0 per 100,000 individuals in 2000 to 46.2 per 100,000 individuals in 2012. A statistically significant increase in thyroid cancer incidence between 2000 and 2008 (annual percent change [APC], 3.81; P < .05) was followed by a more pronounced increase between 2008 and 2012 (APC, 10.32; P < .05). A simultaneous increase in the use of thyroid ultrasound occurred between 2002 and 2012 (APC, 15.48; P < .05) and the use of thyroid FNA between 2000 and 2012 (APC, 18.36; P < .05).

CONCLUSIONS: Although the incidence of thyroid cancer doubled, a nearly 5-fold increase in the use of thyroid ultrasound and a nearly 7-fold increase in the use of thyroid FNA occurred between 2000 and 2012. These findings suggest that the increase in thyroid cancer incidence may be related to increases in the use of thyroid ultrasound and FNA.

 

ABEND M, AZIZOVA T, MULLER K et al. - Association of radiation-induced genes with noncancer chronic diseases in Mayak workers occupationally exposed to prolonged radiation. – Radiation research, 03/2015, 183, 3, 249-261.

  • abstract

We examined the association of gene expression with noncancer chronic disease outcomes in Mayak nuclear weapons plant workers who were exposed to radiation due to their occupation. We conducted a cross-sectional study with selection based on radiation exposure status of Mayak plant workers living in Ozyorsk who were alive in 2011 and either exposed to: combined incorporated Plutonium-239 ((239)Pu) and external gamma-ray exposure (n = 82); external gamma-ray exposure alone (n = 18); or were unexposed (n = 50) of Ozyorsk residents who provided community-based professional support for plant personnel and who were alive in 2011. Peripheral blood was taken and RNA was isolated and then converted into cDNA and stored at -20°C. In a previous analysis we screened the whole genome for radiation-associated candidate genes, and validated 15 mRNAs and 15 microRNAs using qRT-PCR. In the current analysis we examined the association of these genes with 15 different chronic diseases on 92 samples (47 males, 45 females). We examined the radiation-to-gene and gene-to-disease associations in statistical models stratified by gender and separately for each disease and exposure. We modeled radiation exposure as gamma or (239)Pu on both the continuous and categorical scales. Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR), 95% confidence intervals (CI), and the concordance for genes that were significantly associated with radiation exposure and a specific disease outcome were identified. Altogether 12 mRNAs and 9 microRNAs appeared to be significantly associated with 6 diseases, including thyroid diseases (3 genes, OR: 1.2-5.1, concordance: 71-78%), atherosclerotic diseases (4 genes, OR: 2.5-10, concordance: 70-75%), kidney diseases (6 genes, OR: 1.3-8.6, concordance: 69-85%), cholelithiasis (3 genes, OR: 0.2-0.3, concordance: 74-75%), benign tumors [1 gene (AGAP4), OR: 3.7, concordance: 81%] and chronic radiation syndrome (4 genes, OR: 2.5-4.3, concordance: 70-99%). Further associations were found for systolic blood pressure (6 genes, OR: 3.7-10.6, concordance: 81-88%) and body mass index [1 gene (miR-484), OR: 3.7, concordance: 81%]. All associations were gender and exposure dependent. These findings suggest that gene expression changes observed after occupational prolonged radiation exposures may increase the risk for certain noncancer chronic diseases.

 

GRANDE S, RISICA S - Radionuclides in drinking water : the recent legislative requirements of the European Union. – Journal of radiological protection, 03/2015, 35, 1, 1-19.

  • abstract

In November 2013, a new EURATOM Directive was issued on the protection of public health from the radionuclide content in drinking water. After introducing the contents of the Directive, the paper analyses the hypotheses about drinking water ingestion adopted in documents of international and national organizations and the data obtained from national/regional surveys. Starting from the Directive's parametric value for the Indicative Dose, some examples of derived activity concentrations of radionuclides in drinking water are reported for some age classes and three exposure situations, namely, (i) artificial radionuclides due to routine water release from nuclear power facilities, (ii) artificial radionuclides from nuclear medicine procedures, and (iii) naturally occurring radionuclides in drinking water or resulting from existing or past NORM industrial activities.

 

KASHCHEEV VV, CHEKIN SY, MAKSIOUTOV MA et al. – Incidence and mortality of solid cancer among emergency workers of the Chernobyl accident : assessment of radiation risks for the follow-up period of 1992-2009. - Radiation and environmental biophysics, 03/2015, 54, 1, 13-23. 

  • Abstract

This paper presents the results of a retrospective cohort study of cancer incidence and mortality among emergency workers of the Chernobyl accident, for the follow-up period 1992-2009. The cohort selected for analysis consists of 67,568 emergency workers who worked in the Chernobyl exclusion zone in 1986-1987. External radiation whole-body absorbed dose varied from 0.0001 gray (Gy) to 1.24 Gy, with a median of 0.102 Gy. Over the follow-up period 1992-2009, a total of 4,002 solid cancers of different sites were identified as the result of annual compulsory health examination, and a total of 2,442 deaths from all solid cancers in the study cohort were reported. Poisson regression was applied for the analysis of cancer incidence and mortality. The analysis of the standardized incidence ratio (SIR) has shown a statistically significant increase in cancer incidence in the cohort as compared with baseline cancer incidence among males of Russia. The average excess over the entire follow up period is 18 % [SIR = 1.18, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.15; 1.22]. In contrast, however, no increase in the mortality from all cancers among the emergency workers as compared to the baseline mortality in Russian men was found. Values of excess relative risk of cancer incidence and mortality per 1 Gy (ERR Gy(-1)) are 0.47 (95 % CI 0.03; 0.96, p value = 0.034) and 0.58 (95 % CI 0.002; 1.25, p value = 0.049), respectively. These values are statistically significant.

 

KOHZAKI M, OOTSUYAMA A, MORITAKE T et al. - What have we learned from a questionnaire survey of citizens and doctors both inside and outside Fukushima? : survey comparison between 2011 and 2013. - Journal of radiological protection, 03/2015, 35, 1, N1-N17.

  • abstract

The disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) remains unresolved because the estimated time to decommission a nuclear reactor appears to be approximately 40 years. The number of workers exposed to radiation doses ranging from 1 to 100 mSv continues to increase. To understand the accident progression at Fukushima and to anticipate what we should do in the future for occupational and environmental health, we performed a survey of citizens and doctors who lived inside and outside Fukushima in 2011 and 2013. In a comparison of these 2 years, the citizens inside Fukushima continue to suffer anxiety, although those living outside Fukushima tended to feel less anxious. Medical students who had recently studied radiation biology showed much less ongoing anxiety compared with other groups, suggesting that learning about the effects of radiation is essential to understanding one's own circumstances objectively and correctly. The lack of trust in the government and in the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) in 2013 remains high in all groups. Therefore, long-term forthright explanations from the government, TEPCO, and radiation experts are indispensable not only to establish trust with people but also to alleviate psychological stress.

 

KRILLE L, DREGER S, SCHINDEL R et al. - Risk of cancer incidence before the age of 15 years after exposure to ionising radiation from computed tomography : results from a German cohort study. - Radiation and environmental biophysics, 03/2015, 54, 1, 1-12.

  • abstract

The aim of this cohort study was to assess the risk of developing cancer, specifically leukaemia, tumours of the central nervous system and lymphoma, before the age of 15 years in children previously exposed to computed tomography (CT) in Germany. Data for children with at least one CT between 1980 and 2010 were abstracted from 20 hospitals. Cancer cases occurring between 1980 and 2010 were identified by stochastic linkage with the German Childhood Cancer Registry (GCCR). For all cases and a sample of non-cases, radiology reports were reviewed to assess the underlying medical conditions at time of the CT. Cases were only included if diagnosis occurred at least 2 years after the first CT and no signs of cancer were recorded in the radiology reports. Standardised incidence ratios (SIR) using incidence rates from the general population were estimated. The cohort included information on 71,073 CT examinations in 44,584 children contributing 161,407 person-years at risk with 46 cases initially identified through linkage with the GCCR. Seven cases had to be excluded due to signs possibly suggestive of cancer at the time of first CT. Overall, more cancer cases were observed (O) than expected (E), but this was mainly driven by unexpected and possibly biased results for lymphomas. For leukaemia, the SIR (SIR = O/E) was 1.72 (95 % CI 0.89-3.01, O = 12), and for CNS tumours, the SIR was 1.35 (95 % CI 0.54-2.78, O = 7). Despite careful examination of the medical information, confounding by indication or reverse causation cannot be ruled out completely and may explain parts of the excess. Furthermore, the CT exposure may have been underestimated as only data from the participating clinics were available. This should be taken into account when interpreting risk estimates.

 

LITTLE MP - Germline minisatellite mutations in the offspring of irradiated parents. - Journal of radiological protection, 03/2015, 35, 1, E1-E4. (pas d’abstract disponible)

 

MASSON O, POURCELOT L, BOULET B et al. – Environmental releases from fuel cycle facility. Part 1 : radionuclide resuspension vs. stack releases on ambient airborne uranium and thorium levels. - Journal of environmental radioactivity, 03/2015, 141, 146-152.

  • abstract

Airborne activity levels of uranium and thorium series were measured in the vicinity (1.1 km) of a uranium (UF4) processing plant, located in Malvési, south of France. Regarding itsimpact on the environment, this facility is characterized by its routine atmospheric releases of uranium and by the emission of radionuclide-labelled particles from a storage pond filled with waste water or that contain dried sludge characterized by traces of plutonium and thorium ((230)Th). This study was performed during a whole year (November 2009-November 2010) and based on weekly aerosol sampling. Thanks to ICP-MS results, it was possible to perform investigations of uranium and thorium decay product concentration in the air. The number of aerosol filters sampled (50) was sufficient to establish a relationship between airborne radionuclide variations and the wind conditions. As expected, the more the time spent in the plume, the higher the ambient levels. The respective contributions of atmospheric releases and resuspension from local soil and waste ponds on ambient dust load and uranium-bearing aerosols were estimated. Two shutdown periods dedicated to facility servicing made it possible to estimate the resuspension contribution and to specify its origin (local or regional) according to the wind direction and remote background concentration. Airborne uranium mainly comes from the emission stack and, to a minor extent (∼20%), from wind resuspension of soil particles from the surrounding fields and areas devoted to waste storage. Moreover, weighed activity levels were clearly higher during operational periods than for shutdown periods.

 

POURCELOT L, MASSON O, RENAUD P et al. - Environmental consequences of uranium atmospheric releases from fuel cycle facility. II : the atmospheric deposition of uranium and thorium on plants. - Journal of environmental radioactivity, 03/2015, 141, 1-7.

  • abstract

Uranium and thorium isotopes were measured in cypress leaves, wheat grains and lettuce taken in the surroundings of the uranium conversion facility of Malvési (South of France). The comparison of activity levels and activity ratios (namely (238)U/(232)Th and (230)Th/(232)Th) in plants with those in aerosols taken at this site and plants taken far from it shows that aerosols emitted by the nuclear site (uranium releases in the atmosphere by stacks and (230)Th-rich particles emitted from artificial ponds collecting radioactive waste mud) accounts for the high activities recorded in the plant samples close to the site. The atmospheric deposition process onto the plants appears to be the dominant process in plant contamination. Dry deposition velocities of airborne uranium and thorium were measured as 4.6 × 10(-3) and 5.0 × 10(-3) m s(-1), respectively.

 

SCHUBAUER-BERIGAN MK, ANDERSON JL, HEIN MJ et al. – Breast cancer incidence in a cohort of U.S. flight attendants. - American journal of industrial medicine, 03/2015, 58, 3, 252-266.

  • abstract 

BACKGROUND: Flight attendants may have elevated breast cancer incidence (BCI). We evaluated BCI's association with cosmic radiation dose and circadian rhythm disruption among 6,093 female former U.S. flight attendants.

METHODS: We collected questionnaire data on BCI and risk factors for breast cancer from 2002-2005. We conducted analyses to evaluate (i) BCI in the cohort compared to the U.S. population; and (ii) exposure-response relations. We applied an indirect adjustment to estimate whether parity and age at first birth (AFB) differences between the cohort and U.S. population could explain BCI that differed from expectation.

RESULTS: BCI was elevated but may be explained by lower parity and older AFB in the cohort than among U.S. women. BCI was not associated with exposure metrics in the cohort overall. Significant positive associations with both were observed only among women with parity of three or more.

CONCLUSIONS: Future cohort analyses may be informative on the role of these occupational exposures and non-occupational risk factors.

 

SIMMONS JA – Microdosimetric considerations of lung cancer risks from plutonium. - Health physics, 03/2015, 108, 3, 377-379.

  • abstract 

New data from the workers at the Mayak nuclear facility near Chelyabinsk, Russia, apparently show a linear increase in the risk of lung cancer with increasing dose. Furthermore, this increase occurs without a threshold. However, these conclusions are at variance with the results reported by other investigators. A possible cause of these inconsistencies could be the lack of application of microdosimetric considerations when discussing "dose" to the lung.

 

TAWN EJ, CURWEN GB, REES GS et al. - Germline minisatellite mutations in workers occupationally exposed to radiation at the Sellafield nuclear facility. - Journal of radiological protection, 03/2015, 35, 1, 21-36.

  • abstract

Germline minisatellite mutation rates were investigated in male workers occupationally exposed to radiation at the Sellafield nuclear facility. DNA samples from 160 families with 255 offspring were analysed for mutations at eight hypervariable minisatellite loci (B6.7, CEB1, CEB15, CEB25, CEB36, MS1, MS31, MS32) by Southern hybridisation. No significant difference was observed between the paternal mutation rate of 5.0% (37 mutations in 736 alleles) for control fathers with a mean preconceptional testicular dose of 9 mSv and that of 5.8% (66 in 1137 alleles) for exposed fathers with a mean preconceptional testicular dose of 194 mSv. Subgrouping the exposed fathers into two dose groups with means of 111 mSv and 274 mSv revealed paternal mutation rates of 6.0% (32 mutations in 536 alleles) and 5.7% (34 mutations in 601 alleles), respectively, neither of which was significantly different in comparisons with the rate for the control fathers. Maternal mutation rates of 1.6% (12 mutations in 742 alleles) for the partners of control fathers and 1.7% (19 mutations in 1133 alleles) for partners of exposed fathers were not significantly different. This study provides evidence that paternal preconceptional occupational radiation exposure does not increase the germline minisatellite mutation rate and therefore refutes suggestions that such exposure could result in a destabilisation of the germline that can be passed on to future generations.

 

SOKOLNIKOV M, PRESTON D, GILBERT E et al. – Radiation effects on mortality from solid cancers other than lung, liver, and bone cancer in the Mayak worker cohort : 1948-2008. - Plos One, 26/02/2015, 10, 2, e0117784, 20 p.

 

TAUNK NK, HAFFTY BG, KOSTIS JB et al. – Radiation-induced heart disease: pathologic abnormalities and putative mechanisms. - Frontiers in oncology, 18/02/2015, 5, 39, 8 p.

 

CHEVALIER F, HAMDI DH, SAINTIGNY Y et al. – Proteomic overview and perspectives of the radiation-induced bystander effects. - Mutation research-Reviews in mutationresearch, 01-03/2015

  • abstract

Radiation proteomics is a recent, promising and powerful tool to identify protein markers of direct and indirect consequences of ionizing radiation. The main challenges of modern radiobiology is to predict radio-sensitivity of patients and radio-resistance of tumor to be treated, but considerable evidences are now available regarding the significance of a bystander effect at low and high doses. This "radiation-induced bystander effect" (RIBE) is defined as the biological responses of non-irradiated cells that received signals from neighboring irradiated cells. Such intercellular signal is no more considered as a minor side-effect of radiotherapy in surrounding healthy tissue and its occurrence should be considered in adapting radiotherapy protocols, to limit the risk for radiation-induced secondary cancer. There is no consensus on a precise designation of RIBE, which involves a number of distinct signal-mediated effects within or outside the irradiated volume. Indeed, several cellular mechanisms were proposed, including the secretion of soluble factors by irradiated cells in the extracellular matrix, or the direct communication between irradiated and neighboring non-irradiated cells via gap junctions. This phenomenon is observed in a context of major local inflammation, linked with a global imbalance of oxidative metabolism which makes its analysis challenging using in vitro model systems. In this review article, the authors first define the radiation-induced bystander effect as a function of radiation type, in vitro analysis protocols, and cell type. In a second time, the authors present the current status of protein biomarkers and proteomic-based findings and discuss the capacities, limits and perspectives of such global approaches to explore these complex intercellular mechanisms.

 

EYROLLE-BOYER F, ANTONELLI C, RENAUD P et al. – Origins and trend of redionuclides within the lower Rhône River over the last decades. – Radioprotection,01-03/2015, 50, 1, 27-34.

 

ALIYU AS, RAMLI AT, GARBA NN et al. – Fukushima nuclear accident : preliminary assessment of the risks to non-human biota. - Radiation protection dosimetry, 2015, 163, 2, 238-250.

  • abstract 

This study assesses the 'radio-ecological' impacts of Fukushima nuclear accident on non-human biota using the ERICA Tool, which adopts an internationally verified methodology. The paper estimates the impacts of the accident on terrestrial and marine biota based on the environmental data reported in literature for Japan, China, South Korea and the USA. Discernible impacts have been detected in the marine biota around Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. This study confirms that the Fukushima accident had caused heavier damage to marine bionts compared with terrestrial flora and fauna, in Japan.

 

NAITO W, UESAKA M, YAMADA C et al. - Evaluation of dose from external irradiation for individuals living in areas affected by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant accident. - Radiation protection dosimetry, 2015, 163, 3, 353-361.

  • abstract

In order to effectively and appropriately manage external radiation doses in the affected areas of Fukushima, it is important to identify when, where and how much exposure occurred. It is also necessary to quantitatively measure external exposure and air dose rates for different activity patterns in individuals living and working in Japanese-style buildings. The authors used a new personal dosemeter (D-shuttle) along with a global positioning system and geographical information system to relate personal dose rate with activity patterns and air dose rate. Hourly individual doses obtained by D-shuttle can provide an effective communication tool for those who want to identify when and how much exposure occurs. Personal monitoring of 26 volunteers showed that personal doses obtained from D-shuttle were ∼30% of cumulative air dose estimated by data from the airborne monitoring survey. This analysis showed that, for most study volunteers, the exposure from staying at home represented about half of the total cumulative dose. This suggests that even though the peak exposure doses may be observed outside of working hours, to develop appropriate countermeasures for external dose reduction, it is thus important to identify the contributions of individuals' time-activities. This study provides a valuable basis for developing a realistic and pragmatic method to estimate external doses of individuals in Fukushima.

 

Dossier

IRSN – Fukushima en 2015. Dossier d’information. – 03/2015, nb p.

 

Normes

AFNOR - Instrumentation pour la radioprotection - Instruments pour la mesure et/ou la surveillance de l'équivalent de dose (ou du débit d'équivalent de dose) ambiant et/ou directionnel pour les rayonnements bêta, X et gamma - Partie 1 : instruments de mesure et de surveillance portables pour les postes de travail de l'environnement. – 04/03/2015,NF EN 60846-1, 67 p.

  • abstract

Le présent document s’applique aux appareils de mesure et/ou desurveillance de l’équivalent de dose (ou du débit), destinés à la mesure de l’équivalent de dose ambiant (ou du débit) et/ou de l’équivalent dedose directionnel (ou du débit) dû à l’exposition externe aux rayonnements bêta, X et gamma, suivant la recommandation de la ICRU (Commission Internationale d’Unités Radiologiques), Rapport 47.

 

AFNOR - Appareils électromédicaux - Documentation sur la dose de rayonnement - Partie 1 : rapports structurés sur la dose de rayonnement pour la radiographie et la radioscopie. -14/02/2015, NF EN 61910-1, 41 p.

  • abstract

Le présent document s'applique aux RAPPORTS STRUCTURES SUR LA DOSEDE RAYONNEMENT générés par l'APPAREIL A RAYONNEMENT X entrant dans le domaine d'application de la NF EN 60601-2-43, d'avril 2011 ou de la NF EN 60601-2-54, de novembre 2009. Il a pour objet de spécifier l'ensemble de données minimal à utiliser pour consigner les informations dosimétriques et connexes associées à la production d'IMAGES RADIOLOGIQUES de projection.

 

AFNOR - Instrumentation pour la radioprotection - Instruments de mesure du radon et des descendants du radon - Partie 4 : dispositif pour la réalisation d'atmosphères de référence contenant des isotopes du radon et leurs descendants (STAR). - 14/02/2015, NF EN 61577-4, 

  • abstract

Le présent document concerne le Système de Test en Atmosphèrescontenant du Radon (STAR) servant à tester, dans une atmosphère de référence, les instruments mesurant le radon et les RnDP.Le présent document ne concerne que les instruments et les méthodes associées permettant la mesure des isotopes 220 et 222 du radon et leurs descendants à vie courte dans les gaz.

 

AFNOR - Instrumentation pour la radioprotection - Instrument de mesure du radon et des descendants du radon - Partie 3 : exigences spécifiques concernant les instruments de mesure des descendants du radon. - 14/02/2015, NF EN 61577-3, 34 p.

  • abstract 

Le présent document décrit les exigences spécifiques relatives auxinstruments destinés au mesurage de l'activité volumétrique des descendants du radon à vie courte en suspension dans l'air et/ou de leur énergie alpha potentielle volumique à l'extérieur, dans les habitations et sur les lieux de travail, y compris dans les mines souterraines.

 

Numéro de revue

Bystander effects. – Cancer letters, 01/01/2015, 356, 1, 1-144.

 

Ouvrage

GUARNIERI F, TRAVADEL S, MARTIN C et al. – L’accident de Fukushima Daiichi. Le récit du directeur de la centrale. Volume 1 : l’anéantissement. - Presses des Mines, 03/2015, 342 p.

 

Rapports

EDF-IGSNR – Rapport 2014 de l’Inspecteur Général pour la Sûreté nucléaire et la 

 

LE DEAUT JY, SIDO B, Office parlementaire d’évaluation des choix scientifiques et technologiques –Rapport sur les drones et la sécurité des installations nucléaires. – Assemblée nationale /Sénat, 

 

AEN – Occupational radiation protection in severe accident management. – OCDE, 20/01/2015, 

Réglementation

KNETSCH J – Pour une réforme du droit de la responsabilité nucléaire. – RISEO, 2015, no. 1, 

 

Autres informations

Congrès

ICRP - 2nd Asian workshop on the ethical dimensions of the system of radiological protection. A focus on nuclear emergencies and post-accident situations. Fukushima (Japon), 2-3 juin 2015. 

 

SFRP – Congrès national de radioprotection. Reims, 16-18 juin 2015. 

2ème annonce disponible sur le site http://www.sfrp.asso.fr

 

 

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BSE 18 décembre 2015 - no. 210

Nucléaire & Santé Actualités

Bibliographie Sélective Express

Documentation en Radioprotection d'EDF - DPI - Division Production Nucléaire

18 décembre 2015 - no. 210

Vient de paraître

Articles

HALEY BM, PAUNESKU T, GRDINA DJ et al. - The increase in animal mortality risk following exposure to sparsely ionizing radiation is not linear quadratic with dose. - Plos One, 09/12/2015, 10, 12, e0140989, 26 p.

ORITA M, HAYASHIDA N, NUKUI H et al. - Internal radiation exposure dose in Iwaki city, Fukushima prefecture after the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. – Plos One, 05/12/2015, 9, 12, e114407, 11 p.

BOGDANOVA TI, ZURNADZHY LY, NIKIFOROV YE et al. - Histopathological features of papillary thyroid carcinomas detected during four screening examinations of a Ukrainian-American cohort. – British journal of cancer, 01/12/2015, 113, 11,1556-1564.

  • abstract

BACKGROUND: There are limited data on the histopathology of papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs) diagnosed in irradiated populations. We evaluated the associations between iodine-131 dose and the histopathological characteristics of post-Chernobyl PTCs, the changes in these characteristics over time, and their associations with selected somatic mutations.

METHODS: This study included 115 PTCs diagnosed in a Ukrainian-American cohort (n=13 243) during prescreening and four successive thyroid screenings. Of these PTCs, 65 were subjected to somatic mutation profiling. All individuals were <18 years at the time of the Chernobyl accident and had direct thyroid radioactivity measurements. Statistical analyses included multivariate linear and logistic regression.

RESULTS: We identified a borderline significant linear-quadratic association (P=0.063) between iodine-131 dose and overall tumour invasiveness (presence of extrathyroidal extension, lymphatic/vascular invasion, and regional or distant metastases). Irrespective of dose, tumours with chromosomal rearrangements were more likely to have lymphatic/vascular invasion than tumours without chromosomal rearrangements (P=0.020) or tumours with BRAF or RAS point mutations (P=0.008). Controlling for age, there were significant time trends in decreasing tumour size (P<0.001), the extent of lymphatic/vascular invasion (P=0.005), and overall invasiveness (P=0.026).

CONCLUSIONS: We determined that the invasive properties of PTCs that develop in iodine-131-exposed children may be associated with radiation dose. In addition, based on a subset of cases, tumours with chromosomal rearrangements appear to have a more invasive phenotype. The increase in small, less invasive PTCs over time is a consequence of repeated screening examinations.

O’GRADY TJ, GATES MA, BOSCOE FP - Thyroid cancer incidence attributable to overdiagnosis in the United States 1981-2011. – International journal of cancer, 01/12/2015, 137, 11, 2664-2673.

  • abstract

Papillary thyroid cancer incidence has increased in the United States from 1978 through 2011 for both men and women of all ages and races. Overdiagnosis is partially responsible for this trend, although its magnitude is uncertain. This study examines papillary thyroid cancer incidence according to stage at diagnosis and estimates the proportion of newly diagnosed tumors that are attributable to overdiagnosis. We analyzed stage specific trends in papillary thyroid cancer incidence, 1981-2011, using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results national cancer registries. Yearly changes in early and late-stage thyroid cancer incidence were calculated. We estimate that the proportion of incident papillary thyroid cancers attributable to overdiagnosis in 2011 was 5.5 and 45.5% in men ages 20-49 and 50+ and 41.1 and 60.1% in women ages 20-49 and 50+, respectively. Overdiagnosis has resulted in an additional 82,000 incident papillary thyroid cancers that likely would never have caused any clinical symptoms. The detection of early-stage papillary thyroid cancer outpaced that of late-stage disease from 1981 through 2011, in part due to overdiagnosis. Further studies into the prevention, risk stratification and optimal treatment of papillary thyroid cancer are warranted in response to these trends.

SALGADO-ESPINOSA T, BARROS-DIOS JM, RUANO-RAVINA A – Radon exposure and oropharyngeal cancer risk. - Cancer letters, 01/12/2015, 369, 1, 45-49.

  • abstract

Oropharyngeal cancer is a multifactorial disease. Alcohol and tobacco are the main risk factors. Radon is a human carcinogen linked to lung cancer risk, but its influence in other cancers is not well known. We aim to assess the effect of radon exposure on the risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer through a systematic review of the scientific literature. This review performs a qualitative analysis of the available studies. 13 cohort studies were included, most of them mortality studies, which analysed the relationship between occupational or residential radon exposure with oropharyngeal cancer mortality or incidence. Most of the included studies found no association between radon exposure and oral and pharyngeal cancer. This lack of effect was observed in miners studies and in general population studies. Further research is necessary to quantify if this association really exists and its magnitude, specially performing studies in general population, preferably living in areas with high radon levels.

ALIYU AS, EVANGELIOU N, MOUSSEAU TA et al. – An overview of current knowledge concerning the health and environmental consequences of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. - Environmental international, 12/2015, 85, 213-228.

  • abstract

Since 2011, the scientific community has worked to identify the exact transport and deposition patterns of radionuclides released from the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) in Japan. Nevertheless, there still remain many unknowns concerning the health and environmental impacts of these radionuclides. The present paper reviews the current understanding of the FDNPP accident with respect to interactions of the released radionuclides with the environment and impacts on human and non-human biota. Here, we scrutinize existing literature and combine and interpret observations and modeling assessments derived after Fukushima. Finally, we discuss the behavior and applications of radionuclides that might be used as tracers of environmental processes. This review focuses on (137)Cs and (131)I releases derived from Fukushima. Published estimates suggest total release amounts of 12-36.7PBq of (137)Cs and 150-160PBq of (131)I. Maximum estimated human mortality due to the Fukushima nuclear accident is 10,000 (due to all causes) and the maximum estimates for lifetime cancer mortality and morbidity are 1500 and 1800, respectively. Studies of plants and animals in the forests of Fukushima have recorded a range of physiological, developmental, morphological, and behavioral consequences of exposure to radioactivity. Some of the effects observed in the exposed populations include the following: hematological aberrations in Fukushima monkeys; genetic, developmental and morphological aberrations in a butterfly; declines in abundances of birds, butterflies and cicadas; aberrant growth forms in trees; and morphological abnormalities in aphids. These findings are discussed from the perspective of conservation biology.

KERR GD, EGBERT SD, AL-NABULSI I et al. – Workshop report on atomic bomb dosimetry-review of dose related factors for the evaluation of exposures to residual radiation at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. - Health physics, 12/2015, 109, 6, 582-599.

  • abstract

Groups of Japanese and American scientists, supported by international collaborators, have worked for many years to ensure the accuracy of the radiation dosimetry used in studies of health effects in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Reliable dosimetric models and systems are especially critical to epidemiologic studies of this population because of their importance in the development of worldwide radiation protection standards. While dosimetry systems, such as Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86) and Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02), have improved, the research groups that developed them were unable to propose or confirm an additional contribution by residual radiation to the survivor's total body dose. In recognition of the need for an up-to-date review of residual radiation exposures in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, a half-day technical session was held for reports on newer studies at the 59th Annual HPS Meeting in 2014 in Baltimore, MD. A day-and-a-half workshop was also held to provide time for detailed discussion of the newer studies and to evaluate their potential use in clarifying the residual radiation exposure to atomic bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The process also involved a re-examination of very early surveys of radioisotope emissions from ground surfaces at Hiroshima and Nagasaki and early reports of health effects. New insights were reported on the potential contribution to residual radiation from neutron-activated radionuclides in the airburst's dust stem and pedestal and in unlofted soil, as well as from fission products and weapon debris from the nuclear cloud. However, disparate views remain concerning the actual residual radiation doses received by the atomic bomb survivors at different distances from the hypocenter. The workshop discussion indicated that measurements made using thermal luminescence and optically stimulated luminescence, like earlier measurements, especially in very thin layers of the samples, could be expanded to detect possible radiation exposures to beta particles and to determine their significance plus the extent of the various residual radiation areas at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Other suggestions for future residual radiation studies are included in this workshop report.

KIM SB, OLFERT J, BAGLAN N et al. – Canadian inter-laboratory organically bound tritium (OBT) analysis exercise. – Journal of environmental radioactivity, 12/2015, 150, 236-241.

  • abstract

Tritium emissions are one of the main concerns with regard to CANDU reactors and Canadian nuclear facilities. After the Fukushima accident, the Canadian Nuclear Regulatory Commission suggested that models used in risk assessment of Canadian nuclear facilities be firmly based on measured data. Procedures for measurement of tritium as HTO (tritiated water) are well established, but there are no standard methods and certified reference materials for measurement of organically bound tritium (OBT) in environmental samples. This paper describes and discusses an inter-laboratory comparison study in which OBT in three different dried environmental samples (fish, Swiss chard and potato) was measured to evaluate OBT analysis methods currently used by CANDU Owners Group (COG) members. The variations in the measured OBT activity concentrations between all laboratories were less than approximately 20%, with a total uncertainty between 11 and 17%. Based on the results using the dried samples, the current OBT analysis methods for combustion, distillation and counting are generally acceptable. However, a complete consensus OBT analysis methodology with respect to freeze-drying, rinsing, combustion, distillation and counting is required. Also, an exercise using low-level tritium samples (less than 100 Bq/L or 20 Bq/kg-fresh) would be useful in the near future to more fully evaluate the current OBT analysis methods.

LEE T, SIGURDSON AJ, PRESTON DL et al. - Occupational ionising radiation and risk of basal cell carcinoma in US radiologic technologists (1983-2005). – Occupational and environmental medicine, 12/2015, 72, 12, 862-869.

  • abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine risk for incident basal cell carcinoma from cumulative low-dose ionising radiation in the US radiologic technologist cohort.

METHODS: We analysed 65 719 Caucasian technologists who were cancer-free at baseline (1983-1989 or 1994-1998) and answered a follow-up questionnaire (2003-2005). Absorbed radiation dose to the skin in mGy for estimated cumulative occupational radiation exposure was reconstructed for each technologist based on badge dose measurements, questionnaire-derived work history and protection practices, and literature information. Radiation-associated risk was assessed using Poisson regression and included adjustment for several demographic, lifestyle, host and sun exposure factors.

RESULTS: Cumulative mean absorbed skin dose (to head/neck/arms) was 55.8 mGy (range 0-1735 mGy). For lifetime cumulative dose, we did not observe an excess radiation-related risk (excess relative risk/Gy=-0.01 (95% CI -0.43 to 0.52). However, we observed that basal cell carcinoma risk was increased for radiation dose received before age 30 (excess relative risk/Gy=0.59, 95% CI -0.11 to 1.42) and before 1960 (excess relative risk/Gy=2.92, 95% CI 1.39 to 4.45).

CONCLUSIONS: Basal cell carcinoma risk was unrelated to low-dose radiation exposure among radiologic technologists. Because of uncertainties in dosimetry and sensitivity to model specifications, both our null results and our findings of excess risk for dose received before age 30 and exposure before 1960 should be interpreted with caution.

MICHEL R, DARAOUI A, GORNY M et al. - Retrospective dosimetry of iodine-131 exposures using iodine-129 and caesium-137 inventories in soils. A critical evaluation of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident in parts of Northern Ukraine. - Journal of environmental radioactivity, 12/2015, 150, 20-35.

  • abstract

The radiation exposure of thyroid glands due to (131)I as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident was investigated retrospectively based on (129)I and (137)Cs inventories in soils in Northern Ukraine. To this end, soil samples from 60 settlements were investigated for (129)I, (127)I, and (137)Cs by AMS, ICP-MS and gamma-spectrometry, respectively. Sampling was performed between 2004 und 2007. In those parts of Northern Ukraine investigated here the (129)I and (137)Cs inventories are well correlated, the variability of the individual (129)I/(137)Cs ratios being, however, high. Both the (129)I and (137)Cs inventories in the individual 5 samples for each settlement allowed estimating the uncertainties of the inventories due to the variability of the radionuclide deposition and consequently of the retrospective dosimetry. Thyroid equivalent doses were calculated from the (129)I and the (137)Cs inventories using aggregated dose coefficients for 5-year old and 10-year-old children as well as for adults. The highest thyroid equivalent doses (calculated from (129)I inventories) were calculated for Wladimirowka with 30 Gy for 5-years-old children and 7 Gy for adults. In 35 settlements of contamination zone II the geometric mean of the thyroid equivalent doses was 2.0 Gy for 5-years-old children with a geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 3.0. For adults the geometric mean was 0.47 Gy also with a GSD of 3.0. In more than 25 settlements of contamination zone III the geometric means were 0.82 Gy for 5-years old children with a GSD of 1.8 and 0.21 Gy for adults (GSD 1.8). For 45 settlements, the results of the retrospective dosimetry could be compared with thyroid equivalent doses calculated using time-integrated (131)I activities of thyroids which were measured in 1986. Thus, a critical evaluation of the results was possible which demonstrated the general feasibility of the method, but also the associated uncertainties and limitations.

MUELLER W, GILHAM C - Childhood leukemia and proximity to nuclear power plants : a systematic review and meta-analysis. – Journal of cancer policy, 12/2015, 6, 44-56.

RUEDIG E, JOHNSON TE - An evaluation of health risk to the public as a consequence of in situ uranium mining in Wyoming, USA. - Journal of environmental radioactivity, 12/2015, 150, 170-178.

  • abstract

In the United States there is considerable public concern regarding the health effects of in situ recovery uranium mining. These concerns focus principally on exposure to contaminants mobilized in groundwater by the mining process. However, the risk arising as a result of mining must be viewed in light of the presence of naturally occurring uranium ore and other constituents which comprise a latent hazard. The United States Environmental Protection Agency recently proposed new guidelines for successful restoration of an in situ uranium mine by limiting concentrations of thirteen groundwater constituents: arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, silver, nitrate (as nitrogen), molybdenum, radium, total uranium, and gross α activity. We investigated the changes occurring to these constituents at an ISR uranium mine in Wyoming, USA by comparing groundwater quality at baseline measurement to that at stability (post-restoration) testing. Of the groundwater constituents considered, only uranium and radium-226 showed significant (p < 0.05) deviation from site-wide baseline conditions in matched-wells. Uranium concentrations increased by a factor of 5.6 (95% CI 3.6-8.9 times greater) while radium-226 decreased by a factor of about one half (95% CI 0.42-0.75 times less). Change in risk was calculated using the RESRAD (onsite) code for an individual exposed as a resident-farmer; total radiation dose to a resident farmer decreased from pre-to post-mining by about 5.2 mSv y(-1). Higher concentrations of uranium correspond to increased biomarkers of nephrotoxicity, however the clinical significance of this increase is unclear.

UCHIYAMA K, MIYASHITA M, SATO H et al. - A study of thyroid 131I activity of five human subjects exposed to a radioactive plume at Tamura City in Fukushima. - Health physics, 12/2015, 109, 6, 573-581.

  • abstract

Thyroid I activities were determined for five human subjects from a disaster medical assistance team of Fukui Prefectural Hospital. The team was dispatched to the Tamura City Sports Park, 40 km from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. They were exposed to a radioactive plume on 15 March 2011. In vivo measurements at Fukui Prefectural Hospital were conducted around 17 h after the team left the park. A thyroid counter equipped with a 51-mm-diameter × 51-mm-thick NaI(Tl) detector with a 20-mm-thick lead collimator was used. Mock iodine (Ba and Cs) with a thyroid uptake neck phantom was used for calibration. On 16 March 2011, at 11:30, thyroid activity of a member of the team age 53 y, who was never administered stable iodine, was 268 ± 38 Bq. The remaining four men, aged 49, 35, 34, and 27 y, ingested two stable iodine pills (a total of 100 mg of potassium iodide) approximately 36 h before being exposed to the plume. Their thyroid activity values were 249 ± 86 Bq, 676 ± 107 Bq, 569 ± 96 Bq, and 1,082 ± 119 Bq, respectively. An inverse relationship between age and thyroid activity was observed among those who ingested potassium iodide before exposure, indicating that stable iodine administration may have a protective effect. Thyroid I activity was reduced by approximately 70% in the oldest person. This can be explained by the iodine metabolism in the thyroid of younger individuals being significantly faster than that of older individuals.

DELTOUR I, TRETYAKOV F, TSAREVA Y et al. – Mortality of populations potentially exposed to ionising radiation, 1953-2010, in the closed city of Ozyorsk, Southern Urals : a descriptive study. -Environmental health, 27/11/2015, 14, 1, 91, 12 p.

MITSUTAKE N, FUKUSHIMA T, MATSUSE M et al. – BRAF(V600E) mutation is highly prevalent in thyroid carcinomas in the young population in Fukushima : a different oncogenic profile from Chernobyl. - Scientific reports, 20/11/2015, 5, 16976, 7 p.

QUARTO M, PUGLIESE M, LA VERDE G et al. - Radon exposure assessment and relative effective dose estimation to inhabitants of Puglia region, South Italy. – International journal of environmental research and public health, 11/2015, 12, 11, 14948-14957.

RAABE OG – Concerning ionizing radiation-induced cancer from internally deposited radionuclides. - International journal of radiation biology, 10/2015, 91, 10, 810-819.

  • abstract

PURPOSE: A comparative evaluation was conducted of ionizing radiation-induced cancer from internally deposited radionuclides.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were evaluated for humans for (226)Ra, and for laboratory animal studies for alpha-emitters (228)Ra, (226)Ra, (224)Ra, (238)Pu, (239)Pu, (228)Th, (252)Cf, (249)Cf, and (241)Am, and for beta-emitters (90)Sr, (90)Y, (91)Y, and (144)Ce. Intake routes included ingestion, inhalation, and injection.

RESULTS: Cancer risk associated with protracted ionizing radiation exposure is a non-linear function of lifetime average dose rate to the affected tissues. The lifetime effects are best described by three-dimensional average-dose-rate/time/response surfaces that compete with other causes of death during an individual's lifetime. At the higher average dose rates the principal deleterious effects are those associated with radiation-induced injury, while at intermediate average dose rates radiation-induced cancer predominates.

CONCLUSIONS: The cumulative radiation dose is neither an accurate nor an appropriate measure of cancer risk associated with protracted ionizing radiation exposure. At low average dose rates the long latency time required for radiation-induced cancer may exceed the natural lifespan yielding a lifespan virtual threshold for radiation-induced cancer for cumulative doses below about 5-10 Sv for bone, bone marrow and lungs.

 

Guide

EDF-UTO – Guide pratique. Transport des matières et objets radioactifs. – édition 2015, 120 p.

 

Ouvrage

JALOUNEX J - Éléments de sécurité et de non-prolifération. – IRSN/EDP Sciences, 2015, 109 p.

Rapports

IRSN - La sûreté et la radioprotection du parc électronucléaire français en 2014. Le point de vue de l’IRSN. – 2015, 52 p.

IRSN - Sûreté des installations nucléaires de base civiles autres que les réacteurs du parc électronucléaire français en 2013 – 2014. – 2015, 76 p.

ICRP – Publication 131 : Stem cell biology with respect to carcinogenesis aspects of radiological protection. – Annals of the ICRP, 2015, 44, 3/4, 367 p.

  • contents et abstract

This report provides a review of stem cells/progenitor cells and their responses to ionising radiation in relation to issues relevant to stochastic effects of radiation that form a major part of the International Commission on Radiological Protection’s system of radiological protection. Current information on stem cell characteristics, maintenance and renewal, evolution with age, location in stem cell ‘niches’, and radiosensitivity to acute and protracted exposures is presented in a series of substantial reviews as annexes concerning haematopoietic tissue, mammary gland, thyroid, digestive tract, lung, skin, and bone. This foundation of knowledge of stem cells is used in the main text of the report to provide a biological insight into issues such as the linear-no-threshold (LNT) model, cancer risk among tissues, doserate effects, and changes in the risk of radiation carcinogenesis by age at exposure and attained age. Knowledge of the biology and associated radiation biology of stem cells and progenitor cells is more developed in tissues that renew fairly rapidly, such as haematopoietic tissue, intestinal mucosa, and epidermis, although all the tissues considered here possess stem cell populations. Important features of stem cell maintenance, renewal, and response are the microenvironmental signals operating in the niche residence, for which a well-defined spatial location has been identified in some tissues. The identity of the target cell for carcinogenesis continues to point to the more primitive stem cell population that is mostly quiescent, and hence able to accumulate the protracted sequence of mutations necessary to result in malignancy. In addition, there is some potential for daughter progenitor cells to be target cells in particular cases, such as in haematopoietic tissue and in skin. Several biological processes could contribute to protecting stem cells from mutation accumulation: (a) accurate DNA repair; (b) rapidly induced death of injured stem cells; (c) retention of the DNA parental template strand during divisions in some tissue systems, so that mutations are passed to the daughter differentiating cells and not retained in the parental cell; and (d) stem cell competition, whereby undamaged stem cells outcompete damaged stem cells for residence in the niche. DNA repair mainly occurs within a few days of irradiation, while stem cell competition requires weeks or many months depending on the tissue type. The aforementioned processes may contribute to the differences in carcinogenic radiation risk values between tissues, and may help to explain why a rapidly replicating tissue such as small intestine is less prone to such risk. The processes also provide a mechanistic insight relevant to the LNT model, and the relative and absolute risk models. The radiobiological knowledge also provides a scientific insight into discussions of the dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor currently used in radiological protection guidelines. In addition, the biological information contributes potential reasons for the age-dependent sensitivity to radiation carcinogenesis, including the effects of in-utero exposure.

EPRI – Development of generic scaling factors for technetium-99 and iodine-129 in low and intermediate level waste. - 30/11/2015 , EPRI 3002005564, 124 p.

EPRI – Hard-to-measure radionuclides in nuclear power plant effluents. - 30/11/2015 , EPRI 3002005563, 710 p.

EPRI – Overview of the dose assessment process for emergency planning and response at nuclear power plants. - 23/11/2015 , EPRI 3002006823, 78 p.

 

Autres informations

Congrès

IRPA - 14th International Congress of the Radiation Protection Association. Practicing radiation protection. Le Cap (Afrique du sud), 9-13 mai 2016.

13th International Conference on Radiation Shielding (ICRS-13) & 19thTopical Meeting of the Radiation Protection & Shielding Division of the American Nuclear Society (RPSD-2016). Paris, 3-6 octobre 2016.

ATSR – 5th Forum européen de radioprotectique. Techniques, méthodes de démantèlement et radioprotection. La Grande Motte, 5-7 octobre 2016.

 

 

L’objectif de cette diffusion est uniquement de vous informer sur les dernières publications dans le domaine Nucléaire et Santé.

En aucun cas nous ne pouvons vous garantir la qualité des publications signalées.

Vos commentaires ou suggestions de signalement sont les bienvenus (par mail de préférence).

Contact :  Cette adresse e-mail est protégée contre les robots spammeurs. Vous devez activer le JavaScript pour la visualiser.

 

 

 

BSE 29 mai 2015 - no. 203

Documentation en Radioprotection d'EDF - DPI - Division Production Nucléaire

 


29 mai 2015 - no. 203

 

Vient de paraître

 

Articles

LINDGREN A, STEPANOVA E, VDOVENKO V et al. – Individual whole-body concentration of (137)Cesium is associated with decreased blood counts in children in the Chernobyl-contaminated areas, Ukraine, 2008-2010. - Journal of exposure science and environmental epidemiology, 05-06/2015, 25, 3, 334-342.

  • abstract

The Narodichesky region, Zhitomir Oblast, Ukraine, is situated ∼80 km from the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, which exploded in 1986 and polluted the environment. A previous study found that children living in villages with high activity of (137)Cesium (Cs) in the soil had decreased levels of hemoglobin, erythrocytes and thrombocytes. These findings motivated the present study that used a more comprehensive exposure assessment, including individual whole-body concentrations (WBC) of (137)Cs (Bq/kg). This cross-sectional sample examined between 2008-2010, included 590 children in the age 0-18 years. Children with higher individual log(WBC) activity in the body had significantly decreased hemoglobin, erythrocyte and thrombocyte counts. The effect of log(WBC) on decreased thrombocyte count was only seen in children older than 12 years. The average village activity of (137)Cs (kBq/m(2)) in soil was associated with decreased blood counts only indirectly, through (137)Cs in the body as an intermediate variable. Children in this study were born at least 4 years after the accident and thus exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation from (137)Cs. This cross-sectional study indicates that low levels may be associated with decreased blood counts, but we cannot exclude that these results are due to residual confounding factors.

ZOLLNER S,SOKOLNIKOV ME, EIDEMULLER M - Beyond two-stage models for lung carcinogenesis in the mayak workers : implications for plutonium risk. – Plos One, 22/05/2015, 10, 5, e012638, 20 p.

KEIL AP, RICHARDSON DB, TROESTER MA. - Healthy worker survivor bias in the colorado plateau uranium miners cohort. – American journal of epidemiology, 15/05/2015, 181, 10, 762-770.

  • abstract

Cohort mortality studies of underground miners have been used to estimate the number of lung cancer deaths attributable to radon exposure. However, previous studies of the radon-lung cancer association among underground miners may have been subject to healthy worker survivor bias, a type of time-varying confounding by employment status. We examined radon-mortality associations in a study of 4,124 male uranium miners from the Colorado Plateau who were followed from 1950 through 2005. We estimated the time ratio (relative change in median survival time) per 100 working level months (radon exposure averaging 130,000 mega-electron volts of potential α energy per liter of air, per working month) using G-estimation of structural nested models. After controlling for healthy worker survivor bias, the time ratio for lung cancer per 100 working level months was 1.168 (95% confidence interval: 1.152, 1.174). In an unadjusted model, the estimate was 1.102 (95% confidence interval: 1.099, 1.112)-39% lower. Controlling for this bias, we estimated that among 617 lung cancer deaths, 6,071 person-years of life were lost due to occupational radon exposure during follow-up. Our analysis suggests that healthy worker survivor bias in miner cohort studies can be substantial, warranting reexamination of current estimates of radon's estimated impact on lung cancer mortality.

PARIHAR VK, ALLEN B, TRAN KK et al. – What happens to your brain on the way to Mars. - Science advances, 01/05/2015, 1, 4, e1400256, 6 p.

SIMONETTO C, SCHOLLNBERGER H, AZIZOVA TV et al. – Cerebrovascular diseases in workers at Mayak PA : the difference in radiation risk between incidence and mortality. - Plos One, 01/05/2015, 10, 5, e0125904.

CONTIS G, FOLEY TP - Depression, suicide ideation, and thyroid tumors among Ukrainian adolescents exposed as children to chernobyl radiation. – Journal of clinical medicine research, 05/2015, 7, 5, 332-338.

CURWEN GB, SOTNIK NV, CADWELL KK et al. – Chromosome aberrations in workers with exposure to α-particle radiation from internal deposits of plutonium : expectations from in vitro studies and comparisons with workers with predominantly external γ-radiation exposure. - Radiation and environmental biophysics, 05/2015, 54, 2, 195-206.

  • abstract

mFISH analysis of chromosome aberration profiles of 47 and 144 h lymphocyte cultures following exposure to 193 mGy α-particle radiation confirmed that the frequency of stable aberrant cells and stable cells carrying translocations remains constant through repeated cell divisions. Age-specific rates and in vitro dose-response curves were used to derive expected translocation yields in nine workers from the Mayak nuclear facility in Russia. Five had external exposure to γ-radiation, two of whom also had exposure to neutrons, and four had external exposure to γ-radiation and internal exposure to α-particle radiation from incorporated plutonium. Doubts over the appropriateness of the dose response used to estimate translocations from the neutron component made interpretation difficult in two of the workers with external exposure, but the other three had translocation yields broadly in line with expectations. Three of the four plutonium workers had translocation yields in line with expectations, thus supporting the application of the recently derived in vitro α-particle dose response for translocations in stable cells. Overall this report demonstrates that with adequate reference in vitro dose-response curves, translocation yield has the potential to be a useful tool in the validation of red bone marrow doses resulting from mixed exposure to external and internal radiation.

DRUBAY D, CAER-LORHO S, LAROCHE P et al. - Mortality from circulatory system diseases among French uranium miners : a nested case-control study. – Radiation research, 05/2015, 183, 5, 550-562.

  • abstract

A significant association has been observed between radon exposure and cerebrovascular disease (CeVD) mortality among French uranium miners, but risk factors for circulatory system diseases (CSD) have not been previously considered. We conducted new analyses in the recently updated (through 2007) French cohort of uranium miners (n = 5,086), which included 442 deaths from CSD, 167 of them from ischemic heart disease (IHD) and 105 from CeVD. A nested case-control study was then set up to collect and investigate the influence of these risk factors on the relationships between mortality from CSD and occupational external gamma ray and internal ionizing radiation exposure (radon and long-lived radionuclides) in this updated cohort. The nested case-control study included miners first employed after 1955, still employed in 1976 and followed up through 2007. Individual information about CSD risk factors was collected from medical files for the 76 deaths from CSD (including 26 from IHD and 16 from CeVD) and 237 miners who had not died of CSD by the end of follow-up. The exposure-risk relationships were assessed with a Cox proportional hazard model weighted by the inverse sampling probability. A significant increase in all CSD and CeVD mortality risks associated with radon exposure was observed in the total cohort [hazard ratios: HRCSD/100 working level months (WLM) = 1.11, 95% confidence interval (1.01; 1.22) and HRCeVD/100 WLM = 1.25 (1.09; 1.43), respectively]. A nonsignificant exposure-risk relationship was observed for every type of cumulative ionizing radiation exposure and every end point [e.g., HRCSD/100WLM = 1.43 (0.71; 2.87)]. The adjustment for each CSD risk factor did not substantially change the exposure-risk relationships. When the model was adjusted for overweight, hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia and smoking status, the HR/100WLM for CSD, for example, was equal to 1.21 (0.54; 2.75); and when it was adjusted for risk factors selected with the Akaike information criterion, it was equal to 1.44 (0.66; 3.14). To our knowledge, this is the first study to use a uranium miner cohort to consider the major standard CSD risk factors in assessing the relationships between ionizing radiation exposure and the risk of death from these diseases. These results suggest that the significant relationship between CeVD risk and radon exposure observed in the total French cohort is probably not affected by the CSD risk factors. Extending the collection of information about CSD risk factors to a larger subsample would be useful to confirm this result.

EIDEMULLER M, HOLMBERG E, JACOB P et al. – Breast cancer risk and possible mechanisms of radiation-induced genomic instability in the Swedish hemangioma cohort after reanalyzed dosimetry. – Mutation research–Fundamentals and molecular mechanisms of mutagenesis, 05/2015, 775, 1-9.

GRANT EJ, OZASA K, BAN N et al. – A report from the 2013 international symposium : the evaluation of the effects of low-dose radiation exposure in the life span study of atomic bomb survivors and other similar studies. - Health physics, 05/2015, 108, 5, 551-556.

  • abstract

The RERF International Low-Dose Symposium was held on 5-6 December 2013 at the RERF campus in Hiroshima, Japan, to discuss the issues facing the Life Span Study (LSS) and other low-dose studies. Topics included the current status of low-dose risk detection, strategies for low-dose epidemiological and statistical research, methods to improve communication between epidemiologists and biologists, and the current status of radiological studies and tools. Key points made by the participants included the necessity of pooling materials over multiple studies to gain greater insight where data from single studies are insufficient; generating models that reflect epidemiological, statistical, and biological principles simultaneously; understanding confounders and effect modifiers in the current data; and taking into consideration less studied factors such as the impact of dose rate. It is the hope of all participants that this symposium be used as a trigger for further studies, especially those using pooled data, in order to reach a greater understanding of the health effects of low-dose radiation.

HARRIS C, KREEGER D, PATRICK R et al. - Twenty-five years of environmental radionuclide concentrations near a nuclear power plant. - Health physics, 05/2015, 108, 5, 503-513.

  • abstract

The areas in and along a 262-km length of the Susquehanna River in Pennsylvania were monitored for the presence of radioactive materials. This study began two months after the 1979 Three Mile Island (TMI) partial reactor meltdown; it spanned the next 25 y. Monitoring points included stations at the PPL Susquehanna and TMI nuclear power plants. Monthly gamma measurements document concentrations of radionuclides from natural and anthropogenic sources. During this study, various series of gamma-emitting radionuclide concentration measurements were made in many general categories of animals, plants, and other inorganic matter. Sampling began in 1979 before the first start-up of the PPL Susquehanna power plant. Although all species were not continuously monitored for the entire period, an extensive database was compiled. In 1986, the ongoing measurements detected fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear accident. These data may be used in support of dose or environmental transport calculations.

KREUZER M, DUFEY F, LAURIER D et al. – Mortality from internal and external radiation exposure in a cohort of male German uranium millers, 1946-2008. - International archives of occupational and environmental health, 05/2015, 88, 4, 431-441.

  • abstract

PURPOSE: To examine exposure-response relationships between ionizing radiation and several mortality outcomes in a subgroup of 4,054 men of the German uranium miner cohort study, who worked between 1946 and 1989 in milling facilities, but never underground or in open pit mines.

METHODS: Mortality follow-up was from 1946 to 2008, accumulating 158,383 person-years at risk. Cumulative exposure to radon progeny in working level months (WLM) (mean = 8, max = 127), long-lived radionuclides from uranium ore dust in kBqh/m(3) (mean = 3.9, max = 132), external gamma radiation in mSv (mean = 26, max = 667) and silica dust was estimated by a comprehensive job-exposure matrix. Internal Poisson regression models were applied to estimate the linear excess relative risk (ERR) per unit of cumulative exposure.

RESULTS: Overall, a total of 457, 717 and 111 deaths occurred from malignant cancer, cardiovascular diseases and non-malignant respiratory diseases, respectively. Uranium ore dust and silica dust were not associated with mortality from any of these disease groups. A statistically significant relationship between cumulative radon exposure and mortality from all cancers (ERR/100 WLM = 1.71; p = 0.02), primarily due to lung cancer (n = 159; ERR/100 WLM = 3.39; p = 0.05), was found. With respect to cumulative external gamma radiation, an excess of mortality of solid cancers (n = 434; ERR/Sv = 1.86; p = 0.06), primarily due to stomach cancer (n = 49, ERR/Sv = 10.0; p = 0.12), was present.

CONCLUSION: The present findings show an excess mortality from lung cancer due to radon exposure and from solid cancers due to external gamma radiation in uranium millers that was not statistically significant. Exposure to uranium was not associated with any cause of death, but absorbed organ doses were estimated to be low.

O’CONNOR U, WALSH C, GALLAGHER A et al. – Occupational radiation dose to eyes from interventional radiology procedures in light of the new eye lens dose limit from the International Commission on Radiological Protection. - British journal of radiology, 05/2015, 88, 1049, 20140627.

  • abstract

OBJECTIVE: In 2011, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommended a substantial reduction in the equivalent dose limit for the lens of the eye, in line with a reduced threshold of absorbed dose for radiation-induced cataracts. This is of particular relevance in interventional radiology (IR) where it is well established that staff doses can be significant, however, there is a lack of data on IR eye doses in terms of Hp(3). Hp(3) is the personal dose equivalent at a depth of 3 mm in soft tissue and is used for measuring lens dose. We aimed to obtain a reliable estimate of eye dose to IR operators.

METHODS: Lens doses were measured for four interventional radiologists over a 3-month period using dosemeters specifically designed to measure Hp(3).

RESULTS: Based on their typical workloads, two of the four interventional radiologists would exceed the new ICRP dose limit with annual estimated doses of 31 and 45 mSv to their left eye. These results are for an "unprotected" eye, and for IR staff who routinely wear lead glasses, the dose beneath the glasses is likely to be significantly lower. Staff eye dose normalized to patient kerma-area product and eye dose per procedure have been included in the analysis.

CONCLUSION: Eye doses to IR operators have been established using a dedicated Hp(3) dosemeter. Estimated annual doses have the potential to exceed the new ICRP limit.

ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: We have estimated lens dose to interventional radiologists in terms of Hp(3) for the first time in an Irish hospital setting.

SHIMURA T, YAMAGUCHI I, TERADA H et al. – Radiation occupational health interventions offered to radiation workers in response to the complex catastrophic disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. - Journal of radiation research, 05/2015, 56, 3, 413-421.

SHIMURA T, YAMAGUCHI I, TERADA H et al. – Public health activities for mitigation of radiation exposures and risk communication challenges after the Fukushima nuclear accident. - Journal of radiation research, 05/2015, 56, 3, 422-429.

YASUI S – Governmental re-evaluation of the committed effective dose received by emergency workers at the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. - Journal of occupational and environmental hygiene, 05/2015, 12, 5, D60-D70.

  • abstract

In April 2013, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) noticed that significant discrepancies were present between the committed effective dose (CED) data for emergency workers at the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant provided by TEPCO and that reported by five primary contractors. The MHLW, based on re-evaluation of the data, provided administrative guidance which required TEPCO and the five primary contractors to readjust the CED data for 479 workers (2.5% of 19,346 emergency workers). Of these, data for 450 workers from the primary contractors were readjusted based on the change in assessment methods. Doses were readjusted to higher values for 431 workers and doses were readjusted to lower values for 19 workers, CED data were corrected due to calculation errors for 29 workers from seven contractors, 12 additional workers were found to have received more than 50 mSv but no more than 100 mSv, an increase of 1.7% over the previously established count of 723 workers who had received that dose. Six additional workers were found to have received more than 100 mSv, an increase of 3.6% compared with the previous count of 167 workers. Major issues addressed during re-evaluation included: a) selection of intake scenario for the calculation of the residual activity ratio; b) assumptions about the intake date; c) assessments of exposure to radiation from (132)I and (132)Te; and d) assumptions about (131)I exposure in cases where (131)I was undetectable. Regarding the divergent CED data of 138 workers, the MHLW also confirmed that the CEDs assessed by the primary contractors were valid. To prevent the recurrence of similar incidents, the MHLW issued administrative guidance documents to TEPCO and primary contractors to employ standardized CED assessment methods on July 5. 2013.

PINA JOMIR G, MICHEL X, LECOMPTE Y et al. – Gestion des déchets et des effluents radioactifs générés lors de la prise en charge d’un blessé radiocontaminé dans une structure hospitalière. - Radioprotection, 04-06/2015, 50, 2, 145-151.

  • résumé

La gestion des déchets et des effluents radioactifs générés à la suite de la prise en charge d’un blessé radiocontaminé dans une chaîne de décontamination hospitalière doit être anticipée pour respecter la règlementation qui s’y rattache. Cette gestion spécifique sera d’autant plus complexe que le volume des déchets sera important. La première étape consiste à contrôler la présence effective d’une contamination par mesure de l’activité radiologique, afin de réaliser un tri en amont, dans le but de réduire le volume de déchets radiocontaminés générés. La filière d’élimination est ensuite adaptée aux caractéristiques physiques du radionucléide, en particulier sa période. Si cette période est inférieure à 100 jours, la gestion se fait en décroissance pendant au moins 10 périodes avant élimination dans les filières applicables aux déchets hospitaliers. Pour une période supérieure à 100 jours, des mesures spécifiques de pré-traitement et de mise en fûts doivent être mises en oeuvre avant colisage pour respecter les spécificités requises par l’Agence Nationale pour la gestion des Déchets RadioActifs (ANDRA), seul organisme identifié pour la reprise des déchets de ce type. Le traitement des effluents liquides nécessite l’intervention d’une entreprise spécialisée. La gestion post accidentelle des déchets hospitaliers radiocontaminés soulève également le problème de la responsabilité financière et de la détention hospitalière de sources non médicales.

RENAUD P, PARACHE V, ROUSSEL-DEBET S - Internal doses of French adult population linked to the intake of radionuclides from the decay-chains of uranium and thorium by foodstuffs ingestion. – Radioprotection, 04-06/2015, 50, 2, 117-121.

  • abstract

This study provides the first dose assessment to the French adult population due to the intake of radionuclides from the decay chains of uranium and thorium by foodstuff ingestion (water consumption excepted). This dose varies widely with the consumption of seafood, from less than 200 μSv.y-1 for people who do not consume shellfish or crustaceans at all, to more than 2,000 μSv.y-1 for the biggest consumers (about 150 kg.y-1 according to specific dietary surveys carried out along the French seaside). For moderate consumers of seafood (around 4.6 kg.y-1), who probably represent a major part of the population, this internal dose would be around 330 μSv.y-1. This variable consumption of seafood overshadows all the other causes of variability of these internal dose estimates.

ANSOBORLO E, LEBARON-JACOBS L, PRAT O – Uranium in drinking-water : a unique case of guideline value increases and discrepancies between chemical and radiochemical guidelines. - Environment international, 04/2015, 77, 1-4.

  • abstract

BACKGROUND: Uranium represents a unique case for an element naturally present in the environment, as its chemical guideline value in drinking water significantly increased from 2 μg/L in 1998 up to 15 μg/L in 2004 and then to 30 μg/L in 2011, to date corresponding to a multiplication factor of 15 within a period of just 13 years.

OBJECTIVES: In this commentary we summarize the evolution of uranium guideline values in drinking-water based on both radiological and chemical aspects, emphasizing the benefit of human studies and their contribution to recent recommendations. We also propose a simpler and better consistency between radiological and chemical values.

DISCUSSION: The current chemical guideline value of 30 μg/L is still designated as provisional because of scientific uncertainties regarding uranium toxicity. During the same period, the radiological guideline for (238)U increased from 4 Bq/L to 10 Bq/L while that for (234)U decreased from 4 Bq/L to 1 Bq/L. These discrepancies are discussed here, and a value of 1 Bq/L for all uranium isotopes is proposed to be more consistent with the current chemical value of 30 μg/L.

CONCLUSION: Continuous progress in the domains of toxicology and speciation should enable a better interpretation of the biological effects of uranium in correlation with epidemiological human studies. This will certainly aid future proposals for uranium guideline values.

 

Note d’information

IRSN - Note d’information sur les accidents ayant affecté les réacteurs nucléaires du site de Saint-Laurent-des-Eaux en 1969 et en 1980. – 18/05/2015, 4 p.

Norme

AFNOR – Sécurité de protection du citoyen - NRBC-E- Utilisation d'équipements portables de détection et d'identification nucléaire et radiologique dans le domaine de la sécurité globale. - 15/05/2015, NF X 52-121, 33 p.

  • résumé et sommaire

Le présent document concerne l'utilisation d’équipements portables de détection et d’identification de matières radioactives et nucléaires dans le contexte des événements relevant du terrorisme, de la malveillance et du trafic illicite. Il décrit des conseils de base pour l'utilisation de ces appareils et fournit des recommandations pour leur distinction et utilisation spécifiques Les applications recouvrent la caractérisation pré-événementielle, la levée de doute et l'intervention préventive. Ces instruments portables peuvent avoir une ou plusieurs des fonctions suivantes : détection, confirmation d’une détection, localisation, identification, catégorisation et transmission de données. Il s'agit d'instruments tels que : appareil de détection de poche, appareil de détection et d’identification de poche, instruments portables de haute sensibilité pour la détection photonique, instruments portables de haute sensibilité pour la détection neutronique, instruments portables pour la détection et l'identification des radionucléides et détecteurs de rayonnement de type sac-à-dos. Le document s’appuie sur les spécifications IEC de conception et de performance relatives aux différents appareils.

Rapports

GISQUET E - Six questions pour tirer les leçons de la catastrophe de Fukushima sur le plan des facteurs organisationnels et humains. – IRSN, 05/2015, Rapport condensé PSN-SRDS/SFOHREX no. 2015-02, 29 p.

GISQUET E, OLDER M - Human and organizational factors perspective on the Fukushima nuclear accident. – IRSN, 05/2015, Rapport complet PSN-SRDS/SFOHREX no. 2015-01, 100 p.

  • disponible sur le site http://www.irsn.fr

AIEA – Mission report. IAEA International peer review mission on mid-and-long-term roadmap towards the decommissioning of TEPCO’s Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station units 1-4 (Third Mission, 9-17 february 2015). - 13/05/2015, 58 p.

EPRI – Pressurized water reactor shutdown activity releases. 2014 Summary. 2015 Radiation management and source term technical strategy group report. – 05/2015, no. 3002005483, 144 p.

IRSN - Examen des systèmes nucléaires de 4ème génération. - 04/2015, 246 p.

ASN – Maîtrise des doses délivrées aux patients en imagerie médicale. Bilan du programme d’actions recommandées par l’ASN – Janvier 2015. - 04/2015, 61 p.

 

Autres informations

Congrès

ICRP 2015 – 3rd International symposium on the system of radiological protection. Seoul (Corée du sud), 20-22 octobre 2015.

IRPA 14 – Practising radiation protection - Sharing the Experience and New Challenges. Le Cap (Afrique du sud), 9-13 mai 2016.

 

 

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BSE 28 janvier 2016 - no. 211

Bibliographie Sélective Express

Documentation en Radioprotection d'EDF - DPI - Division Production Nucléaire

 


 

28 janvier 2016 - no. 211

 

Projet de publication

 

ICRP – Diagnostic reference levels in medical imaging. ICRP ref 4836-8337-6684. – Annals of the ICRP, [online 11 janvier 2016], 131 p.

  • draft disponible sur le site de l’ICRP http://www.icrp.org (contribution possible jusqu’au 15 avril 2016)

 

Vient de paraître

Articles

LEHMANN P, BORATYNSKI Z, MAPPES T et al. – Fitness costs of increased cataract frequency and cumulative radiation dose in natural mammalian populations from Chernobyl. - Scientific 

DROZDOVITCH V, KUKHTA T T, MINENKO V et al. – Reliability of questionnaire data in the distant past : relevance for radiation exposure assessment. - Health physics, 01/2016, 110, 1, 74-92.

  • abstract

Interviews with questionnaires are often employed to provide information that may be used for exposure assessment, although the reliability of such information is largely unknown. In this work, the consistency of individual behavior and dietary data collected by means of personal interviews during two study screenings was evaluated. Data were collected for a cohort of about 11,000 persons exposed to I in childhood and adolescence shortly after the Chernobyl accident. The best recollection was found for residential history, milk consumption patterns, and, to a lesser degree, stable iodine administration, while reproducibility of responses about consumption of milk products and leafy vegetables was poor. Consistency of information reported during the personal interviews by the study subjects younger than 10 y at the time of the accident was somewhat lower than for the subjects aged 10-18 y. The authors found slightly better reproducibility of responses for female study subjects than for male subjects and when the time span between two interviews was shorter. In the majority of instances, the best consistency in responses was observed when the mother was interviewed during both screenings rather than the subject. Information that was collected during two personal interviews was used to calculate two sets of thyroid doses due to I intakes. This study shows that, because dose-related measurements are available for all study subjects, the quality of individual behavior and dietary data has, in general, a small influence on the results of the retrospective dose assessment. For studies in which dose-related measurements are not available for all study subjects and only modeling is used for dose reconstruction, high quality individual behavior and dietary data for the study subjects are required to provide realistic and reliable dose estimates.

LEBEL LK, DICKSON RS, GLOWA GA – Radioiodine in the atmosphere after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident. - Journal of environmental radioactivity, 01/2016, 151, Part1, 82-93.

  • abstract

About 160 PBq of (131)I was released into the atmosphere during the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. The chemistry of radioiodine is complicated, and it can be released in several different forms. In addition, the different physical forms, like molecular iodine, aerosol-form iodine, or organic iodine, would have all behaved differently once in the atmosphere, and would have been removed at different rates. These releases were detected by monitoring stations throughout Japan, and from these measurements, key insightscan be made about the different chemical forms that were released, as well as the persistence of each in the environment.

LE GOFF P, GUETAT P, VICHOT L et al. - Tritium levels in milk in the vicinity of chronic tritium releases. - Journal of environmental radioactivity, 01/2016, 151, Part1, 282-292.

  • abstract

Tritium is the radioactive isotope of hydrogen. It can be integrated into most biological molecules. Even though its radiotoxicity is weak, the effects of tritium can be increased following concentration in critical compartments of living organisms. For a better understanding of tritium circulation in the environment and to highlight transfer constants between compartments, we studied the tritiation of different agricultural matrices chronically exposed to tritium. Milk is one of the most frequently monitored foodstuffs in the vicinity of points known for chronic release of radionuclides firstly because dairy products find their way into most homes but also because it integrates deposition over large areas at a local scale. It is a food which contains all the main nutrients, especially proteins, carbohydrates and lipids. We thus studied the tritium levels of milk in chronic exposure conditions by comparing the tritiation of the main hydrogenated components of milk, first, component by component, then, sample by sample. Significant correlations were found between the specific activities of drinking water and free water of milk as well as between the tritium levels of cattle feed dry matter and of the main organic components of milk. Our findings stress the importance of the metabolism on the distribution of tritium in the different compartments. Overall, dilution of hydrogen in the environmental compartments was found to play an important role dimming possible isotopic effects even in a food chain chronically exposed to tritium.

MEULEPAS JM, RONCKERS CM, MERKS J et al. – Confounding of the association between radiation exposure from ct scans and risk of leukemia and brain tumors by cancer susceptibility syndromes. - Cancer epidemiology biomarkers and prevention, 01/2016, 23, 1, 114-126.

  • abstract

BACKGROUND: Recent studies linking radiation exposure from pediatric computed tomography (CT) to increased risks of leukemia and brain tumors lacked data to control for cancer susceptibility syndromes (CSS). These syndromes might be confounders because they are associated with an increased cancer risk and may increase the likelihood of CT scans performed in children.

METHODS: We identify CSS predisposing to leukemia and brain tumors through a systematic literature search and summarize prevalence and risk estimates. Because there is virtually no empirical evidence in published literature on patterns of CT use for most types of CSS, we estimate confounding bias of relative risks (RR) for categories of radiation exposure based on expert opinion about the current and previous patterns of CT scans among CSS patients.

RESULTS: We estimate that radiation-related RRs for leukemia are not meaningfully confounded by Down syndrome, Noonan syndrome, or other CSS. In contrast, RRs for brain tumors may be overestimated due to confounding by tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) while von Hippel-Lindau disease, neurofibromatosis type 1, or other CSS do not meaningfully confound. Empirical data on the use of CT scans among CSS patients are urgently needed.

CONCLUSIONS: Our assessment indicates that associations with leukemia reported in previous studies are unlikely to be substantially confounded by unmeasured CSS, whereas brain tumor risks might have been overestimated due to confounding by TSC.

IMPACT: Future studies should identify TSC patients in order to avoid overestimation of brain tumor risks due to radiation exposure from CT scans.

NOMURA S, TSUBOKURA M, FURUTANI T et al. – Dependence of radiation dose on the behavioral patterns among school children : a retrospective analysis 18 to 20 months following the 2011 Fukushima nuclear incident in Japan. - Journal of radiation research, 01/2016, 57, 1, 1-8.

RAJARAMAN P, DOODY MM, YU CL et al. - Incidence and mortality risks for circulatory diseases in US radiologic technologists who worked with fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures, 1994-2008. - Occupational and environmental medicine, 01/2016, 73, 1, 21-27.

  • abstract

OBJECTIVES: Although fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures (FGIP) have provided major advances in the treatment of various common diseases, radiation exposures associated with these procedures may cause adverse health effects in workers. We assess risk of circulatory disease incidence and mortality in medical radiation workers performing FGIP.

METHODS: A US nationwide prospective cohort study of 90 957 radiologic technologists who completed a cohort survey during 1994-1998 was followed until completion of a subsequent survey during 2003-2005 for circulatory disease incidence, or until 31 December 2008 for mortality. Incidence analyses were restricted to the 63 482 technologists who completed both the second survey (1994-1998) and the third survey (2003-2005). Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess adjusted HR and 95% CIs for mortality from all causes, all circulatory diseases, all heart diseases, ischaemic heart disease, stroke, acute myocardial infarction and hypertension in participants who reported ever performing FGIP compared to technologists who never performed FGIP procedures. Adjusted HRs were calculated for self-reported hypertension, stroke and myocardial infarction.

RESULTS: We observed a 34% increase in stroke incidence (HR=1.34, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.64) in technologists who performed FGIP compared to those who never performed these procedures. Mortality from stroke was also modestly elevated, although not statistically significant (HR=1.22, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.73). We observed no statistically significant excess risks of incidence or mortality from any other outcome evaluated.

CONCLUSIONS: Our finding of elevated risk of stroke in workers performing FGIP needs to be confirmed in studies with individual radiation dose data, but nonetheless underlines the need to keep radiation exposure as low as reasonably achievable without compromising key diagnostic information.

SOKOLOV M, NEUMANN R - Global gene expression alterations as a crucial constituent of human cell response to low doses of ionizing radiation exposure. – International journal of molecular sciences, 31/12/2015, 17, 1, e55, 18 p.

NOMURA S, TSUBOKURA M, HAYANO R et al. – Compliance with the proper use of an individual radiation dosimeter among children and the effects of improper use on the measured dose : a retrospective study 18-20 months following Japan's 2011 Fukushima nuclear incident. - BMJ Open, 30/12/2015, 5, 12, e009555.

BOERMA M, NELSON GA, SRIDHARAN V et al. - Space radiation and cardiovascular disease risk. – World journal of cardiology, 26/12/2015, 7, 12, 882-888.

SCHAAPVELD M, ALEMAN B, VAN EGGERMOND AM et al. - Second cancer risk up to 40 years after treatment for Hodgkin's lymphoma. – New England journal of medicine, 24/12/2015, 373, 26, 2499-2511.

AZRIA D, RIOU O, CASTAN F et al. – Radiation-induced CD8 T-lymphocyte apoptosis as a predictor of breast fibrosis after radiotherapy : results of the prospective multicenter french trial. - EBioMedicine,12/2015, 2, 12, 1965-1973.

COLE P, GORNALL BT, WOOD MD et al. – Strategies for engaging with future radiation protection professionals : a public outreach case study. - Journal of radiological protection,12/2015, 35, 4, N25-N32.

KENDALL GM, WAKEFORD R, BUNCH KJ et al. - Residential mobility and associated factors in relation to the assessment of exposure to naturally occurring radiation in studies of childhood cancer. - Journal of radiological protection, 12/2015, 35, 4, 835-868.

  • abstract

Migration, that is the study of subjects moving from one residential address to another, is a complication for epidemiological studies where exposures to the agent of interest depend on place of residence. In this paper we explore migration in cases from a large British case control study of childhood cancer and natural background radiation. We find that 44% of cases had not moved house between birth and diagnosis, and about two-thirds were living within 2 km of their residence at birth. The estimated dose at the diagnosis address was strongly correlated with that at the birth address, suggesting that use of just the birth addressin this case-control study does not lead to serious bias in risk estimates. We also review other individual-based studies of naturally occurring radiation, with particular emphasis on those from Great Britain. Interview-based case-control and cohort studies can potentially establish full residential histories for study subjects and make direct measurements of radiation levels in the dwellings in question. However, in practice, because of study size and difficulties in obtaining adequate response rates, interview-based studies generally do not use full residential histories, and a substantial proportion of dose estimates often derive from models rather than direct measurements. More seriously, problems of incomplete response may lead to bias, not just to loss of power. Record-based case-control studies, which do not require direct contact with study subjects, avoid such problems, but at the expense of having only model-based exposure estimates that use databases of measurements.

LUPATSCH JE, KUEHNI CE, NIGGLI F et al. – Population mixing and the risk of childhood leukaemia in Switzerland : a census-based cohort study. - European journal of epidemiology, 12/2015, 30, 12, 1287-1298.

  • abstract 

Childhood leukaemia (CL) may have an infectious cause and population mixing may therefore increase the risk of CL. We aimed to determine whether CL was associated with population mixing in Switzerland. We followed children aged <16 years in the Swiss National Cohort 1990-2008 and linked CL cases from the Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry to the cohort. We calculated adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for all CL, CL at age <5 years and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) for three measures of population mixing (population growth, in-migration and diversity of origin), stratified by degree of urbanisation. Measures of population mixing were calculated for all municipalities for the 5-year period preceding the 1990 and 2000 censuses. Analyses were based on 2,128,012 children of whom 536 developed CL. HRs comparing highest with lowest quintile of population growth were 1.11 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.65-1.89] in rural and 0.59 (95 % CI 0.43-0.81) in urban municipalities (interaction: p = 0.271). Results were similar for ALL and for CL at age <5 years. For level of in-migration there was evidence of a negative association with ALL. HRs comparing highest with lowest quintile were 0.60 (95 % CI 0.41-0.87) in urban and 0.61 (95 % CI 0.30-1.21) in rural settings. There was little evidence of an association with diversity of origin. This nationwide cohort study of the association between CL and population growth, in-migration and diversity of origin provides little support for the population mixing hypothesis.

RAHU K, RAHU M, TEKKEL M et al. - Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia : cohort description and related epidemiological research. - Journal of radiological protection, 12/2015, 35, 4, R35-R45.

  • abstract 

The Estonian study of Chernobyl cleanup workers was one of the first investigations to evaluate the possible health consequences of working in the Chernobyl area (the 30 km exclusion zone and/or adjacent territories) after the 1986 reactor accident. The cohort consists of 4831 men who were dispatched in 1986-1991 for tasks involving decontamination, construction of buildings, transport, radiation measurement, guard duty or other activities. By 31 December 2012, the follow-up of the cohort yielded 102 158 person-years of observation. Exposure and health data were collected by postal questionnaires, biodosimetry evaluations, thyroid screenings, and record-linkages with cancer, causes of death and health insurance reimbursement registers and databases. These data cover socio-demographic factors, employment history, aspects of health behaviour, medical history, work and living conditions in the Chernobyl area, biomarkers of exposure, cancer and non-cancer disease occurrence and causes of death. Cancer incidence data were obtained for 1986-2008, mortality data for 1986-2011 and non-cancer morbidity data for 2004-2012. Although the cohort is relatively small, it has been extensively examined and benefited from comprehensive nationwide population and health registers. The major finding was an increased risk of suicide. Thyroid examinations did not reveal an association with thyroid nodular disease and radiation dose, but did indicate the importance of accounting for screening when making comparisons with unscreened populations. No risk of leukaemia was observed and risks higher than 2.5-fold could be excluded with 95% confidence. Biodosimetry included GPA analyses and chromosomal translocation analyses and indicated that the Estonian cleanup workers experienced a relatively low mean exposure of the order of 0.1 Gy. One value of the Estonian study is in the methodologic processes brought to bear in addressing possible health effects from the Chernobyl accident. Twenty-five years of research are summarised and opportunities for the future listed.

SHIMADA K, KAI M - Calculating disability-adjusted life years (DALY) as a measure of excess cancer risk following radiation exposure. - Journal of radiological protection, 12/2015, 35, 4, 763-775.

  • abstract 

This paper has proposed that disability-adjusted life year (DALY) can be used as a measure of radiation health risk. DALY is calculated as the sum of years of life lost (YLL) and years lived with disability (YLD). This multidimensional concept can be expressed as a risk index without a probability measure to avoid the misuse of the current radiation detriment at low doses. In this study, we calculated YLL and YLD using Japanese population data by gender. DALY for all cancers in Japan per 1 Gy per person was 0.84 year in men and 1.34 year in women. The DALY for all cancers in the Japanese baseline was 4.8 in men and 3.5 in women. When we calculated the ICRP detriment from the same data, DALYs for the cancer sites were similar to the radiation detriment in the cancer sites, excluding leukemia, breast and thyroid cancer. These results suggested that the ICRP detriment overestimate the weighting fraction of leukemia risk and underestimate the weighting fraction of breast and thyroid cancer. A big advantage over the ICRP detriment is that DALY can calculate the risk components for non-fatal diseases without the data of lethality. This study showed that DALY is a practical tool that can compare many types of diseases encountered in public health.

 

SUSLOVA KG, ROMANOV SA, EFIMOV AV et al. - Dynamics of body burdens and doses due to internal irradiation from intakes of long-lived radionuclides by residents of Ozyorsk situated near Mayak PA. - Journal of radiological protection, 12/2015, 35, 4, 789-818.

  • abstract 

This paper presents and discusses new autopsy results and other historic data from earlier autopsies and environmental monitoring linked to releases from the Mayak PA facilities in the Chelyabinsk oblast in the southern Urals. The focus is on residents of the town of Ozyorsk located near to Mayak PA and the dynamics of body burdens and radiation doses from inhalation of plutonium alpha and americium-241, and ingestion of strontium-90 and caesium-137. It is demonstrated that accumulation and exposure from these radionuclides was mainly due to unplanned releases in the 1950s and 60s. The mean content of plutonium alpha at the time of autopsy of people commencing residence in Ozyorsk from 1949 to 1959 was about 3.5 Bq, falling to 0.2 Bq in those arriving after 1990. A reducing trend was also seen for (241)Am. The highest (90)Sr content in Ozyorsk residents was measured in 1967. The (137)Cs body content of residents arriving in Ozyorsk at any time was in almost all cases below the limit of detection. The committed effective dose from internal exposure to these long-lived radionuclides which would have been accumulated in Ozyorsk residents if present from 1949 to 2013 is estimated to be 13 mSv. This dose is primarily attributed to intakes during 1949 to 1959 when the annual effective dose rate was approximately 1 mSv y(-1). The current value is about 0.1 mSv y(-1). This dose is about 20 times higher than the dose from global man-made fallout, which is about 0.005 mSv y(-1) at present, but much lower than that from natural background radiation, i.e. about 2 mSv y(-1). The experience gained from this work and continuing activities can contribute to the development of improved international guidance in legacy situations, particularly as regards the provision and use of monitoring data to test and thereby build confidence in prognostic models for radiation conditions and potential future exposures. The scope includes evidence for the rate of reduction in radionuclide concentrations in environmental media and in their bioavailability, resuspension of long-lived alpha radionuclides, uptake of (90)Sr and (137)Cs in the food-chain, and confirmation of cumulative uptake via autopsy and whole body counting measurements. Continuing investigations will thus support decisions on future planned releases and contribute to planning of remediation of other areas affected by historic releases.

THORNE MC, WILSON J - Generally applicable limits on intakes of uranium based on its chemical toxicity and the radiological significance of intakes at those limits. - Journal of radiological protection, 12/2015, 35, 4, 743-762.

  • abstract 

Uranium is chemically toxic and radioactive, and both considerations have to be taken into account when limiting intakes of the element, in the context of both occupational and public exposures. Herein, the most recent information available on the chemical toxicity and biokinetics of uranium is used to propose new standards for limiting intakes of the element. The approach adopted allows coherent standards to be set for ingestion and inhalation of different chemical forms of the element by various age groups. It also allows coherent standards to be set for occupational and public exposures (including exposures of different age groups) and for various exposure regimes (including short-term and chronic exposures). The proposed standards are more restrictive than those used previously, but are less restrictive than the Minimal Risk Levels proposed recently by the US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Having developed a set of proposed limits based solely on chemical toxicity considerations, the radiological implications of exposure at those proposed limits are investigated for natural, depleted and enriched uranium.

GRISON S, FAVE G, MAILLOT M et al. – Métabolomique : un nouvel outil au service de la radiotoxicologie des faibles doses. - Environnement, Risques et Santé, 11-12/2015, 14, 6, 502-510. 

  • abstract 

Un modèle expérimental animal, mimant la contamination chronique des populations vivant sur des territoires contaminés a été utilisé dans le cadre du programme de recherche ENVIRHOM-Santé de l’Institut de radioprotection et de sûreté nucléaire (IRSN). Il a révélé que l’ingestion chronique de radionucléides à faibles doses entraînait des atteintes biologiques multiples de faibles amplitudes caractérisées par des ruptures subtiles d’équilibres métaboliques consécutives à l’exposition interne. En effet, il a été montré qu’une contamination interne de radionucléides était capable d’affecter in vivo un certain nombre de métabolismes majeurs de l’organisme, tels que le métabolisme du cholestérol, de la vitamine D, du fer, des hormones stéroïdiennes et des xénobiotiques sans effet toxique ou apparition de pathologie. Pour compléter et affiner ces connaissances, des études associant pour la première fois une approche métabolomique à la radiotoxicologie des faibles doses ont été initiées en collaboration avec la plate-forme d’analyse métabolique à large spectre de l’université d’Aix-Marseille (CRIBIOM). Les résultats de ces études expérimentales, qui portent sur les effets biologiques d’une ingestion chronique de césium 137 ou d’uranium naturel chez le rat pendant plusieurs mois, ont permis de montrer que, suite à ces expositions internes, il était possible d’identifier des individus contaminés par de faibles doses de radionucléides (bien que leurs taux de marqueurs cliniques classiques n’étaient pas affectés) par une modification de leur métabolome. Aussi, une simple analyse sanguine ou urinaire par approche métabolomique semble pertinente pour définir la signature biologique d’une contamination interne à faible dose de radionucléide. Enfin, l’identification et la quantification simultanée de plusieurs acteurs moléculaires impactés ont permis de définir « l’empreinte métabolique » spécifique de l’exposition et pourraient permettre de révéler des biomarqueurs d’exposition, d’effets biologiques précoces, de toxicité voire d’éventuels développements pathologiques. En conclusion, la métabolomique fait partie des approches analytiques modernes dont le potentiel reste considérable dans le domaine des faibles doses.

CALABRESE EJ – Model uncertainty via the integration of hormesis and LNT as the default in cancer risk assessment. - Dose-response, 10-12/2015, 13, 4, 5 p.

CUTTLER JM, SANDERS CL - Threshold for radon-induced lung cancer from inhaled plutonium data. - Dose-response, 10-12/2015, 13, 4, 4 p.

GYULEVA IM PENKOVA KI, RUPOVA IT et al. - Assessment of some immune parameters in occupationally exposed nuclear power plant workers : flow cytometry measurements of t lymphocyte subpopulations and immunoglobulin determination. - Dose-response, 10-12/2015, 13, 4, 5 p.

DOBRZYNSKI L, FORNALSKI KW, FEINENDEGEN LE – The human cancer in high natural background radiation areas. - International journal of low radiation, 2015, 10, 2.

  • abstract 

The studies of health effects in human populations living in places with high levels of natural background radiation are of crucial importance for understanding the impact of low doses of ionising radiation. The paper reviews some exemplary literature that addresses the likelihood of the radiation-induced cancer in aforementioned regions. It is shown that using Bayesian analysis one can arrive at an essentially different conclusion concerning dose-effect dependence from the one which could be guessed from first glance. The general conclusion is that cancers do not correlate with elevated radiation in regions with high natural background radiation.

 

Norme

AFNOR - Instrumentation pour la radioprotection - Instruments portables de haute sensibilité pour la détection neutronique de matières radioactives. - AFNOR, 16/01/2016, NF EN 62534, 27 p.

  • résumé  

Le présent document s'applique aux instruments portables utilisés pourla détection et la localisation des substances radioactives émettant des neutrons. Ces instruments sont à haute sensibilité, ce qui signifie qu'ils sont conçus pour détecter de faibles variations dans le domaine de l'environnement habituel, lesquelles peuvent avoir pour origine le transport illicite ou des mouvements fortuits de substances radioactives.Le présent document ne s'applique pas aux performances de l'instrumentation de radio protection, qui sont couvertes par les normes homologuées NF EN 61005 et NF EN 61526.

 

Numéro de revue

Ethical issues in radiological protection. – Annales de l’Association belge de radioprotection, 10-12/2015, 40, 3, 81-118.

 

Rapports

IRSN – Bilan de l’état radiologique de l’environnement français de juin 2011 à décembre 2014. –01/2016, 253 p.

Industrial Injuries Advisory Council – Cataracts and ionising radiation : interventional cardiologists and radiologists. - 17/12/2015, IIAC position paper 36, 25 p.

AIEA – Radiation protection of itinerant workers. Safety reports series no. 84. – 12/2015, 160 p.

AIEA – Manual of good practice in food irradiation. Sanitary, phytosanitary and other applications.Technical reports series no. 481. – 12/2015, 104 p.

IRSN – La stratégie scientifique de l’IRSN. Pour faire progresser la sûreté nucléaire, la sécurité nucléaire et la radioprotection. – 12/2015, 28 p.

ICRU report 88 : Measurement and reporting of radon exposures. - Journal of the ICRU, 12/2012 (publié en 12/2015), 12, 2, 191 p.

 

Autres informations

 

Campagne iode 2016

  • Cette nouvelle campagne vise à la fois à renouveler les comprimés d’iode distribués en 2009 et qui arrivent à péremption en 2016 et à développer la culture de "radioprotection" des riverains des 19 centrales nucléaires françaises. Dans ce cadre, les personnes résidant autour des centrales recevront début février 2016 un courrier les invitant à retirer gratuitement leur(s) boîte(s) de comprimés d’iode stable dans les pharmacies partenaires.
  • Pour en savoir plus, consulter le communiqué de presse de l’ASN du 11/01/2016 et la brochure « 6 réflexes pour bien réagir » sur le site http://www.asn.fr/Informer/Actualites/Nouvelle-campagne-dinformation-et-de-distribution-preventive-de-comprimes-d-iodeainsi que le site http://www.distribution-iode.com/

 

Congrès

ICRP Symposium on radiological protection dosimetry. Historical review and current activities. Tokyo (Japon), 18 février 2016. 

Tritium 2016 11th International conference on tritium science and technology. Charleston (USA), 17-22 avril 2016. 

NRCRM – Health effects of the Chornobyl accident – A thirty years aftermath. International conference. Kiev (Ukraine), 18-19 avril 2016. 

 

Journées

SFEN – Le projet CIGEO. Paris, 2 février 2016. 

SFRP – Tchernobyl, 30 ans après. - Paris, 15 mars 2016. 

SFRP – Radioprotection et formation. - Paris, 14-15 juin 2016. 

SFRP – 10ème Rencontres des personnes compétentes en radioprotection. - Paris, 8-9 novembre2016. 

Vente d’objets radioactifs sur internet CRII-RAD. - Dossier pendentifs – Trait d’union, 12/2015, no. 68, 4-11. 

 

 

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BSE 31 juillet 2015 - no. 205

Documentation en Radioprotection d'EDF - DPI - Division Production Nucléaire

 


31 juillet 2015 - no. 205

 

Projets de publication 

Article

HAMRA GB, RICHARDSON DB, CARDIS E et al. – Cohort profile : The International Nuclear Workers Study (INWORKS). - International journal of epidemiology, online 06/07/2015, 7 p. (pas d’abstract disponible)

Rapport

ICRP – Radiological protection from cosmic radiation in aviation. ICRP ref 4842-6832-5414. – Annals of the ICRP, [online 30 juillet 2015], 36 p.

  • draft disponible sur le site de l’ICRP http://www.icrp.org (contribution possible jusqu’au 30 octobre 2015)

 

Vient de paraître

TANI K, KURIHARA O, KIM E et al. – Implementation of iodine biokinetic model for interpreting I-131 contamination in breast milk after the Fukushima nuclear disaster. - Scientific reports, 

 

EVRARD O, LACEBY JP, LEPAGE H et al. – Radiocesium transfer from hillslopes to the Pacific Ocean after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident : A review. - Journal of environmental radioactivity, 02/07/2015, 148, 92-110.

  • abstract

The devastating tsunami triggered by the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011 inundated the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) resulting in a loss of cooling and a series of explosions releasing the largest quantity of radioactive material into the atmosphere since the Chernobyl nuclear accident. Although 80% of the radionuclides from this accidental release were transported over the Pacific Ocean, 20% were deposited over Japanese coastal catchments that are subject to frequent typhoons. Among the radioisotopes released during the FDNPP accident, radiocesium (134Cs and 137Cs) is considered the most serious current and future health risk for the local population. The goal of this review is to synthesize research relevant to the transfer of FDNPP derived radiocesium from hillslopes to the Pacific Ocean. After radiocesium fallout deposition on vegetation and soils, the contamination may remain stored in forest canopies, in vegetative litter on the ground, or in the soil. Once radiocesium contacts soil, it is quickly and almost irreversibly bound to fine soil particles. The kinetic energy of raindrops instigates the displacement of soil particles, and their bound radiocesium, which may be mobilized and transported with overland flow. Soil erosion is one of the main processes transferring particle-bound radiocesium from hillslopes through rivers and streams, and ultimately to the Pacific Ocean. Accordingly this review will summarize results regarding the fundamental processes and dynamics that govern radiocesium transfer from hillslopes to the Pacific Ocean published in the literature within the first four years after the FDNPP accident. The majority of radiocesium is reported to be transported in the particulate fraction, attached to fine particles. The contribution of the dissolved fraction to radiocesium migration is only relevant in base flows and is hypothesized to decline over time. Owing to the hydro-meteorological context of the Fukushima region, the most significant transfer of particulate-bound radiocesium occurs during major rainfall and runoff events (e.g. typhoons and spring snowmelt). There may be radiocesium storage within catchments in forests, floodplains and even within hillslopes that may be remobilized and contaminate downstream areas, even areas that did not receive fallout or may have been decontaminated. Overall this review demonstrates that characterizing the different mechanisms and factors driving radiocesium transfer is important. In particular, the review determined that quantifying the remaining catchment radiocesium inventory allows for a relative comparison of radiocesium transfer research from hillslope to catchment scales. Further, owing to the variety of mechanisms and factors, a transdisciplinary approach is required involving geomorphologists, hydrologists, soil and forestry scientists, and mathematical modellers to comprehensively quantify radiocesium transfers and dynamics. Characterizing radiocesium transfers from hillslopes to the Pacific Ocean is necessary for ongoing decontamination and management interventions with the objective of reducing the gamma radiation exposure to the local population.

 

DAVIS FG, YU KL, PRESTON D et al. - Solid cancer incidence in the Techa river incidence cohort: 1956-2007. – Radiation research, 07/2015, 184, 1, 56-65

  • abstract

 

 

 

 

Previously reported studies of the Techa River Cohort have established associations between radiation dose and the occurrence of solid cancers and leukemia (non-CLL) that appear to be linear in dose response. These analyses include 17,435 cohort members alive and not known to have had cancer prior to January 1, 1956 who lived in areas near the river or Chelyabinsk City at some time between 1956 and the end of 2007, utilized individualized dose estimates computed using the Techa River Dosimetry System 2009 and included five more years of follow-up. The median and mean dose estimates based on these doses are consistently higher than those based on earlier Techa River Dosimetry System 2000 dose estimates. This article includes new site-specific cancer risk estimates and risk estimates adjusted for available information on smoking. There is a statistically significant (P = 0.02) linear trend in the smoking-adjusted all-solid cancer incidence risks with an excess relative risk (ERR) after exposure to 100 mGy of 0.077 with a 95% confidence interval of 0.013-0.15. Examination of site-specific risks revealed statistically significant radiation dose effects only for cancers of the esophagus and uterus with an ERR per 100 mGy estimates in excess of 0.10. Esophageal cancer risk estimates were modified by ethnicity and sex, but not smoking. While the solid cancer rates are attenuated when esophageal cancer is removed (ERR = 0.063 per 100 mGy), a dose-response relationship is present and it remains likely that radiation exposure has increased the risks for most solid cancers in the cohort despite the lack of power to detect statistically significant risks for specific sites.

 

DUAN P, QUAN C, HU C et al . - Nonlinear dose-response relationship between radon exposure and the risk of lung cancer : evidence from a meta-analysis of published observational studies.– European journal of cancer prevention, 07/2015, 24, 4, 267-277.

  • abstract

 

 

 

 

Although radon exposure (RE) has been confirmed to increase the risk of lung cancer (LC),questions remain about the shape of the dose-response relationship between RE and the risk of LC. We carried out a dose-response meta-analysis to investigate and quantify the potential dose-response association between residential and occupational exposure to radon and the risk of LC. All cohort and case-control studies published in English and Chinese on Embase, PubMed, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) digital databases through November 2013 were identified systematically. We extracted effect measures (relative risk, odds ratio, standardized mortality ratio, standardized incidence ratio, or standardized rate ratio) from individual studies to generate pooled results using meta-analysis approaches. We derived meta-analytic estimates using random-effects models taking into account the correlation between estimates. Restricted cubic splines and generalized least-squares regression methods were used to model a potential curvilinear relationship and to carry out a dose-response meta-analysis. Stratified analysis, sensitivity analysis, and assessment of bias were performed in our meta-analysis. Sixty publications fulfilling the inclusion criteria for this meta-analysis were finally included. Occupational RE was associated with LC [risk ratio 1.86, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.67-2.09; I2=92.2%; 27 prospective studies], for pooled risk estimate of the: standardized mortality ratio [2.00 (95% CI=1.82-2.32)]; standardized incidence ratio [1.45 (95% CI=1.20-1.74)]; relative risk [2.10 (95% CI=1.64-2.69)]. In a subgroup analysis of uranium miners and residents exposed to occupational uranium, the summary risk was 2.23 (95% CI=1.86-2.68) and 1.23 (95% CI=1.05-1.44). The overall metaanalysis showed evidence of a nonlinear association between RE and the risk of LC (P(nonlinearity)<0.014); in addition, the point value of residential radon also improved the results quantitatively, where odds ratios were 1.11 (95% CI=1.07-1.15) and 1.21 (95% CI=1.14-1.29) when the radon concentration was at the point of 100 and 200 Bq/m3 compared with the lowest. For 17 prospective studies with at least three categories of occupational cumulative radon dose, the dose-risk model estimated a risk ratio of 1.26 (95% CI=1.21-1.30) for 100 working level months and 1.51 (95% CI=1.38-1.65) for 200 working level months, respectively. The assessment of risk of bias within individual studies and across studies indicated risk that was unlikely to alter these results markedly. This meta-analysis shows a nonlinear dose-response association between environmental RE and the risk of LC. This increased risk is particularly apparent when the cumulative exposure to radon is well beyond that resulting from exposure to the recommended limit concentration for a prolonged period of time.

 

GARCIA-PEREZ J, LOPEZ-ABENTE G, GOMEZ-BARROSO D et al. - Childhood leukemia and residential proximity to industrial and urban sites. – Environmental research, 07/2015, 140, 542-553.

  • abstract

 

 

 

 

BACKGROUND : Few risk factors for the childhood leukemia are well established. While a small fraction of cases of childhood leukemia might be partially attributable to some diseases or ionizing radiation exposure, the role of industrial and urban pollution also needs to be assessed.

OBJECTIVES : To ascertain the possible effect of residential proximity to both industrial and urban areas on childhood leukemia, taking into account industrial groups and toxic substances released.

METHODS : We conducted a population-based case-control study of childhood leukemia in Spain, covering 638 incident cases gathered from the Spanish Registry of Childhood Tumors and for those Autonomous Regions with 100% coverage (period 1990-2011), and 13,188 controls, individually matched by year of birth, sex, and autonomous region of residence. Distances were computed from the respective subject's residences to the 1068 industries and the 157 urban areas with ≥10,000 inhabitants, located in the study area. Using logistic regression, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for categories of distance to industrial and urban pollution sources were calculated, with adjustment for matching variables.

RESULTS : Excess risk of childhood leukemia was observed for children living near (≤2.5km) industries (OR=1.31; 95%CI=1.03-1.67) - particularly glass and mineral fibers (OR=2.42; 95%CI=1.49-3.92), surface treatment using organic solvents (OR=1.87; 95%CI=1.24-2.83), galvanization (OR=1.86; 95%CI=1.07-3.21), production and processing of metals (OR=1.69; 95%CI=1.22-2.34), and surface treatment of metals (OR=1.62; 95%CI=1.22-2.15) - , and urban areas (OR=1.36; 95%CI=1.02-1.80).

CONCLUSIONS : Our study furnishes some evidence that living in the proximity of industrial and urban sites may be a risk factor for childhood leukemia.

 

HALLEGUEN-CADOT C, TENAILLEAU L, LAROCHE P. et al. – Tritium : bilan des connaissances actuelles. – EMC-Pathologie professionnelle et de l’environnement, 07/2015, 10, 188, 16-515-A-20,6 p.

  • résumé

 

 

 

Cet article fait le point sur l'ensemble des connaissances concernant le tritium, radionucléide réputé comme étant faiblement radiotoxique et qui n'aurait pas tendance à s'accumuler dans les composés environnementaux et les organismes. En réalité, si la problématique du tritium sous sa forme libre est relativement bien documentée, elle demeure toutefois à l'origine de nombreuses discussions. De plus, sa forme liée aux molécules organiques (TOL) suscite encore plus d'interrogations sur le plan scientifique. La technique de mesure du tritium dans l'eau la plus couramment utilisée et la seule normalisée est la scintillation liquide qui présente l'avantage d'être rapide et peu coûteuse, mais la qualité des techniques de mesure ne suffit pas à garantir la pertinence des résultats obtenus car tout va dépendre de la qualité du prélèvement, de sa préservation et de la qualité de son traitement. L'importance du tritium sur le plan médiatique est indubitable car le tritium est le seul radionucléide dont les rejets vontaugmenter dans l'avenir du fait de l'évolution des techniques de production d'électricité et de retraitement des combustibles.

 

MARUI A, GALLARDO AH - Managing groundwater radioactive contamination at the Daiichi Nuclear Plant. – International journal of environmental research and public health, 07/2015, 12, 7, 

 

NAKASHIMA E - Radiation dose response estimation with emphasis on low dose range using restricted cubic splines : application to all solid cancer mortality data, 1950-2003, in atomic bomb survivors. – Health physics, 07/2015, 109, 1, 15-24.

  • abstract

Using the all solid cancer mortality data set of the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort from 1950 to 2003 (LSS Report 14) data among atomic bomb survivors, excess relative risk (ERR) statistical analyses were performed using the second degree polynomial and the threshold and restricted cubic spline (RCS) dose response models. For the RCS models with 3 to 7 knots of equally spaced percentiles with margins in the dose range greater than 50 mGy, the dose response was assumed to be linear at less than 70 to 90 mGy. Due to the skewed dose distribution of atomic bomb survivors, the current knot system for the RCS analysis results in a detailed depiction of the dose response as less than approximately 0.5 Gy. The 6 knot RCS models for the all-solid cancer mortality dose response of the whole dose or less than 2 Gy were selected with the AIC model selection criterion and fit significantly better (p < 0.05) than the linear (L) model. The usual RCS includes the L-global model but not the quadratic (Q) nor linear-quadratic (LQ) global models. The authors extended the RCS to include L or LQ global models by putting L or LQ constraints on the cubic spline in the lower and upper tails, and the best RCS model selected with AIC criterion was the usual RCS with Lconstraints in both the lower and upper tails. The selected RCS had a linear dose-response model in the lower dose range (i.e., < 0.2-0.3 Gy) and was compatible with the linear nothreshold (LNT) model in this dose range. The proposed method is also useful in describing the dose response of a specific cancer or non-cancer disease incidence/mortality.

 

SAHOO SK, ZUNIC ZC, KRITSANANUWAT R et al. – Distribution of uranium, thorium and some stable trace and toxic elements in human hair and nails in Niška Banja Town, a high natural background radiation area of Serbia (Balkan Region, South-East Europe). – Journal of environmental radioactivity, 07/2015, 145, 66-77.

  • abstract

Human hair and nails can be considered as bio-indicators of the public exposure to certain natural radionuclides and other toxic metals over a long period of months or even years. The level of elements in hair and nails usually reflect their levels in other tissues of body. Niška Banja, a spa town located in southern Serbia, with locally high natural background radiation was selected for the study. To assess public exposure to the trace elements, hair and nail samples were collected and analyzed. The concentrations of uranium, thorium and some trace and toxic elements (Mn, Ni, Cu, Sr, Cd, and Cs) were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). U and Th concentrations in hair varied from 0.0002 to 0.0771 μg/g and from 0.0002 to 0.0276 μg/g, respectively. The concentrations in nails varied from 0.0025 to 0.0447 μg/g and from 0.0023 to 0.0564 μg/g for U and Th, respectively. We found significant correlations between some elements in hair and nails. Also indications of spatial clustering of high values could be found. However, this phenomenon as well as the large variations in concentrations of heavy metals in hair and nail could not be explained. As hypotheses, we propose possible exposure pathways which may explain the findings, but the current data does not allow testing them.

 

ZIMMERMANN MB, GALETTI V – Iodine intake as a risk factor for thyroid cancer : a comprehensive review of animal and human studies. - Thyroid research, 18/06/2015, 8, 8, 21 p.

 

DAVIES L, MORRIS LG, HAYMART M et al. - American association of clinical endocrinologists and American college of endocrinology disease state clinical review : the increasing incidence of thyroid cancer. – Endocrine practice, 06/2015, 21, 6, 686-696.

 

GLUZMAN DF, SKLYARENKO LM, ZAVELEVICH MP et al. – Overview on association of different types of leukemias with radiation exposure. - Experimental oncology, 06/2015, 37, 2, 89-93.

 

PEREZ AF, DEVIC C, COLIN C et al. - Les faibles doses de radiations : vers une nouvelle lecture de l’évaluation du risque ? - Bulletin du cancer, 06/2015, 102, 6, 527-538.

  • résumé

D’après les données d’Hiroshima, le risque de cancer provoqué par les radiations ionisantes est significatif à partir de 100 mSv pour une population considérée comme radiorésistante et uniforme. Toutefois, les données radiobiologiques apportent aujourd’hui des éléments nouveaux qui mettent en lumière des aspects qui n’avaient pas été jusque là pris en compte dans la définition des doses seuils : le facteur individuel, l’effet de l’étalement ou de répétition de dose. La détermination objective du risque pour des doses inférieures à 100 mSv est avant tout conditionnée par un niveau élevé de détectabilité et de significativité statistique. Pourtant, il apparaît que toute la rigueur méthodologique n’est pas systématiquement appliquée dans les publications scientifiques. De plus, une mauvaise communication des données entraîne souvent des effets d’annonce dans les médias qui n’améliorent pas la lisibilité de la problématique. Cette publication a pour objet d’appréhender la complexité des phénomènes spécifiques aux faibles doses dans leur globalité, en confrontant les données biologiques récentes aux données épidémiologiques.

 

YOUNGMAN MJ – Review of methods to measure internal contamination in an emergency. -Journal of radiological protection, 06/2015, 35, 2, R1-R15.

 

Compte-rendu de congrès

Radiation protection in medicine. International Conference. Varna (Bulgarie), 30 mai -2 juin 2014. –Radiation protection dosimetry, 2015, 165, 1-4, 1-525.

 

Fiches

INRS - Radiographie industrielle gamma sur chantier avec appareil portatif. Recommandations aux opérateurs. Fiche gammagraphie. – 06/2015, ED 4243, 4 p.

 

INRS - Radiographie industrielle gamma sur chantier avec appareil portatif. Recommandations aux entreprises intervenantes (prestataires). Fiche gammagraphie. – 06/2015, ED 4244, 4 p.

 

INRS - Radiographie industrielle gamma sur chantier avec appareil portatif. Recommandations aux entreprises utilisatrices. Fiche gammagraphie. – 06/2015, ED 4245, 4 p.

 

Guides

ASN – Guide de l'ASN no. 6. Mise à l'arrêt définitif, démantèlement et déclassement des installations nucléaires en France. - 16/07/2015, 28 p.

 

ASN - Guide de l'ASN no. 11. Evénements significatifs dans le domaine de la radioprotection (hors installations nucléaires de base et transports de matières radioactives) : déclaration et codification des critères. – 07/2015, 20 p.

 

Numéro de revue

Suivi à long terme des adultes ayant été traités dans l'enfance pour un cancer. - Bulletin du cancer, 07-08/2015, 102, 7-8, 577-706. (sommaire en PJ9)

 

Ouvrage

ZONABEND F – La presqu’ile au nucléaire : Three Mile Island, Tchernobyl, Fukushima... et après ? – Ed. Odile Jacob, 05/2014, 240 p.

 

Rapports

IRSN – La radioprotection des travalleurs. Exposition professionnelle aux rayonnements ionisants en France : bilan 2014. – 07/2015, PRP-HOM/2015-0004, 118 p.

 

SCHNEIDER M, FROGGATT A – The world nuclear industry status report 2015. – Mycle Schneider Consulting project, 07/2015, 202 p.

 

CNE2 – Rapport d’évaluation no. 9 des recherches et études relatives à la gestion des matières et des déchets radioactifs. - Commission nationale d’évaluation, 06/2015, 126 p.

 

INCA – Rapport d’activité 2014. – 06/2015, 88 p.

 

ANDRA – Inventaire national des matières et déchets radioactifs. Edition 2015. – 06/2015, nb p.

 

ICRP – Publication 128 : Radiological dose to patients from radiopharmaceuticals. A compendium of current information related to frequently used substances. – Annals of the ICRP, 2015, 44, 2S, 321 p.

  • contents et abstract

This report provides a compendium of current information relating toradiation dose to patients, including biokinetic models, biokinetic data, dose coefficients for organ and tissue absorbed doses, and effective dose for major radiopharmaceuticals based on the radiation protection guidance given in Publication 60(ICRP, 1991). These data were mainly compiled from Publications 53, 80, and 106(ICRP, 1987, 1998, 2008), and related amendments and corrections. This report alsoincludes new information for 82Rb-chloride, iodide (123I, 124I, 125I, and 131I) and 123I-labelled 2ß-carbomethoxy 3ß-(4-iodophenyl)-N-(3-fluoropropyl) nortropane (FP-CIT). The coefficients tabulated in this publication will be superseded in duecourse by values calculated using new International Commission on RadiationUnits and Measurements/International Commission on Radiological Protectionadult and paediatric reference phantoms and Publication 103 methodology (ICRP,2007). The data presented in this report are intended for diagnostic nuclear medicineand not for therapeutic applications.

 

ICRP – Publication 129 : Radiological protection in cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). –Annals of the ICRP, 2015, 44, 1, 127 p.

  • contents et abstract

The objective of this publication is to provide guidance on radiologicalprotection in the new technology of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT).Publications 87 and 102 dealt with patient dose management in computed tomography (CT) and multi-detector CT. The new applications of CBCT and the associated radiological protection issues are substantially different from those ofconventional CT. The perception that CBCT involves lower doses was only true ininitial applications. CBCT is now used widely by specialists who have little or notraining in radiological protection. This publication provides recommendations onradiation dose management directed at different stakeholders, and covers principlesof radiological protection, training, and quality assurance aspects. Advice on appropriate use of CBCT needs to be made widely available. Advice on optimisation of protection when using CBCT equipment needs to be strengthened, particularly withrespect to the use of newer features of the equipment. Manufacturers should standardise radiation dose displays on CBCT equipment to assist users in optimisation of protection and comparisons of performance. Additional challenges to radiological protection are introduced when CBCT-capable equipment is used for both fluoroscopy and tomography during the same procedure. Standardised methods need to be established for tracking and reporting of patient radiation doses from these procedures. The recommendations provided in this publication may evolve in the future as CBCT equipment and applications evolve. As with previous ICRP publications, the Commission hopes that imaging professionals, medical physicists, and manufacturers will use the guidelines and recommendations provided in this publication for implementation of the Commission’s principle of optimisation of protection of patients and medical workers, with the objective of keeping exposures as low as reasonably achievable, taking into account economic and societal factors, and consistent with achieving the necessary medical outcomes.

 


Autres informations

 

Communiqué

CRIIRAD - France / impact de Tchernobyl 29 ans après. Dans les Alpes, certains sols sont toujours des « déchets radioactifs ». – 30/07/2015, 7 p. 

 

Congrès

ICRP - International workshop on the Fukushima dialogue initiative. Rehabilitation of living conditions after the nuclear accident. Fukushima (Japon), 12-13 décembre 2015.

 

Journées

SFRP - Evolutions en matière de suivi des rejets et de surveillance de la radioactivité dans l’environnement. Paris, 5-6 novembre 2015. Journées techniques

 

Table ronde

SFRP - L'application de l'arrêté "certification" pour les entreprises intervenant au sein d’installations nucléaires de base. Paris, 28 septembre 2015. Table ronde

 

 

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BSE 29 février 2016 - no. 212

Bibliographie Sélective Express

Documentation en Radioprotection d'EDF - DPI - Division Production Nucléaire


Vient de paraître

Articles

BERRINGTON DE GONZALEZ A, SALOTTI JA, MCHUGH K et al. – Relationship between paediatric CT scans and subsequent risk of leukaemia and brain tumours : assessment of the impact of underlying conditions. - British journal of cancer, 16/02/2016, 114, 4, 388-394.

  • abstract

BACKGROUND: We previously reported evidence of a dose-response relationship between ionising-radiation exposure from paediatric computed tomography (CT) scans and the risk of leukaemia and brain tumours in a large UK cohort. Underlying unreported conditions could have introduced bias into these findings.

METHODS: We collected and reviewed additional clinical information from radiology information systems (RIS) databases, underlying cause of death and pathology reports. We conducted sensitivity analyses excluding participants with cancer-predisposing conditions or previous unreported cancers and compared the dose-response analyses with our original results.

RESULTS: We obtained information from the RIS and death certificates for about 40% of the cohort (n∼180 000) and found cancer-predisposing conditions in 4 out of 74 leukaemia/myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) cases and 13 out of 135 brain tumour cases. As these conditions were unrelated to CT exposure, exclusion of these participants did not alter the dose-response relationships. We found evidence of previous unreported cancers in 2 leukaemia/MDS cases, 7 brain tumour cases and 232 in non-cases. These previous cancers were related to increased number of CTs. Exclusion of these cancers reduced the excess relative risk per mGy by 15% from 0.036 to 0.033 for leukaemia/MDS (P-trend=0.02) and by 30% from 0.023 to 0.016 (P-trend<0.0001) for brain tumours. When we included pathology reports we had additional clinical information for 90% of the cases. Additional exclusions

from these reports further reduced the risk estimates, but this sensitivity analysis may have underestimated risks as reports were only available for cases.

CONCLUSIONS: Although there was evidence of some bias in our original risk estimates, re-analysis of the cohort with additional clinical data still showed an increased cancer risk after low-dose radiation exposure from CT scans in young patients.

SCHREURS AS, SHIRAZI-FARD Y, SHAHNAZARI M et al. – Dried plum diet protects from bone loss caused by ionizing radiation. - Scientific reports, 11/02/2016, 6, 21343, 11 p.

BAYSSON H, JOURNY N, ROUE T et al. – Exposition à la scanographie dans l’enfance et risque de cancer à long terme. Une synthèse des études épidémiologiques récentes. - Bulletin du cancer, 02/2016, 103, 2, 190-198.

  • abstract

Parmi les examens utilisant les rayonnements ionisants à des fins diagnostiques, la scanographie est de plus en plus utilisée, y compris chez les enfants. Cependant, la dose de rayonnements ionisants délivrée au cours des examens scanners est nettement plus élevée que celle délivrée en radiologie conventionnelle. Par ailleurs, les enfants sont considérés comme une population à risque pour la survenue de pathologies radio-induites. Avec une radiosensibilité plus importante que celle des adultes, et une espérance de vie plus longue, ils ont plus de risque de développer un cancer à long terme. Cinq études épidémiologiques sur le risque de cancer radio-induit après exposition au scanner dans l’enfance ont été publiées entre 2012 et 2015. Ces différentes études sont en faveur d’une augmentation du risque radio-induit pour les enfants exposés à plusieurs scanners. Cependant des biais méthodologiques liés à la prise en compte de l’indication des examens, à l’évaluation rétrospective des doses reçues et/ou à un manque de puissance statistique limitent la portée des résultats obtenus. L’existence de projets internationaux, tels que le projet européen EPI-CT (Epidemiological study to quantify risks for paediatric computerized tomography and to optimize dose), permettra d’apporter des éléments de réponse plus précis en portant une attention particulière à la reconstruction dosimétrique et à la prise en compte de biais potentiels. Les résultats d’ores et déjà obtenus confortent l’importance de la justification des actes et la nécessité de poursuivre l’optimisation des doses délivrées.

DAUER LT, AINSBURY EA, DYNLACHT J et al. – Status of NCRP scientific committee 1-23 commentary on guidance on radiation dose limits for the lens of the eye. - Health physics, 02/2016, 110, 2, 182-184.

  • abstract

Previous National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) publications have addressed the issues of risk and dose limitation in radiation protection and included guidance on specific organs and the lens of the eye. NCRP decided to prepare an updated commentary intended to enhance the previous recommendations provided in earlier reports. The NCRP Scientific Committee 1-23 (SC 1-23) is charged with preparing a commentary that will evaluate recent studies on the radiation dose response for the development of cataracts and also consider the type and severity of the cataracts as well as the dose rate; provide guidance on whether existing dose limits to the lens of the eye should be changed in the United States; and suggest research needs regarding radiation effects on and dose limits to the lens of the eye. A status of the ongoing work of SC 1-23 was presented at the Annual Meeting, "Changing Regulations and Radiation Guidance: What Does the Future Hold?" The following represents a synopsis of a few main points in the current draft commentary. It is likely that several changes will be forthcoming as SC 1-23 responds to subject matter expert review and develops a final document, expected by mid 2016.

KIM J, BANG Y, LEE WJ – Living near nuclear power plants and thyroid cancer risk : A systematic review and meta-analysis. - Environmental international, 02/2016, 87, 42-48.

  • abstract

There has been public concern regarding the safety of residing near nuclear power plants, and the extent of risk for thyroid cancer among adults living near nuclear power plants has not been fully explored. In the present study, a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies was conducted to investigate the association between living near nuclear power plants and the risk of thyroid cancer. A comprehensive literature search was performed on studies published up to March 2015 on the association between nuclear power plants and thyroid cancer risk. The summary standardized incidence ratio (SIR), standardized mortality ratio (SMR), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random-effect model of meta-analysis. Sensitivity analyses were performed by study quality. Thirteen studies were included in the meta-analysis, covering 36 nuclear power stations in 10 countries. Overall, summary estimates showed no significant increased thyroid cancer incidence or mortality among residents living near nuclear power plants (summary SIR=0.98; 95% CI 0.87-1.11, summary SMR=0.80; 95% CI 0.62-1.04). The pooled estimates did not reveal different patterns of risk by gender, exposure definition, or reference population. However, sensitivity analysis by exposure definition showed that living less than 20km from nuclear power plants was associated with a significant increase in the risk of thyroid cancer in well-designed studies (summary OR=1.75; 95% CI 1.17-2.64). Our study does not support an association between living near nuclear power plants and risk of thyroid cancer but does support a need for well-designed future studies.

TENG CJ, HU YW, CHEN SC et al. – Use of radioactive iodine for thyroid cancer and risk of second primary malignancy : a nationwide population-based study. - Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 02/2016, 108, 2, 8 p.

  • abstract

BACKGROUND: Radioactive iodine (RAI) is widely used for the treatment of thyroid cancers. However, information on associations between RAI dose and second primary malignancy (SPM) is lacking.

METHODS: Patients without antecedent cancer age 20 years or older and newly diagnosed with thyroid cancer were recruited from the Taiwan National Health Insurance database between 1997 and 2010. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for the cancers were calculated to compare the incidence of thyroid cancer with the general population. The association between RAI dosage and cancer development was estimated using time-dependent Cox regression analysis. All statistical tests were two-sided.

RESULTS: A total of 692 cases of SPM were identified among 20 235 patients with thyroid cancer. Regarding the latter, 79.7% of the patients were women, the median age was 46 years, and the follow-up period included 134 178 person-years. The SIR for any SPM was 1.41 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.31 to 1.52). A statistically significantly higher SIR was observed in leukemia (2.74), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (2.38), prostate (2.30), lung and mediastinum (1.93), pancreas (1.83), kidney (1.81), breast (1.48), and colon-rectum (1.31) cancers. Cumulative RAI dose (per 30 mCi increase) conferred a strong risk for SPM (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 1.01, 95% CI = 1.01 to 1.02, P < .001) and leukemia (aHR =1.03, 95% CI = 1.02 to 1.04, P < .001) occurrences. A cumulative RAI dose greater than 150 mCi possessed a statistically significant risk for all cancer combined (aHR = 1.30) and leukemia (aHR = 6.03).

CONCLUSIONS: An increased risk of SPM was observed for thyroid cancer patients, especially with cumulative RAI doses over 150 mCi.

BELHARET M, ESTOURNEL C, CHARMASSON S - Ecosystem model-based approach for modeling the dynamics of 137Cs transfer to marine plankton populations : application to the western North Pacific Ocean after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident. – Biogeosciences, 25/01/2016, 13, 499-516.

CHEVALLIER MA, RANNOU A, VILLAGRASA C et al. – Risk of eye lens radiation exposure for members of the public. - Radiation protection dosimetry, 2016, 168, 1, 11-18.

  • abstract

In 2011, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) reviewed its recommendation concerning the equivalent dose limit for the eye lens, lowering it to 20 mSv in a year, for occupational exposure in planned exposure situations. The ICRP's statement does not contain any explicit recommendations regarding the organ dose limit for the eye lens for public exposure. For the moment, no change is proposed. But, to be coherent in the overall approach, the current equivalent limit for the public might be lowered. A similar yardstick than in the former recommendation may be used, that is to say a reduction of 10 times lower than that for occupational exposure. In this context, additional data on potential scenarios for public exposure of the eye lens are necessary. This paper, mainly based on a literature study, aims to provide, as far as possible, an exhaustive list of the situations in which members of the public can be exposed at the level of the eye lens. Once these situations have been defined, some calculations, made to assess the associated doses to the eye lens, are presented. This literature study did not reveal any current situations where members of the public would receive significant radiation doses to the eye lens. Indeed, the situations in which the dose to the eye lens might reach around 1 mSv per year for the public are extremely rare.

KHVOSTUNOV IK, SNIGIRYOVA GP, MOISEENKO VV et al. - A follow-up cytogenetic study of workers highly exposed inside the Chernobyl sarcophagus. – Radiation protection dosimetry, 2015, 167, 4, 405-418.

  • abstract

Data are presented on some of the engineers and scientists who regularly entered highly radioactive areas of the sarcophagus chamber constructed around the ruins of the Chernobyl reactor. Previous investigations on six of them by unstable chromosomal aberrations, quartz fibre electrometers and, in some cases, tooth electron spin resonance have all indicated high doses accumulated over several years of work inside the sarcophagus. Here, the authors present the data on eleven of the men who agreed to be monitored cytogenetically although two have since died aged 45 and 66 y. The present data were combined with the previous to examine the time-courses of these individuals' changes in their aberration frequencies. As expected, dicentric aberrations showed a clear drop down to 2-3 per 100 cells since the men ceased working inside the sarcophagus. In contrast, the translocation yields remained at a high level showing no tendency to decrease and so proved reliable for retrospective biodosimetry. These data are particularly useful in demonstrating the value of FISH long after high but protracted and fractionated exposure.

 

Comptes-rendus de congrès

ICRP 2015. 3rd International symposium on the system of radiological protection. Séoul (Corée du Sud), 20-22 octobre 2015. – nb p.

Commission Européenne – Fukushima : Lessons learned and issues. Radiation protection no. 183. EU Scientific seminar 2014. Luxembourg, 18 novembre 2014. – European Union, 2016, 84 p.

1st critical workshop on the effect of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident on the ecosystem and on humans. Kyoto (Japon), 10-11 août 2014. – Journal of radiation research, 2015, 56, S1, i1-i63.

 

Dossiers

IRSN – Radon : mobiliser la société civile. – Repères, 02/2016, no. 28, 10-16.

PROSITON – Hiroshima-Nagasaki, 70 ans après. Vol. 1. – Prosinfo, 12/2015, no. 20, 2-13.

 

Fiches

IRSN – Contamination oculaire, comment réagir ? – Repères, 02/2016, no. 28, 17-19.

SFRP – Cristallin : limites réglementaires, mesure, dosimétrie et suivi médical (Fiches techniques). – 01/2016, 8 p.

 

Normes

AFNOR – Symbole de base pour les rayonnements ionisants. – 06/02/2016, NF EN ISO 361, 9 p.

  • résumé

Le présent document spécifie le symbole à utiliser pour indiquer la présence réelle ou possible de rayonnements ionisants et pour identifier les objets, dispositifs, matières ou mélanges de matières émettant un rayonnement ionisant.

Dans le cadre du présent document, on entend par rayonnements ionisants les rayonnements X et gamma, les particules alpha et beta, les électrons à grande vitesse, les neutrons, les protons et les autres particules nucléaires ; par contre, sont exclues les ondes sonores ou radio, ou la lumière visible, infrarouge ou ultraviolette.

Le présent document ne spécifie pas les niveaux de rayonnement à partir desquels le symbole doit être utilisé.

AFNOR – Radioprotection. Procédures pour la surveillance des doses au cristallin, à la peau et aux extrémités. – 06/02/2016, NF EN ISO 15382, 36 p.

  • résumé 

Le présent document fournit des procédures de surveillance des doses à la peau, aux extrémités et au cristallin. Il fournit des recommandations pour déterminer si des dosimètres sont nécessaires et s'assurer que la surveillance individuelle est adaptée à la nature de l'exposition, en prenant en compte les aspects pratiques. Lorsque des réglementations nationales existent, elles stipulent des exigences qui doivent également être respectées.

Le présent document spécifie des procédures de surveillance individuelle de l'exposition aux rayonnements de la peau, des extrémités (mains, doigts, poignets, avant-bras, pieds et chevilles) et du cristallin dans les situations d'exposition planifiées. Il concerne les pratiques impliquant un risque d'exposition à des photons dont l'énergie est comprise entre 8 keV et 10 MeV et à des électrons et positrons dont l'énergie est comprise entre 60 keV et 10 MeV.

Le présent document fournit des lignes directrices pour la conception d'un programme de surveillance permettant de s'assurer du respect des limites légales de dose individuelle. Il se rapporte aux grandeurs dosimétriques opérationnelles appropriées et fournit des recommandations sur le type et la fréquence de surveillance individuelle ainsi que sur le type et l'emplacement du dosimètre. Il décrit enfin différentes méthodes permettant d'évaluer et d'analyser les doses à la peau, aux extrémités et au cristallin.

L'exposition due à des champs de rayonnements alpha ou neutroniques ne relève pas du domaine d'application du présent document.

 

Ouvrage

HUTIN JP – La maintenance des centrales nucléaires. – Lavoisier Tec & Doc, 01/2016, 896 p.

 

Rapports

AEN – Five years after the Fukushima Daiichi accident. Nuclear safety improvements and lessons learnt. – OCDE, 02/2016, NEA no. 7284, 80 p.

IRSN – Déchets radioactifs de très faible activité : la doctrine doit-elle évoluer ? – 02/2016, IRSN/DG/2016-00002, 19 p.

Cour des comptes – Rapport public annuel 2016. Tome 1. Chapitre II. La maintenance des centrales nucléaires : une politique remise à niveau, des incertitudes à lever. – 02/2016, 111-143.

GULSON AD, HOLROYD JR – Guidance on the safe use of hand-held dental X-ray equipment. – Public Health England, 02/2016, PHE-CRCE-023, 37 p.

ANDRA – Note de positionnement sur la réversibilité. – 01/2016, 32 p.

AIEA – Identification des zones vitales des installations nucléaires (Coll. Sécurité nucléaire no. 16). – 12/2015, 56 p.

 

Réglementation

Ministère de l’écologie… - Ordonnance no. 2016-128 du 10 février 2016 portant diverses dispositions en matière nucléaire. – JORF, 11/02/2016, no. 35, texte 8, 28 p.

Ministère de l’écologie… - Rapport au Président de la République relatif à l’ordonnance no. 2016-128 du 10 février 2016 portant diverses dispositions en matière nucléaire. – JORF, 11/02/2016, no. 35, texte 7, 8 p.

 

Résumé de congrès

ICRP Symposium on radiological protection dosimetry. Historical review and current activities. Tokyo (Japon), 18/02/2016. – 02/2016, 14 p.

 

Autres informations

Congrès

2016 ISOE International Symposium on occupational exposure management at nuclear facilities. Bruxelles (Belgique), 1-3 juin 2016.

 

 

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BSE 25 juin 2015 - no. 204

Documentation en Radioprotection d'EDF - DPI - Division Production Nucléaire

 


25 juin 2015 - no. 204

 

Projets de publication

Articles

LEURAUD K, RICHARDSON DB, CARDIS E et al. – Ionising radiation and risk of death from leukaemia and lymphoma in radiation-monitored workers (INWORKS) : an international cohort study. - Lancet haematology, online 22/06/2015, 6 p.

BLETTNER M – The merits and limits of pooling data from nuclear power worker studies. - Lancet haematology, online 22/06/2015, 2 p.

 

Vient de paraître

Articles

ORITA M, HAYASHIDA N, NAKAYAMA Y et al. - Bipolarization of risk perception about the health effects of radiation in residents after the accident at Fukushima nuclear power plant. – Plos One, 09/06/2015, 10, 6, e0129227, 9 p.

TSUBOKURA M, KATO S, MORITA T et al. - Assessment of the annual additional effective doses amongst minamisoma children during the second year after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant disaster. – Plos One, 08/06/2015, 10, 6, e0129114, 10 p.

BROWN AR, BOOTHMAN C, PIMBLOTT SM et al. - The impact of gamma radiation on sediment microbial processes. – Applied and environmental microbiology, 06/2015, 81, 12, 4014-4025.

FENG L, HE L, WANG Y et al. - Eight-year follow-up study of three individuals accidentally exposed to (60)Co radiation : Chromosome aberration and micronucleus analysis. – Mutation research-Genetic toxicology and environmental mutagenesis, 06/2015, 784-785, 10-14.

  • abstract

We assessed dose levels and the persistence of chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei in three individuals in the 8 year following accidental (60)Co radiation exposure. Venous blood samples were collected and used for analyses: traditional chromosome aberration (CA) measurement, G-banding, and the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay. For CA analysis, we scored dicentric chromosomes (dic) and rings (r) in peripheral blood lymphocytes. The radiation doses (Gy) suffered by the individuals were estimated as: 1.79-2.43 (A), 2.36-2.86 (B), 1.58-1.82 (C), based on CA analysis; and 1.8-2.34 (A), 2.52-2.98 (B), 1.53-1.77 (C), based on CBMN frequencies. G-banding analysis was used to record translocations (t), inversions (inv), and deletions (del). Following the accident, unstable CAs reduced gradually, but stable aberrations persisted. Unstable CAs and CBMN may be valuable biomarkers for dose estimation shortly after high-dose radiation accidents, while stable aberrations may be more useful for assessing long-term effects.

FRIDMAN M, LAM AKY, KRASKO O et al. - Morphological and clinical presentation of papillary thyroid carcinoma in children and adolescents of Belarus : The influence of radiation exposure and the source of irradiation. – Experimental and molecular biology, 06/2015, 98, 3, 527-531.

  • abstract

OBJECTIVE :The aims were to analyse the features of papillary thyroid carcinoma in a large cohort of children and adolescents in Belarus and to study the influence of radiation exposure as well as the source of irradiation on the morphological and clinical presentations of tumours.

DESIGN AND PATIENTS : The clinical and pathological features of 1086 young patients (age range=4 to 18 inclusive, followed up for ≥18years) with papillary thyroid carcinoma diagnosed during the years 1990 to 2010 were reviewed. The patients were divided into three groups: "external radiation-related", "post-Chernobyl" (internal irradiation-related) and "sporadic". Besides, patients from "post-Chernobyl" cohort (n=936) were further divided into the three equal subgroups according to the dates of surgery, which were corresponding to the early (4-9years), intermediate (10-12years) and long (14-18years) latency periods.

RESULTS : Patients in the "external radiation-related" group often showed extra-thyroidal extension in tumours sized ≤10mm (p=0.002). Distant metastases were more frequently (p=0.006) discovered in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma in post-Chernobyl group (104 of 936, 11.1%) when compared to juveniles from other two groups. Lateral nodal disease and distant metastases were often noted in post-Chernobyl patients operated during the early and intermediate latency periods only.

HATCH M, OSTROUMOVA E, BRENNER A et al. – Non-thyroid cancer in Northern Ukraine in the post-Chernobyl period : Short report. – Cancer epidemiology, 06/2015, 39, 3, 279-283.

  • abstract

The Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in Ukraine in 1986 led to widespread radioactive releases into the environment - primarily of radioiodines and cesium - heavily affecting the northern portions of the country, with settlement-averaged thyroid doses estimated to range from 10mGy to more than 10Gy. The increased risk of thyroid cancer among exposed children and adolescents is well established but the impact of radioactive contamination on the risk of other types of cancer is much less certain. To provide data on a public health issue of major importance, we have analyzed the incidence of non-thyroid cancers during the post-Chernobyl period in a well-defined cohort of 13,203 individuals who were <18 years of age at the time of the accident. The report is based on standardized incidence ratio (SIR) analysis of 43 non-thyroid cancers identified through linkage with the National Cancer Registry of Ukraine for the period 1998 through 2009. We compared the observed and expected number of cases in three cancer groupings: all solid cancers excluding thyroid, leukemia, and lymphoma. Our analyses found no evidence of a statistically significant elevation in cancer risks in this cohort exposed at radiosensitive ages, although the cancer trends, particularly for leukemia (SIR=1.92, 95% confidence interval: 0.69; 4.13), should continue to be monitored.

ROUE T, BAYSSON H, CAER-LORHO S et al. - Croisement des données d’incidence de cancer issues d’un service de santé au travail avec celles issues de registres de cancers. - Archives des maladies professionnelles et de l'environnement, 06/2015, 76, 3, 231-236.

  • résumé

Introduction : Le laboratoire d’épidémiologie de l’institut de radioprotection et de sûreté nucléaire (IRSN) en collaboration avec le groupe Areva conduit une étude de morbidité sur l’ensemble des travailleurs actifs du site Areva de La Hague. Les données de cette étude sont issues du système Chimed d’enregistrement des maladies mis en place par le service de santé au travail (SST) d’Areva. Dans ce contexte, une validation externe des données médicales du SST d’Areva a été réalisée grâce aux données du registre des cancers du département de la Manche et à celles du registre spécialisé des hémopathies malignes de la Basse-Normandie.

Matériels et méthodes : Un cas incident est un travailleur pour lequel une pathologie cancéreuse a été enregistrée par un médecin du travail dans la base de données Chimed entre le 01/01/1999 et le 31/12/2009. Le croisement entre la base de données Chimed et la base de données des registres des cancers permet de calculer la sensibilité (capacité à identifier les vrais positifs) et la valeur prédictive positive (probabilité qu’un travailleur classé comme malade ait vraiment la maladie).

Résultats : Les données ont été analysées pour 5211 travailleurs actifs. Après le croisement des deux bases de données, 30 cas de cancer sont présents simultanément dans les deux bases, 23 cas sont retrouvés uniquement dans la base de données des registres, 4 cas ont été enregistrés uniquement dans Chimed. En prenant comme référence les registres des cancers, la sensibilité du système Chimed est de 57 %. La valeur prédictive positive est de 89 %.

Discussion et conclusion : Étant donné sa faible sensibilité, il n’est pas recommandé d’utiliser la base de données Chimed comme seule source d’information pour la surveillance des cancers chez les travailleurs actifs d’Areva. La surveillance des cancers nécessite que des procédures standardisées et systématiques de codage et d’enregistrement des pathologies tumorales soient mises en place dans les SST.

SCHUBAUER-BERIGAN MK, DANIELS RD, BERTKE SJ et al. - Cancer mortality through 2005 among a pooled cohort of U.S. nuclear workers exposed to external ionizing radiation. – Radiation research, 06/2015, 183, 6, 620-631.

  • abstract

Nuclear workers worldwide have been studied for decades to estimate associations between their exposure to ionizing radiation and cancer. The low-level exposure of these workers requires pooling of large cohorts studied over many years to obtain risk estimates with appropriate latency and good precision. We assembled a pooled cohort of 119,195 U.S. nuclear workers at four Department of Energy nuclear weapons facilities (Hanford site, Idaho National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Savannah River site) and at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard. The cohort was followed at the start of the workers beginning their radiation work (at earliest, between 1944 and 1952) through 2005, and we compared its mortality to that of the U.S. population. We also conducted regression-modeling analysis to evaluate dose-response associations for external radiation exposure and outcomes: all cancers, smoking- and nonsmoking-related cancers, all lymphatic and hematopoietic cancers, leukemia (excluding chronic lymphocytic), multiple myeloma, cardiovascular disease and others. The mean dose observed among the cohort was 20 mSv. For most outcomes, mortality was below expectation compared to the general population, but mesothelioma and pleura cancers were highly elevated. We found an excess relative risk (ERR) per 10 mSv of 0.14% [95% confidence interval (CI): -0.17%, 0.48%] for all cancers excluding leukemia. Estimates were higher for nonsmoking-related cancers (0.70%, 95% CI: 0.058%, 1.5%) and lower for smoking-related cancers (-0.079%, 95% CI: -0.43%, 0.32%). The ERR per 10 mSv was 1.7% (95% CI: -0.22%, 4.7%) for leukemia, which was similar to the estimate of 1.8% (95% CI: 0.027%, 4.4%) for all lymphatic and hematopoietic cancers. The ERR per 10 mSv for multiple myeloma was 3.9% (95% CI: 0.60%, 9.5%). The ERR per 10 mSv for cardiovascular disease was 0.026% (-0.25%, 0.32%). Little evidence of heterogeneity was seen by facility, birth cohort or sex for most outcomes. The estimates observed here are similar to those found in previous large pooled nuclear worker studies and also (with the exception of multiple myeloma) to those conducted in the Life Span Study of Japanese atomic bomb survivors. The tendency of observed risks to persist many years after exposure for most outcomes illustrates the importance of continued follow-up of nuclear worker cohorts.

 

Nucléaire & Santé Actualités

Bibliographie Sélective Express

SINGH VK, ROMAINE PLP, SEED TM - Medical countermeasures for radiation exposure and related injuries : characterization of medicines, FDA-approval status and inclusion into the strategic national stockpile. – Health physics, 06/2015, 108, 6, 607-630.

THIERRY-CHEF I, RICHARDSON DB, DANIELS RD et al. – Dose estimation for a study of nuclear workers in France, the United Kingdom and the United States of America : methods for the International Nuclear Workers Study (INWORKS). - Radiation research, 06/2015, 183, 6, 632-642.

  • abstract

In the framework of the International Nuclear Workers Study conducted in France, the UK and the U.S. (INWORKS), updated and expanded methods were developed to convert recorded doses of ionizing radiation to estimates of organ doses or individual personal dose equivalent [Hp(10)] for a total number of 308,297 workers, including 40,035 women. This approach accounts for differences in dosimeter response to predominant workplace energy and geometry of exposure and for the recently published ICRP report on dose coefficients for men and women separately. The overall mean annual individual personal dose equivalent, including zero doses, is 1.73 mSv [median = 0.42; interquartile range (IQR): 0.07, 1.59]. Associated individual organ doses were estimated. INWORKS includes workers who had potential for exposure to neutrons. Therefore, we analyzed neutron dosimetry data to identify workers potentially exposed to neutrons. We created a time-varying indicator for each worker, classifying them according to whether they had a positive recorded neutron dose and if so,

whether their neutron dose ever exceeded 10% of their total external penetrating radiation dose. The number of workers flagged as being exposed to neutrons was 13% for the full cohort, with 15% of the cohort in France, 12% of the cohort in the UK and 14% in the U.S. We also used available information on in vivo and bioassay monitoring to identify workers with known depositions or suspected internal contaminations. As a result of this work, information is now available that will allow various types of sensitivity analyses.

YASUI S - Fact-finding survey in response to the manipulation of personal alarm dosimeter collection efficiency : lessons learned about post-emergency radiation protection from the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi APP accident. – Journal of occupational and environmental hygiene, 06/2015, 12, 6, D96-D102.

  • abstract

During emergency work at TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Atomic Power Plant on December 1, 2011 a subcontractor demanded that its contracted workers cover their personal alarm dosimeters (PAD) with 3-cm-thick lead plates to lower dosimeter readings. As a response, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) conducted a fact-finding survey to identify similar cases and devise measures to prevent a recurrence of this incident. To screen the suspected cases, the MHLW extracted: a) cases in which a PAD reading was at least 15% higher than the reading obtained from a radio-photolumine-scence dosimeter (RPD), where the dose was greater than 5 mSv in a month (1813 data points), and b) dose data in which PAD readings were less than 50% of the expected dose, where exposure dose may exceed 1 mSv in a day (56 workers, 17,148 data points). From these screenings, the MHLW identified 50 instances from TEPCO and nine primary contractors, including four general contractors, two plant manufacturers, and three plant maintenance companies as the subjects of the due diligence study of exposure data, including interviews. The results of the survey provide lessons that can also be applied to transition from emergency radiation protection to normal operation, as the application of emergency dose limits had ceased on December 16, 2011, in the affected plant. Based on the results of the survey, the MHLW provided administrative guidance documents to TEPCO and 37 primary contractors. The major points of these documents include: a) identification of recorded dose values by comparison of PAD readings to RPD readings, b) storage and management of RPDs and control badges, c) circulation management of PADs and access control to the affected plant, d) estimation of planned doses and setting of alarm values of PADs, e) actions to be taken by contractors if worker dose limits are reached, and f) physical measures to prevent recurrence of the incident.

KREUZER M, AUVINEN A , CARDIS E et al. - Low-dose ionising radiation and cardiovascular diseases. Strategies for molecular epidemiological studies in Europe. – Mutation research-Reviews in mutation research, 04-06/2015, 764, 90-100.

  • abstract 

It is well established that high-dose ionising radiation causes cardiovascular diseases. In contrast, the evidence for a causal relationship between long-term risk of cardiovascular diseases after moderate doses (0.5-5Gy) is suggestive and weak after low doses (<0.5Gy). However, evidence is emerging that doses under 0.5Gy may also increase long-term risk of cardiovascular disease. This would have major implications for radiation protection with respect to medical use of radiation for diagnostic purposes and occupational or environmental radiation exposure. Therefore, it is of great importance to gain information about the presence and possible magnitude of radiation-related cardiovascular disease risk at doses of less than 0.5Gy. The biological mechanisms implicated in any such effects are unclear and results from epidemiological studies are inconsistent. Molecular epidemiological studies can improve the

understanding of the pathogenesis and the risk estimation of radiation-induced circulatory disease at low doses. Within the European DoReMi (Low Dose Research towards Multidisciplinary Integration) project, strategies to conduct molecular epidemiological studies in this field have been developed and evaluated. Key potentially useful European cohorts are the Mayak workers, other nuclear workers, uranium miners, Chernobyl liquidators, the Techa river residents and several diagnostic or low-dose radiotherapy patient cohorts. Criteria for informative studies are given and biomarkers to be investigated suggested. A close collaboration between epidemiology, biology and dosimetry is recommended, not only among experts in the radiation field, but also those in cardiovascular diseases.

LA VECCHIA C, MALVEZZI M, BOSETTI C et al. - Thyroid cancer mortality and incidence : a global overview. - International journal of cancer, 01/05/2015, 136, 9, 2187-2195.

  • abstract

In most areas of the world, thyroid cancer incidence has been appreciably increasing over the last few decades, whereas mortality has steadily declined. We updated global trends in thyroid cancer mortality and incidence using official mortality data from the World Health Organization (1970-2012) and incidence data from the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents (1960-2007). Male mortality declined in all the major countries considered, with annual percent changes around -2/-3% over the last decades. Only in the United States mortality declined up to the mid 1980s and increased thereafter. Similarly, in women mortality declined in most countries considered, with APCs around -2/-5% over the last decades, with the exception of the UK, the United States and Australia, where mortality has been declining up to the late 1980s/late 1990s to level off (or increase) thereafter. In 2008-2012, most countries had mortality rates (age-standardized, world population) between 0.20 and 0.40/100,000 men and 0.20 and 0.60/100,000 women, the highest rates being in Latvia, Hungary, the Republic of Moldova and Israel (over 0.40/100,000) for men and in Ecuador, Colombia and Israel (over 0.60/100,000) for women. In most countries, a steady increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer (mainly papillary carcinomas) was observed in both sexes. The declines in thyroid cancer mortality reflect both variations in risk factor exposure and changes in the diagnosis and treatment of the disease, while the increases in the incidence are likely due to the increase in the detection of this neoplasm over the last few decades.

LI C, HAUCK B, FRASER A et al. - Managing children during a radiological or nuclear emergency-Canadian perspectives. – Health physics, 05/2015, 108, suppl.2 au no. 5, S54-S59.

  • abstract

Children have a higher chance of being contaminated by radioactive materials during a radiological or nuclear (RN) emergency. They are more sensitive to radiation health effects and suffer more significant psychosocial impacts than adults during emergency response. This paper presents a summary of recommendations on effective management of children during an RN emergency. These recommendations intend to be additional considerations for existing RN response protocols and procedures implemented at local, state/provincial, or national level.

 

Comptes-rendus de congrès

ICRP – Proceedings of the 2nd international symposium on the system of radiological protection. Abu Dhabi (UAE), 22-24 octobre 2013. – Annals of the ICRP, 06/2015, 44, suppl. 1, 1-356.

CECHAK T, FRONKA A, SOHRABI M et al. - 8th international conference on high levels of natural radiation and radon areas. Prague (République tchèque), 1-5 septembre 2014. – Radiation protection dosimetry, 06/2015, 164, 4, 457-618.

ASN – Séminaire pluraliste sur l’évaluation économique du risque d’accident nucléaire. Paris, 24 octobre 2014. – 06/2015, 32 p.

 

Rapports

MARIGNAC Y, BESNARD M – Nucléaire français : l’impasse industrielle. – WISE, 23/06/2015, 72 p.

AIEA - Protection of the public against exposure indoors due to radon and other natural sources of radiation. Specific Safety Guide no. SSG-32. – 05/2015, 112 p.

AIEA – Stratégie nationale visant à la reprise de contrôle des sources orphelines et au renforcement du contrôle des sources vulnérables. Guide de sûreté particulier no. SSG-19. – 05/2015, 128 p.

EPRI – Effect of zinc on corrosion product release. Literature review and assessment. – 05/2015, report 3002005413, 216 p.

ASN - Rapport du groupe de travail issu du GPMED. Recommandations du groupe de travail sur les conditions de mise en oeuvre des « nouvelles techniques et pratiques » en radiothérapie. – 11/2014, 72 p.

 

Autres informations

Congrès

ICRP - International workshop on the Fukushima dialogue initiative « Rehabilitation of living conditions after the nuclear accident ». Fukushima (Japon), 12-13 décembre 2015.

Journée

SFRP – Contamination interne : quels défis pour demain ? Paris, 6 octobre 2015.

 

 

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En aucun cas nous ne pouvons vous garantir la qualité des publications signalées.

Vos commentaires ou suggestions de signalement sont les bienvenus (par mail de préférence). Contact : Cette adresse e-mail est protégée contre les robots spammeurs. Vous devez activer le JavaScript pour la visualiser.

 

 

 

 

 

BSE 28 avril 2016 - no. 214

Documentation en Radioprotection d'EDF - DPI - Division Production Nucléaire

 


28 avril 2016 - no. 214

 

Projet de publication

 

LUCCIONI C, KORNEVICH O, ROZHKO A et al. - Health check-ups of children living in a Belarusdistrict contaminated after the Chernobyl accident. – Radioprotection, online 22/04/2016, 9 p.

 

Vient de paraître

 

Articles

MCCALL C – Chernobyl disaster 30 years on : lessons not learned. – Lancet, 23-29/04/2016, 387,10029, 1707-1708.

  • pas d’abstract disponible

EINOR D, BONISOLI-ALQUATI A, COSTANTINI D et al. – Ionizing radiation, antioxidant responseand oxidative damage : a meta-analysis. - Science of the total environment, 01/04/2016, 548-549,463-471.

  • abstract

One mechanism proposed as a link between exposure to ionizing radiation and detrimental effects on organisms is oxidative damage. To test this hypothesis, we surveyed the scientific literature on the effects of chronic low-dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) on antioxidant responses and oxidative damage. We found 40 publications and 212 effect sizes for antioxidant responses and 288 effect sizes for effects of oxidative damage. We performed a meta-analysis of signed and unsigned effect sizes. We found large unsigned effects for both categories (0.918 for oxidative damage; 0.973 for antioxidant response). Mean signed effect size weighted by sample size was 0.276 for oxidative damage and -0.350 for antioxidant defenses, with significant heterogeneity among effects for both categories, implying that ionizing radiation caused small to intermediate increases in oxidative damage and small to intermediate decreases in antioxidant defenses. Our estimates are robust, as shown by very high fail-safe numbers. Species, biological matrix (tissue, blood, sperm) and age predicted the magnitude of effects for oxidative damage as well as antioxidant response. Meta-regression models showed that effect sizes for oxidative damage varied among species and age classes, while effect sizes for antioxidant responses varied among species and biological matrices. Our results are consistent with the description of mechanisms underlying pathological effects of chronic exposure to LDIR. Our results also highlight the importance of resistance to oxidative stress as one possible mechanism associated with variation in species responses to LDIR-contaminated areas.

ANDREASSI MG, PICCALUGA E, GUAGLIUMI G et al. - Occupational health risks in cardiac catheterization laboratory workers. - Circulation cardiovascular interventions, 04/2016, 9, 4,

BARNARD SG, AINSBURY EA, QUINLAN RA et al. - Radiation protection of the eye lens in medical workers-basis and impact of the ICRP recommendations. – British journal of radiology, 04/2016, 89, 1060, 9 p .

CHODICK G, SIGURDSON AJ, KLEINERMAN RA et al. - The risk of cataract among survivors of childhood and adolescent cancer : a report from the childhood cancer survivor study. – Radiation research, 04/2016, 185, 4, 366-374.

  • abstract

With therapeutic successes and improved survival after a cancer diagnosis in childhood, increasing numbers of cancer survivors are at risk of subsequent treatment-related morbidities, including cataracts. While it is well known that the lens of the eye is one of the most radiosensitive tissues in the human body, the risks associated with radiation doses less than 2 Gy are less understood, as are the long- and short-term cataract risks from exposure to ionizing radiation at a young age. In this study, we followed 13,902 five-year survivors of childhood cancer in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study cohort an average of 21.4 years from the date of first cancer diagnosis. For patients receiving radiotherapy, lens dose (mean: 2.2 Gy; range: 0-66 Gy) was estimated based on radiotherapy records. We used unconditional multivariable logistic regression models to evaluate prevalence of self-reported cataract in relationship to cumulative radiation dose both at five years after the initial cancer diagnosis and at the end of follow-up. We modeled the radiation effect in terms of the excess odds ratio (EOR) per Gy. We also analyzed cataract incidence starting from five years after initial cancer diagnosis to the end of follow-up using Cox regression. A total of 483 (3.5%) cataract cases were identified, including 200 (1.4%) diagnosed during the first five years of follow-up. In a multivariable logistic regression model, cataract prevalence at the end of follow-up was positively associated with lens dose in a manner consistent with a linear dose-response relationship (EOR per Gy = 0.92; 95% CI: 0.65-1.20). The odds ratio for doses between 0.5 and 1.5 Gy was elevated significantly relative to doses <0.5 Gy (OR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.3-3.7). The results from this study indicate a strong association between ocular exposure to ionizing radiation and long-term risk of pre-senile cataract. The risk of cataract increased with increasing exposure, beginning at lens doses as low as 0.5 Gy. Our findings are in agreement with a growing body of evidence of an elevated risk for lens opacities in populations exposed to doses of ionizing radiation below the previously suggested threshold level of 2 Gy.

HAYES RB – Consequence assessment of the WIPP radiological release from february 2014. - Health physics, 04/2016, 110, 4, 342-360.

  • abstract

On 14 February 2014, a continuous air monitor (CAM) alarm at the exit of panel 7 in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) underground facility caused the mine ventilation to shift from unfiltered air over to HEPA filtration for its effluent. Subsequent measurements of the effluent at both pre- and post-HEPA filtration using representative sampling demonstrated that a release had occurred. Using modeling based on measured effluent activity, onsite dose estimates were calculated and later measured via bioassay to be less than 0,1 mSv from intakes of radioactivity. The maximum offsite dose potential to nearby dwellings was modeled to be 1 μSv or less, which was consistent with air samples being taken at those dwellings during the release, demonstrating impressive accuracy and precision. No worker or public dose limits have been exceeded, and the release was substantially below the annual release limits for the WIPP site.

MOLLER AP, MOUSSEAU TA – Are organisms adapting to ionizing radiation at Chernobyl ? - Trends in ecology and evolution, 04/2016, 31, 4, 281-289.

  • abstract

Numerous organisms have shown an ability to survive and reproduce under low-dose ionizing radiation arising from natural background radiation or from nuclear accidents. In a literature review, we found a total of 17 supposed cases of adaptation, mostly based on common garden experiments with organisms only deriving from typically two or three sampling locations. We only found one experimental study showing evidence of improved resistance to radiation. Finally, we examined studies for the presence of hormesis (i.e., superior fitness at low levels of radiation compared with controls and high levels of radiation), but found no evidence to support its existence. We conclude that rigorous experiments based on extensive sampling from multiple sites are required.

NELSON GA – Space radiation and human exposures, a primer. - Radiation research, 04/2016, 185, 4, 349-358.

CLINARD F, COLLANGE F, CATELINOIS O et al. - Residential radon concentrations in Franche-Comté, a high radon region of France. - Environnement, Risques et Santé, 03-04/2016, 15, 2, 126-134.

GRANZOTTO A, BENADJAOUD MA, VOGIN G et al. - Influence of nucleoshuttling of the ATM protein in the healthy tissues response to radiation therapy : toward a molecular classification of human radiosensitivity. - International journal of radiation, oncology, biology an physics, 01/03/2016, 94, 3, 450-460.

  • abstract

PURPOSE: Whereas post-radiation therapy overreactions (OR) represent a clinical and societal issue, there is still no consensual radiobiological endpoint to predict clinical radiosensitivity. Since 2003, skin biopsy specimens have been collected from patients treated by radiation therapy against different tumor localizations and showing a wide range of OR. Here, we aimed to establish quantitative links between radiobiological factors and OR severity grades that would be relevant to radioresistant and genetic hyperradiosensitive cases.

METHODS AND MATERIALS: Immunofluorescence experiments were performed on a collection of skin fibroblasts from 12 radioresistant, 5 hyperradiosensitive, and 100 OR patients irradiated at 2 Gy. The numbers of micronuclei, γH2AX, and pATM foci that reflect different steps of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) recognition and repair were assessed from 10 minutes to 24 hours after irradiation and plotted against the severity grades established by the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group.

RESULTS: OR patients did not necessarily show a gross DSB repair defect but a systematic delay in the nucleoshuttling of the ATM protein required for complete DSB recognition. Among the radiobiological factors, the maximal number of pATM foci provided the best discrimination among OR patients and a significant correlation with each OR severity grade, independently of tumor localization and of the early or late nature of reactions.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results are consistent with a general classification of human radiosensitivity based on 3 groups: radioresistance (group I); moderate radiosensitivity caused by delay of nucleoshuttling of ATM, which includes OR patients (group II); and hyperradiosensitivity caused by a gross DSB repair defect, which includes fatal cases (group III).

BODGI L, FORAY N – The nucleo-shuttling of the ATM protein as a basis for a novel theory of radiation response : resolution of the linear-quadratic model. - International journal of radiation biology, 03/2016, 92, 3, 117-131.

  • abstract

Purpose For 50 years, cellular radiosensitivity has been defined in vitro as the lack of clonogenic capacity of irradiated cells and its mathematical link with dose has been described by the target theory. Among the numerous formulas provided from the target theory, the linear-quadratic (LQ) model empirically describes cell survival as a negative exponential of a second degree polynomial dose-function in which αD is the linear component and βD(2) is the quadratic one. The LQ model is extensively used in radiobiology (to describe survival curves) and in radiotherapy (the α/β ratio indicates whether tissue reactions can occur early or late after the treatment). However, no biological interpretation of the LQ parameters was proposed to explain together the radiation response in a wide dose range, the radiosensitivity of some genetic syndromes caused by the mutation of cytoplasmic proteins and the hyper-radiosensitivity phenomenon specific to low-dose. The model From a solid amount of experimental data, we hypothesized that the major forms of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) are cytoplasmic dimers and that ionizing radiation induce ATM monomerization. The resulting ATM monomers diffuse into nucleus to facilitate double-strand-breaks (DSB) recognition and repair. Such hypotheses lead to a coherent molecular interpretation of the LQ model by considering the yield of recognized but unrepaired (α-type) DSB and the non-recognized (β-type) DSB. The notion of cell tolerance to unrepaired DSB was introduced by considering that not all DSB are lethal. Cell survival and DSB repair and signaling immunofluorescence data from 42 normal skin fibroblast and 18 tumor human cell lines were used to verify the validity of this biomathematical model proposed. Results Our model is validated at different levels by one of the widest spectrum of radiosensitivity. That mathematical developments of the present model imply that β is a Lorentzian function of α was confirmed experimentally. Our model is also relevant to describe the hypersensitivity to low-dose phenomenon. Conclusions Our model provides a very general picture of human radiosensitivity, independently of the dose, the cell type and the genetic status.NACHALON Y, KATZ O, ALKAN U et al. - Radiation-induced thyroid cancer : gender-related disease characteristics and survival. - Annals of otology, rhinology, and laryngology, 03/2016, 125, 3, 242-246. (abstract en PJ7)

 

Dossiers

IRSN – Tchernobyl, 30 ans après. – 21/04/2016, nb p.

IRSN - Radioactivité : tous exposés différemment. – Repères, 04/2016, no. 29, 10-16.

PROSITON – Hiroshima-Nagasaki, 70 ans après. Vol. 2. – Prosinfo, 03/2016, no. 21, 2-9.

 

Fiche

INRS – Installation de contrôle des bagages/colis par rayonnement X. – INRS, 11/2015, ED4443,2 p.

 

Normes

AFNOR – Dosimétrie pour les expositions au rayonnement cosmique à bord d'un avion civil -Partie 3 : mesurages à bord d'avions. - 02/04/2016, NF ISO 20785-3, 25 p.

  • résumé 

Le présent document donne les principes de base permettant de mesurer l’équivalent de dose ambiant aux altitudes de vol pour l’évaluation de l’exposition au rayonnement cosmique à bord d’un avion.

AFNOR – Sources de référence - Étalonnage des contrôleurs de contamination de surface -Émetteurs alpha, bêta et photoniques. - 03/03/2016, NF ISO 8769, 23 p.

  • résumé 

Le présent document spécifie les caractéristiques de sources de référence de contamination de surface radioactive, traçables à des étalons nationaux de mesurage, permettant l'étalonnage des contrôleurs de contamination de surface. Il se rapporte aux émetteurs alpha, aux émetteurs bêta et aux émetteurs de photons dont l'énergie photonique maximale est inférieure ou égale à 1,5 MeV. Il ne décrit pas les modes opératoires qu'implique l'utilisation de ces sources de référence pour l'étalonnage des contrôleurs de contamination de surface. Ces modes opératoires sont spécifiés dans la NF EN 60325.

Il spécifie également des rayonnements de référence pour l'étalonnage des contrôleurs de contamination de surface provenant de sources de grande surface convenablement spécifiées et caractérisées, sans exception, en termes de flux d'émission de surface, l'évaluation de ces grandeurs étant traçable à des étalons nationaux.

 

Numéros de revue

INVS – Epidémiologie du cancer de la thyroïde, données actuelles. - Bulletin épidémiologique hebdomadaire, 26/04/2016, no. 11-12, 197-220.

Fukushima, five years on. – Clinical oncology, 04/2016, 28, 4, 231-276.

 

Ouvrages

LENOIR Y – La comédie atomique : l’histoire occultée des dangers du nucléaire. – Editions La découverte, 04/2016, 320 p.

BOURNET G – Franckushima. Essai graphique sur la catastrophe de Fukushima.– Lutopiquant édition, 03/2016, 256 p.

 

Rapports

IRSN – Constat radiologique : rémanence de la radioactivité d’origine artificielle. – 2016, 130 p.

Commission européenne – Nuclear Illustrative Programme (PINC). – 04/04/2016, COM(2016)177 final, 10 p. + 47 p.

Conseil supérieur de la santé (Belgique) - Accidents nucléaires, environnement et santé après Fukushima. Planification d'urgence. – 03/02/2016, Avis CSS no. 9235, 122 p.

ACRO - Fukushima cinq ans après : quel impact sanitaire ? – 02/2016, 24 p.

BOILLEY D - Fukushima cinq ans après, retour à l’anormale. – ACRO, 02/2016, 76 p.

ACRO – Plans d’urgence nucléaire en France. Forces et faiblesses. – 30/01/2016, 80 p.

 

Autres informations

Formation

CEPN, Institute of radiology – Belarus, NERIS - Training course on Late phase nuclear accident preparedness and management. 3rd édition. Gomel (Biélorussie), 19-23 juin 2017.

 

Site Web

Nuclearplanet

Lancée il y a six ans par le Forum nucléaire suisse, la carte du monde des installations nucléaires, « Nuclearplanet », fait peau neuve. L’application offre désormais de nouvelles fonctionnalités et une nouvelle interface pour permettre aux internautes francophones, germanophones et anglophones d’identifier la majorité des sites nucléaires à travers la planète.

 

 

L’objectif de cette diffusion est uniquement de vous informer sur les dernières publications dans le domaine Nucléaire et Santé.

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Contact : Cette adresse e-mail est protégée contre les robots spammeurs. Vous devez activer le JavaScript pour la visualiser.

 

 

BSE 31 août 2015 - no. 206

Documentation en Radioprotection d'EDF - DPI - Division Production Nucléaire

 


31 août 2015 - no. 206

 

Projets de publication 

Rapport

ICRP – The ICRP computational framework for internal dose assessment for reference workers : specific absorbed fractions. ICRP ref 4835-9252-8934. – Annals of the ICRP, [online 5 août 2015], 58 p.

  • draft disponible sur le site de l’ICRP http://www.icrp.org (contribution possible jusqu’au 9 octobre 2015)

 

Vient de paraître

Articles

BRAUNER EV, LOFT S, SORENSEN M et al. - Residential radon exposure and skin cancer incidence in a prospective Danish cohort. - Plos One, 14/08/2015, 14 p.

NOLAN J, WEBER KA - Natural uranium contamination in major U.S. aquifers linked to nitrate. - Environmental science and technology letters, 11/08/2015, 2, 8, 215-220.

ISHIKAWA T, YASUMURA S, OZASA K et al. – The Fukushima Health Management Survey : estimation of external doses to residents in Fukushima Prefecture. - Scientific reports, 04/08/2015, 5, 12712, 11 p.

CLANCEY G, CHHEM R – Hiroshima, Nagasaki and Fukushima. – Lancet, 01/08/2015, 386, 9992, 405-406.

  • pas d’abstract disponible

HASEGAWA A, TANIGAWA K, OHTSURU A et al. - Health effects of radiation and other health problems in the aftermath of nuclear accidents, with an emphasis on Fukushima. - Lancet, 01/08/2015, 386, 9992, 479-488.

  • abstract

437 nuclear power plants are in operation at present around the world to meet increasing energy demands. Unfortunately, five major nuclear accidents have occurred in the past--ie, at Kyshtym (Russia [then USSR], 1957), Windscale Piles (UK, 1957), Three Mile Island (USA, 1979), Chernobyl (Ukraine [then USSR], 1986), and Fukushima (Japan, 2011). The effects of these accidents on individuals and societies are diverse and enduring. Accumulated evidence about radiation health effects on atomic bomb survivors and other radiation-exposed people has formed the basis for national and international regulations about radiation protection. However, past experiences suggest that common issues were not necessarily physical health problems directly attributable to radiation exposure, but rather psychological and social effects. Additionally, evacuation and long-term displacement created severe health-care problems for the most vulnerable people, such as hospital inpatients and elderly people.

KAMIYA K, OZASA K, AKIBA O et al. - Long-term effects of radiation exposure on health. - Lancet, 01/08/2015, 386, 9992, 469-478.

  • abstract

Late-onset effects of exposure to ionising radiation on the human body have been identified by long-term, large-scale epidemiological studies. The cohort study of Japanese survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki (the Life Span Study) is thought to be the most reliable source of information about these health effects because of the size of the cohort, the exposure of a general population of both sexes and all ages, and the wide range of individually assessed doses. For this reason, the Life Span Study has become fundamental to risk assessment in the radiation protection system of the International Commission on Radiological Protection and other authorities. Radiation exposure increases the risk of cancer throughout life, so continued follow-up of survivors is essential. Overall, survivors have a clear radiation-related excess risk of cancer, and people exposed as children have a higher risk of radiation-induced cancer than those exposed at older ages. At high doses, and possibly at low doses, radiation might increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and some other non-cancer diseases. Hereditary effects in the children of atomic bomb survivors have not been detected. The dose-response relation for cancer at low doses is assumed, for purposes of radiological protection, to be linear without a threshold, but has not been shown definitively. This outstanding issue is not only a problem when dealing appropriately with potential health effects of nuclear accidents, such as at Fukushima and Chernobyl, but is of growing concern in occupational and medical exposure. Therefore, the appropriate dose-response relation for effects of low doses of radiation needs to be established.

MC CURRY J – Hiroshima survivors remember. - Lancet, 01/08/2015, 386, 9992, 417-418.

  • pas d’abstract disponible

OHTSURU A, TANIGAWA K, KUMAGAI A et al. - Nuclear disasters and health : lessons learned, challenges, and proposals. - Lancet, 01/08/2015, 386, 9992, 489-497.

  • abstract

Past nuclear disasters, such as the atomic bombings in 1945 and major accidents at nuclear power plants, have highlighted similarities in potential public health effects of radiation in both circumstances, including health issues unrelated to radiation exposure. Although the rarity of nuclear disasters limits opportunities to undertake rigorous research of evidence-based interventions and strategies, identification of lessons learned and development of an effective plan to protect the public, minimise negative effects, and protect emergency workers from exposure to high-dose radiation is important. Additionally, research is needed to help decision makers to avoid premature deaths among patients already in hospitals and other vulnerable groups during evacuation. Since nuclear disasters can affect hundreds of thousands of people, a substantial number of people are at risk of physical and mental harm in each disaster. During the recovery period after a nuclear disaster, physicians might need to screen for psychological burdens and provide general physical and mental health care for many affected residents who might experience long-term displacement. Reliable communication of personalised risks has emerged as a challenge for health-care professionals beyond the need to explain radiation protection. To overcome difficulties of risk communication and provide decision aids to protect workers, vulnerable people, and residents after a nuclear disaster, physicians should receive training in nuclear disaster response. This training should include evidence-based interventions, support decisions to balance potential harms and benefits, and take account of scientific uncertainty in provision of community health care. An open and joint learning process is essential to prepare for, and minimise the effects of, future nuclear disasters.

REICH MR, GOTO A - Towards long-term responses in Fukushima. - Lancet, 01/08/2015, 386, 9992, 498-500.

  • pas d’abstract disponible

SIMON SL, BOUVILLE A - Health effects of nuclear weapons testing. - Lancet, 01/08/2015, 386, 9992, 407-409.

  • pas d’abstract disponible

ALLODJI RS, SCHWARTZ B, DIALLO I et al. - Simulation-extrapolation method to address errors in atomic bomb survivor dosimetry on solid cancer and leukaemia mortality risk estimates, 1950-2003. – Radiation and environmental biophysics, 08/2015, 54, 3, 273-283.

  • abstract

Analyses of the Life Span Study (LSS) of Japanese atomic bombing survivors have routinely incorporated corrections for additive classical measurement errors using regression calibration. Recently, several studies reported that the efficiency of the simulation-extrapolation method (SIMEX) is slightly more accurate than the simple regression calibration method (RCAL). In the present paper, the SIMEX and RCAL methods have been used to address errors in atomic bomb survivor dosimetry on solid cancer and leukaemia mortality risk estimates. For instance, it is shown that using the SIMEX method, the ERR/Gy is increased by an amount of about 29 % for all solid cancer deaths using a linear model compared to the RCAL method, and the corrected EAR 10(-4) person-years at 1 Gy (the linear terms) is decreased by about 8 %, while the corrected quadratic term (EAR 10(-4) person-years/Gy(2)) is increased by about 65 % for leukaemia deaths based on a linear-quadratic model. The results with SIMEX method are slightly higher than published values. The observed differences were probably due to the fact that with the RCAL method the dosimetric data were partially corrected, while all doses were considered with the SIMEX method. Therefore, one should be careful when comparing the estimated risks and it may be useful to use several correction techniques in order to obtain a range of corrected estimates, rather than to rely on a single technique. This work will enable to improve the risk estimates derived from LSS data, and help to make more reliable the development of radiation protection standards.

DROZDOVITCH V, MINENKO V, GOLOVANOV I et al. – Thyroid dose estimates for a cohort of Belarusian children exposed to (131)i from the Chernobyl accident : assessment of uncertainties. - Radiation research, 08/2015, 184, 2, 203-218.

  • abstract

Deterministic thyroid radiation doses due to iodine-131 ((131)I) intake were reconstructed in a previous article for 11,732 participants of the Belarusian-American cohort study of thyroid cancer and other thyroid diseases in individuals exposed during childhood or adolescence to fallout from the Chernobyl accident. The current article describes an assessment of uncertainties in reconstructed thyroid doses that accounts for the shared and unshared errors. Using a Monte Carlo simulation procedure, 1,000 sets of cohort thyroid doses due to (131)I intake were calculated. The arithmetic mean of the stochastic thyroid doses for the entire cohort was 0.68 Gy. For two-thirds of the cohort the arithmetic mean of individual stochastic thyroid doses was less than 0.5 Gy. The geometric standard deviation of stochastic doses varied among cohort members from 1.33 to 5.12 with an arithmetic mean of 1.76 and a geometric mean of 1.73. The uncertainties in thyroid dose were driven by the unshared errors associated with the estimates of values of thyroid mass and of the (131)I activity in the thyroid of the subject; the contribution of shared errors to the overall uncertainty was small. These multiple sets of cohort thyroid doses will be used to evaluate the radiation risks of thyroid cancer and noncancer thyroid diseases, taking into account the structure of the errors in the dose estimates.

ITAKURA K, TAKAHASHI I, NAKASHIMA E et al. - Exposure to atomic bomb radiation and age-related macular degeneration in later life : the Hiroshima-Nagasaki atomic bomb survivor study. - Investigative ophthalmology and visual science, 08/2015, 56, 9, 5401-5406.

KANAGARAJ K, ABDOUL SYED BASHEERUDEEN S, TAMIZH SELVAN G et al. - Assessment of dose and DNA damages in individuals exposed to low dose and low dose rate ionizing radiations during computed tomography imaging. – Mutation research-Genetic toxicology and environmental mutagenesis, 08/2015, 789-790, 1-6.

  • abstract

PURPOSE : Computed tomography (CT) is a frequently used imaging modality that contributes to a tenfold increase in radiation exposure to the public when compared to other medical imaging modalities. The use of radiation for therapeutic need is always rationalized on the basis of risk versus benefit thereby increasing concerns on the dose received by patients undergoing CT imaging. Therefore, it was of interest to us to investigate the effects of low dose and low dose-rate X-irradiation in patients who underwent CT imaging by recording the doses received by the eye, forehead and thyroid, and to study the levels of damages in the lymphocytes in vivo.

MATERIALS AND METHODS : Lithium manganese borate doped with terbium (LMB:Tb) thermo luminescence dosimeters (TLD) were used to record the doses in the patient's (n=27) eye, forehead, and thyroid and compared with the dose length product (DLP) values. The in vivo DNA damages measured were compared before and after CT imaging using chromosomal aberration (CA) and micronucleus (MN) assays.

RESULTS : The overall measured organ dose ranged between 2±0.29 and 520±41.63mGy for the eye, 0.84±0.29 and 210±20.50mGy for the forehead, and 1.79±0.43 and 185±0.70mGy for the thyroid. The in vivo damages measured from the blood lymphocytes of the subjects showed an extremely significant (p<0.0001) increase in CA frequency and significant (p<0.001) increase in MN frequency after exposure, compared to before exposure.

CONCLUSION : The results suggest that CT imaging delivers a considerable amount of radiation dose to the eye, forehead, and thyroid, and the observed increase in the CA and MN frequencies show low dose radiation effects calling for protective regulatory measures to increase patient's safety. This study is the first attempt to indicate the trend of doses received by the patient's eye, forehead and thyroid and measured directly in contrast to earlier values obtained by extrapolation from phantoms, and to assess the in vivo low dose effects in an Indian patient population undergoing CT procedures.

LEE WJ, HA M, HWANG SS et al. – The radiologic technologists' health study in South Korea : study design and baseline results. - International archives of occupational and environmental health, 08/2015, 88, 6, 759-769.

  • abstract

PURPOSE : To describe the study design, methods, and baseline results of a prospective cohort of radiologic technologists which we have initiated in South Korea.

METHODS : The cohort participants were enrolled through a self-administered questionnaire survey administered from April 2012 to May 2013. Survey data were linked with radiation dosimetry, a cancer registry, and health insurance data by personal identification numbers. A nationwide representative survey was also conducted using a stratified random sampling design with face-to-face interviews.

RESULTS : A total of 12,387 radiologic technologists were enrolled, which accounted for approximately 63 % of all diagnostic radiologic technologists working in South Korea. For nationwide survey, 585 workers were interviewed using the detailed questionnaire, and buccal cells were also collected by scraping the inside of the cheek. The majority of study subjects were under 50-year-old and male workers. The average annual effective dose of radiation declined both men (from 2.75 to 1.43 mSv) and women (from 1.34 to 0.95 mSv) over the period of 1996-2011. A total of 99 cancers (66 cancers in men and 33 in women) were reported from 1992 to 2010. The standardized incidence ratio of all cancer combined was significantly lower in men (SIR = 0.75, 95 % CI 0.58-0.96) than general population, but the ratios for thyroid cancer were significantly higher than expected among both men and women.

CONCLUSIONS : This cohort provides comprehensive information on work activities and health status of diagnostic radiologic technologists. In addition, the nationwide representative sample provides unique opportunities compared with previous radiologic technologist studies.

RAGE E, CAER-LORHO S, DRUBAY D et al. - Mortality analyses in the updated French cohort of uranium miners (1946-2007). - International archives of occupational and environmental health, 08/2015, 88, 6, 717-730.

  • abstract

PURPOSE : The objectives are to analyze mortality risks in the extended follow-up of the French uranium miners' cohort and to examine their potential relation to occupational exposure to ionizing radiation (IR).

METHODS : The total cohort includes 5,086 uranium miners employed in the CEA-COGEMA group and followed up from 1946 to 2007. Vital status, causes of death, and cumulative radon exposures were recorded. The post-55 subcohort includes 3,377 miners first employed after 1955, for whom long-lived radionuclides (LLR) and external gamma-ray exposure were also recorded. External mortality analyses were performed by computing standardized mortality ratios (SMR). Excess relative risks (ERRs) due to IR exposures were estimated from Poisson regression models.

RESULTS : The miners included in the total cohort were followed up for 35.4 years and exposed to 36.6 working level months (WLM) on average. There was no evidence of a difference in overall mortality between miners and the general French male population. Miners had a statistically significant excess mortality rate from lung cancer (SMR = 1.34 [95 % CI 1.16-1.53]) and from kidney cancer (SMR = 1.60 [1.03-2.39]). Cumulative radon exposure was significantly associated with lung cancer risk (ERR/100 WLM = 0.71 [0.31-1.30]) and cerebrovascular risk (ERR/100 WLM = 0.41 [0.04-1.03]). In the post-55 subcohort, this excess mortality from lung cancer remained associated with exposure to radon, and also with exposure to LLR and external gamma rays.

CONCLUSIONS : The analyses in the extended follow-up strengthen the results previously observed among French uranium miners about their excess risk of mortality and its association with their occupational IR exposure.

SCHNEIDER U, WALSH L – Age at exposure and attained age variations of cancer risk in the Japanese A-bomb and radiotherapy cohorts. - Medical physics, 08/2015, 42, 8, 4755.

  • abstract

PURPOSE : Phenomenological risk models for radiation-induced cancer are frequently applied to estimate the risk of radiation-induced cancers at radiotherapy doses. Such models often include the effect modification, of the main risk to radiation dose response, by age at exposure and attained age. The aim of this paper is to compare the patterns in risk effect modification by age, between models obtained from the Japanese atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivor data and models for cancer risks previously reported for radiotherapy patients. Patterns in risk effect modification by age from the epidemiological studies of radiotherapy patients were also used to refine and extend the risk effect modification by age obtained from the A-bomb survivor data, so that more universal models can be presented here.

METHODS : Simple log-linear and power functions of age for the risk effect modification applied in models of the A-bomb survivor data are compared to risks from epidemiological studies of second cancers after radiotherapy. These functions of age were also refined and fitted to radiotherapy risks. The resulting age models provide a refined and extended functional dependence of risk with age at exposure and attained age especially beyond 40 and 65 yr, respectively, and provide a better representation than the currently available simple age functions.

RESULTS : It was found that the A-bomb models predict risk similarly to the outcomes of testicular cancer survivors. The survivors of Hodgkin's disease show steeper variations of risk with both age at exposure and attained age. The extended models predict solid cancer risk increase as a function of age at exposure beyond 40 yr and the risk decrease as a function of attained age beyond 65 yr better than the simple models.

CONCLUSIONS : The standard functions for risk effect modification by age, based on the A-bomb survivor data, predict second cancer risk in radiotherapy patients for ages at exposure prior to 40 yr and attained ages before 55 yr reasonably well. However, for larger ages, the refined and extended models can be applied to predict the risk as a function of age.

TING CY, WANG HE, LIN JP et al. – Evaluating the radiation from accidental exposure during a nondestructive testing event. - Health physics, 08/2015, 109, 2, 171-176.

  • abstract

Industrial radiography is a common nondestructive testing (NDT) method used in various industries. An investigation was conducted for a 1999 incident in Taiwan where two workers (Operators A and B) were accidently exposed to an unshielded Ir source while conducting industrial radiography. Operators A and B experienced acute close-range radiation exposure to a source of Ir for 3 h at a strength of 2.33 × 10 Bq. The health of mammary glands, bone marrow, thyroid glands, eyes, and genital organs of these two workers after radiation exposure was examined. Subsequently, Operator A experienced severe radiation injury, including tissue necrosis and keratinization in the fingers, chromosomal abnormalities, reduced blood cell count, diffuse hyperplasia of the thyroid gland, opaque spots in the crystalline lens, and related radiation effects. The results showed that the left index finger and thumb, eyes, and gonads of Operator A were exposed to a radiation dose of about 369-1,070, 23.1-67.4, 2.4-5.3, and 4.2-11.6 Gy, respectively. Effective dose for Operator A was estimated to range from 6.9 to 18.9 Sv. The left fingers, thumb, eyes, and gonads of Operator B were exposed to a radiation dose of 184.9-646.2, 11.8-40.7, 0.49-3.33, and 0.72-7.18 Gy, respectively, and his effective dose was between 2.5 and 11.5 Sv. This accident indicated a major flaw in the control and regulation of radiation safety for conducting NDT industrial radiography in 1999; however, similar problems still exist. Modifications of the Ionizing Radiation Protection Act in Taiwan are suggested in this study to regulate the management of NDT industries, continually educate the NDT workers in radiation safety, and enact notification provisions for medical care systems toward acute radiation exposure events.

YAJIMA K, KURIHARA O, OHMACHI Y et al. - Estimating annual individual doses for evacuees returning home to areas affected by the Fukushima nuclear accident. - Health physics, 08/2015, 109, 2, 122-133.

  • abstract

To contribute to the reconstruction and revitalization of Fukushima Prefecture following the 2011 nuclear power disaster, annual individual doses were estimated for evacuees who will return home to Tamura City, Kawauchi Village, and Iitate Village in Fukushima. Ambient external dose rates and individual doses obtained with personal dosimeters were measured at many residential and occupational sites throughout the study areas to obtain fundamental data needed for the estimation. The measurement results indicated that the ratio of individual dose based on a personal dosimeter to the ambient external dose measurement was 0.7 with 10% uncertainty. Multiplying the ambient external dose by 0.7 may be an appropriate measure of the effective dose to an individual in the investigated area. Annual individual doses were estimated for representative lifestyles and occupations based on the ambient external dose rates at the measurement sites, taking into account the relationship between the ambient external dose and individual dose. The results were as follows: 0.6-2.3 mSv y in Tamura, 1.1-5.5 mSv y in Kawauchi, and 3.8-17 mSv y in Iitate. For all areas investigated, the estimated dose to outdoor workers was higher than that to indoor workers. Identifying ways to reduce the amount of time that an outdoor worker spends outdoors would provide an effective measure to reduce dose.

BORDY JM – Monitoring of eye lens doses in radiation protection - Radioprotection, 07-09/2015, 50, 3, 177-185.

POURCELOT L, BOULET B, CARIO N - Utilisation des isotopes de l’uranium et du rapport U/Th pour évaluer le marquage des végétaux consécutif aux rejets d’uranium des installations du cycle du combustible. - Radioprotection, 07-09/2015, 50, 3, 209-214.

  • résumé

Cette note s’appuie sur des données de la surveillance de l’environnement des installations du cycle du combustible. Il s’agit d’évaluer l’uranium ajouté dans l’environnement terrestre par les rejets. Ainsi, nous illustrons par la mesure des isotopes de l’uranium dans les plantes terrestres les conséquences d’un rejet chronique et d’un rejet incidentel d’uranium appauvri dans l’atmosphère. Cependant, cette méthode analytique atteint ses limites quand les rejets des installations concernent l’uranium naturel. Distinguer l’uranium naturel provenant des rejets et l’uranium qui dérive du fond radiologique devient alors délicat. C’est pourquoi, nous proposons de normaliser l’activité en uranium des plantes prélevées autour des sites nucléaires par rapport à l’activité en 232Th, en considérant que la source de ce dernier est le fond radiologique.

SPYCHER BD, LUPATSCH JE, ZWAHLEN M et al. – Background ionizing radiation and the risk of childhood cancer : a census-based nationwide cohort study. - Environmental health perspectives, 06/2015, 123, 6, 622-628.

 

Norme

AFNOR – Radioprotection – Installations de radiologie gamma. – 15/08/2015, NF M 62-102, 18 p.

  • résumé

Le présent document précise les conditions d’utilisation des installations de radiologie gamma, en accord avec la protection des personnes et de l’environnement. Dans ce but, il donne les spécifications relatives à la réalisation de l’installation et celles nécessaires à sa réception et à sa vérification. Les parties des systèmes de commande relatives à la sécurité et/ou les dispositifs de protection ainsi que leurs pièces constitutives doivent être choisis et/ou réalisés, assemblés et/ou combinés dans le respect des documents applicables de manière à faire face aux influences attendues. Le présent document s’applique uniquement aux secteurs industriels et de la recherche.

 

Rapports

CCSN – Study of consequences of a hypothetical severe nuclear accident and effectiveness of mitigation measures. - Commission canadienne de sûreté nucléaire, 08/2015, 138 p.

AIEA – The Fukushima Daiichi accident. – 08/2015, 1336 p.

AIEA – Method for developing a communication strategy and plan for a nuclear or radiological emergency. 07/2015, 38 p.

 


Autres informations

 

Outil

Le COD-IT de la Direction Générale du Travail (DGT). – version excel du 2 juillet 2015.

 

 

 

L’objectif de cette diffusion est uniquement de vous informer sur les dernières publications dans le domaine Nucléaire et Santé.

En aucun cas nous ne pouvons vous garantir la qualité des publications signalées.

Vos commentaires ou suggestions de signalement sont les bienvenus (par mail de préférence). Contact : Cette adresse e-mail est protégée contre les robots spammeurs. Vous devez activer le JavaScript pour la visualiser.

 

 

 

 

 

BSE 31 mai 2016 - no. 215

Documentation en Radioprotection d'EDF - DPI - Division Production Nucléaire

 


31 mai 2016 - no. 215

 

Projet de publication

Articles

 

SALTYBAEVA N, MARTINI K, FRAUENFELDER T et al. - Organ dose and attributable cancer risk in lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography. – PlosOne, 20/05/2016, 11, 5, e0155722, 11 p.

 

SHARLOW ER, LEIMGRUBER S, LIRA A et al. – A small molecule screen exposes mTOR signaling pathway involvement in radiation-induced apoptosis. - ACS chemical biology, 20/05/2016, 11, 5, 1428-1437.

  • abstract

Individuals are at risk of exposure to acute ionizing radiation (IR) from a nuclear accident or terrorism, but we lack effective therapies to mitigate the lethal IR effects. In the current study, we exploited an optimized, cell-based, high throughput screening assay to interrogate a small molecule library comprising 3437 known pharmacologically active compounds for mitigation against IR-induced apoptosis. Thirty-three library compounds significantly reduced apoptosis when administered 1 h after 4 Gy IR. Two- or three-dimensional computational structural analyses of the compounds indicated only one or two chemical clusters with most of the compounds being unique structures. The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) inhibitor, rapamycin, was the most potent compound, and it mitigated apoptosis by 50% at 200 ± 50 pM. Other mTOR inhibitors, namely everolimus, AZD8055, and torin 1, also suppressed apoptosis, providing additional pharmacological evidence for mTOR pathway involvement in regulating cell death after IR. Everolimus and torin 1 treatment after IR decreased the S phase population and enforced both G1 and G2 phase arrest. This prorogation of cell cycle progression was accompanied by decreased IR-induced DNA damage measured by γH2AX phosphorylation at Ser139. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of the respective mTORC1 and mTORC2 subunits, Raptor or Rictor, also mitigated IR-induced apoptosis. Collectively, this study suggests a central role for the mTOR signaling in the cytotoxic response to IR and offers a useful platform to probe for additional agents.

 

EVANGELIOU N, ZIBTSEV S, MYRONIUK V et al. – Resuspension and atmospheric transport of radionuclides due to wildfires near the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in 2015 : an impact assessment. - Scientific reports, 17/05/2016, 6, 26062, 14 p.

 

AZIZOVA TV, BANNIKOVA MV, GRIGORIEVA ES et al. – Risk of lower extremity arterial disease in a cohort of workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation over a prolonged period. - Radiation and environmental biophysics, 05/2016, 55, 2, 147-159.

  • abstract

In this study the incidence risk of lower extremity arterial disease (LEAD; international classification of diseases version 9 code 440.2) was assessed in a cohort of workers occupationally exposed to radiation over a prolonged period. The study cohort includes 22,377 workers of the Mayak Production Association (25 % of whom are females) first employed at one of the main facilities in 1948-1982 and followed up to the end of 2008. Dose estimates used in the study are provided by Mayak Worker Dosimetry System 2008. The mean total dose from external gamma-rays is 0.54 Gy for males and 0.44 Gy for females. The mean absorbed liver dose from internal alpha-radiation due to incorporated plutonium is 0.23 Gy in males and 0.44 Gy in females. Relative risks and excess relative risks per unit dose (ERR/Gy) are calculated based on maximum likelihood. A total of 943 cases of LEAD are registered in the study cohort during the follow-up of 512,801 person-years. A significant association of LEAD incidence with total dose from external gamma-rays (based on a linear model) was revealed, and the ERR/Gy is 0.27 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.11; 0.48). It turned out that a linear-exponential model provides a better fit of the data (∆AIC = 9.957).

Inclusion of an adjustment for internal alpha-radiation dose resulted in the reduction of the ERR/Gy to 0.19 (95 % CI 0.05; 0.39), but the risk remains significant. No association of

LEAD incidence with dose from internal alpha-radiation was found in the study worker cohort. It is concluded that this study provides evidence for an association of LEAD incidence with dose from external gamma-rays taking non-radiation factors into account.

 

OSTROUMOVA E, HATCH M, BRENNER A et al. – Non-thyroid cancer incidence in Belarusian residents exposed to Chernobyl fallout in childhood and adolescence : Standardized Incidence Ratio analysis, 1997-2011. - Environmental research, 05/2016, 147, 44-49.

  • abstract

BACKGROUND: While an increased risk of thyroid cancer from post-Chernobyl exposure to Iodine-131 (I-131) in children and adolescents has been well-documented, risks of other cancers or leukemia as a result of residence in radioactively contaminated areas remain uncertain.

METHODS: We studied non-thyroid cancer incidence in a cohort of about 12,000 individuals from Belarus exposed under age of 18 years to Chernobyl fallout (median age at the time of Chernobyl accident of 7.9 years). During 15 years of follow-up from1997 through2011, 54 incident cancers excluding thyroid were identified in the study cohort with 142,968 person-years at risk. We performed Standardized Incidence Ratio (SIR) analysis of all solid cancers excluding thyroid (n=42), of leukemia (n=6) and of lymphoma (n=6).

RESULTS: We found no significant increase in the incidence of non-thyroid solid cancer (SIR=0.83, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 0.61; 1.11), lymphoma (SIR=0.66, 95% CI: 0.26; 1.33) or leukemia (SIR=1.78, 95% CI: 0.71; 3.61) in the study cohort as compared with the sex-, age- and calendar-time-specific national rates. These findings may in part reflect the relatively young age of study subjects (median attained age of 33.4 years), and long latency for some radiation-related solid cancers.

CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence of statistically significant increases in solid cancer, lymphoma and leukemia incidence 25 years after childhood exposure in the study cohort; however, it is important to continue follow-up non-thyroid cancers in individuals exposed to low-level radiation at radiosensitive ages.

 

SUZUKI S, NAKAMURA I, SUZUKI S et al. – Inappropriate suppression of thyrotropin concentrations in young patients with thyroid nodules including thyroid cancer : the Fukushima Health Management Survey. - Thyroid, 05/2016, 26, 5, 717-725.

  • abstract

BACKGROUND: Serum thyroid hormone concentration is regulated through the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. This study aimed to clarify the relationships between thyroid hormone regulation and ultrasonographic findings in subjects with thyroid nodules detected during thyroid ultrasound examination for the Fukushima Health Management Survey.

METHODS: As of October 31, 2014, a total of 296,253 subjects, who had been living in Fukushima Prefecture at the time of the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident and were aged ≤18 years on March 11, 2011, participated in two concurrent screening programs. In the primary screening, thyroid nodules were detected in 2241 subjects. A secondary confirmatory thyroid ultrasound examination and blood sampling for thyroid function tests were performed on 2004 subjects. The subjects were reassessed and classified into disease-free subjects (Group 1), subjects with cysts only (Group 2), subjects with nodules (Group 3), and subjects with malignancy or suspected malignancy (Group 4). Serum concentrations of free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4), thyrotropin (TSH), thyroglobulin, and the fT3/fT4 ratio were classified according to the diagnoses.

RESULTS: Inverse relationships between age and log TSH values (Spearman's correlation r = -0.311, p = 0.015), serum fT3 concentration (r = -0.688, p < 0.001), and the fT3/fT4 ratio (r = -0.520, p < 0.001) were observed in Group 1. When analysis of covariance with Bonferroni post hoc comparisons was used in the four groups, the log TSH values were significantly lower in both Group 3 and Group 4 compared with Group 1 and Group 2 after correcting for age (p < 0.001; Group 1 vs. Group 3, p = 0.016; Group 1 vs. Group 4, p = 0.022; Group 2 vs. Group 3, p = 0.001; Group 2 vs. Group 4, p = 0.008). However, no significant differences were observed between the four groups regarding levels of fT3, fT4, fT3/fT4 ratio, and thyroglobulin (p = 0.304, 0.340, 0.208, and 0.583, respectively).

CONCLUSION: TSH suppression can be present in response to illness, including thyroid nodules, in young subjects. Low TSH levels may be associated with the finding of papillary thyroid cancer as well as with thyroid nodules in children and adolescents.

 

TSUDA T, TOKINOBU A, YAMAMOTO E et al. - Thyroid cancer detection by ultrasound among residents ages 18 years and younger in Fukushima, Japan : 2011 to 2014. – Epidemiology, 05/2016, 27, 3, 316-322. (voir aussi Letters to the Editor, e17-e23)

 

VAN DILLEN T, DEKKERS F, BIJWAARD H et al. – Modeling lung carcinogenesis in radon-exposed miner cohorts : accounting for missing information on smoking. - Risk analysis, 05/2016, 36 , 5, 954-967.

  • abstract

Epidemiological miner cohort data used to estimate lung cancer risks related to occupational radon exposure often lack cohort-wide information on exposure to tobacco smoke, a potential confounder and important effect modifier. We have developed a method to project data on smoking habits from a case-control study onto an entire cohort by means of a Monte Carlo resampling technique. As a proof of principle, this method is tested on a subcohort of 35,084 former uranium miners employed at the WISMUT company (Germany), with 461 lung cancer deaths in the follow-up period 1955-1998. After applying the proposed imputation technique, a biologically-based carcinogenesis model is employed to analyze the cohort's lung cancer mortality data. A sensitivity analysis based on a set of 200 independent projections with subsequent model analyses yields narrow distributions of the free model parameters, indicating that parameter values are relatively stable and independent of individual projections. This technique thus offers a possibility to account for unknown smoking habits, enabling us to unravel risks related to radon, to smoking, and to the combination of both. 

 

VEIGA LH, HOLMBERG E, ANDERSON H et al. – Thyroid cancer after childhood exposure to external radiation : an updated pooled analysis of 12 studies. - Radiation research, 05/2016, 185, 5, 473-484.

  • abstract

Studies have causally linked external thyroid radiation exposure in childhood with thyroid cancer. In 1995, investigators conducted relative risk analyses of pooled data from seven epidemiologic studies. Doses were mostly <10 Gy, although childhood cancer therapies can result in thyroid doses >50 Gy. We pooled data from 12 studies of thyroid cancer patients who were exposed to radiation in childhood (ages <20 years), more than doubling the data, including 1,070 (927 exposed) thyroid cancers and 5.3 million (3.4 million exposed) personyears. Relative risks increased supralinearly through 2-4 Gy, leveled off between 10-30 Gy and declined thereafter, remaining significantly elevated above 50 Gy. There was a significant relative risk trend for doses <0.10 Gy (P < 0.01), with no departure from linearity (P = 0.36). We observed radiogenic effects for both papillary and nonpapillary tumors. Estimates of excess relative risk per Gy (ERR/Gy) were homogeneous by sex (P = 0.35) and number of radiation treatments (P = 0.84) and increased with decreasing age at the time of exposure. The ERR/Gy estimate was significant within ten years of radiation exposure, 2.76 (95% CI, 0.94- 4.98), based on 42 exposed cases, and remained elevated 50 years and more after exposure. Finally, exposure to chemotherapy was significantly associated with thyroid cancer, with results supporting a nonsynergistic (additive) association with radiation.

 

VIAU M, PEREZ AF, BODGI L et al. - Effets de répétitions de doses d’irradiation et réparation de l’ADN : importance du facteur individuel et de l’intervalle de temps entre les doses. Cancer/Radiothérapie, 05/2016, 20, 3, 217-225.

  • résumé

L’effet du fractionnement de la dose d’irradiation est une question récurrente qui reste globalement irrésolue car aucun modèle ne permet aujourd’hui de déduire l’effet clinique par la seule donnée de la dose cumulée et des caractéristiques radiobiologiques des tissus irradiés. Cette question importante est abordée différemment en radioprotection, radiothérapie, radiologie ou épidémiologie. Une meilleure compréhension de la réponse moléculaire aux radiations rend aujourd’hui possible une approche nouvelle pour identifier les paramètres qui conditionnent l’effet du fractionnement. En particulier, l’intervalle de temps entre les doses apparaît comme un facteur essentiel puisqu’il permettra, ou non, la réparation de certains dommages radio-induits de l’ADN comme les dommages de bases, les cassures simple-brin ou les cassures double-brin dont les rythmes de réparation sont respectivement de l’ordre de la seconde, de la minute ou de l’heure : l’effet de fractionnement variera alors suivant les statuts fonctionnels de ces voies de réparation, que ce soit pour les tissus sains comme pour les tumeurs.

 

AITSI-SELMI A, MURRAY V - The Chernobyl disaster and beyond : implications of the Sendai framework for disaster risk reduction 2015-2030. – PlosMed, 25/04/2016, 13, 4, e1002017, 4 p.

 

LITTLE MP, WAKEFORD R, BOUVILLE A et al. - Measurement of Fukushima-related radioactive contamination in aquatic species. - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 05/04/2016, 113, 14, 3720-3721. (pas d’abstract disponible)

 

OKAMURA H, IKEDA S, MORITA T et al. - Risk assessment of radioisotope contamination for aquatic living resources in and around Japan. - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 05/04/2016, 113, 14, 3838-3843.

 

BARBOSA-LORENZO R, BARROS-DIOS J, RAICES ALDREY M et al. - Residential radon and cancers other than lung cancer : a cohort study in Galicia, a Spanish radon-prone area. Letter to the Editor. – European journal of epidemiology, 04/2016, 31, 4, 437-441. (pas d’abstract disponible)

 

MILDER C, SAKATA R, SUGIYAMA H et al. – Initial report for the Radiation Effects Research Foundation F1 Mail Survey. - Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention, 2016, 17, 3, 1313-1323.

 

Communication de congrès

ROUE T, JOURNY N, BAYSSON H et al. – Estimation de l’incidence des leucémies et des tumeurs cérébrales dans la cohorte « Enfant-scanner » en présence de risques concurrents et d’une exposition dépendante du temps. 10ème Conférence Francophone d'Épidémiologie Clinique. Strasbourg, 25-27 mai 2016. - Revue d’épidémiologie et de santé publique, 05/2016, 64, S3, S161.

  • introduction

Parmi les examens utilisant les rayonnements ionisants à des fins diagnostics, la scanographie est de plus en plus utilisée, y compris chez les enfants. Ces derniers ayant une radiosensibilité plus importante que les adultes, et une espérance de vie plus longue, ils ont plus de risque de développer un cancer à long terme. Plusieurs études épidémiologiques récentes ont montré une augmentation des risques de leucémie et de tumeurs du système nerveux central (SNC) après une exposition aux examens scanners dans l’enfance et à l’âge adulte. Dans ces études, les risques de cancer ont été estimés sans tenir compte des événements concurrents, à savoir la survenue d’autres types de cancer et la survenue de décès non cancer.

 

Comptes-rendus de congrès

ICRP – Proceedings of the 3rd international symposium on the system of radiological protection. Séoul (Corée du sud), 20-22 octobre 2015. – Annals of the ICRP, 2016, 45, 1S, 1-372.

 

Dossiers

World nuclear association – Fukushima accident. – 04/2016, 22 p.

 

La maintenance des centrales nucléaires. – Revue générale nucléaire, 01-02/2016, no.1, 11-49.

  • sommaire

Dans son rapport public annuel, la Cour des comptes se penche sur la situation et les défis de la maintenance nucléaire. Pour les experts de la rue Cambon, l’objectif de 50 % de production d’électricité nucléaire en 2025, fixé par la loi transition énergétique, impliquerait la fermeture d’un tiers du parc en exploitation, l’équivalent de 17 à 20 réacteurs. Si la Cour recommande au gouvernement d’identifier les conséquences industrielles et financières de l’application de la loi sur le programme de maintenance « Grand carénage » (voir page 26), elle suggère qu’en l’état, ce programme soit « intégralement révisé » pour éviter les « dépenses inutiles ». Décryptage avec Didier Migaud, premier président de la Cour des comptes.

 

Guide

WATSON SJ, DUANE R, COLE D et al. – Radiation recovery guidance and tools. User guide. Supplement of the UK Recovery handbooks for radiation incidents. – Public Health England, 05/2016, 106 p.

 

Norme

AFNOR – Instrumentation pour la radioprotection - Systèmes dosimétriques intégrés passifs pour la surveillance de l'individu, du lieu de travail et de l'environnement des rayonnements photoniques et bêta. - 20/05/2016, NF EN 62387, 96 p.

  • résumé et sommaire

Le présent document s’applique à toutes sortes de systèmes dosimétriques passifs utilisés pour la mesure – des équivalents de dose individuels Hp (10) (pour la dosimétrie du corps entier), – des équivalents de dose individuels Hp (3) (pour la dosimétrie des cristallins), – des équivalents de dose individuels Hp (0,07) (pour la dosimétrie du corps entier et pour la dosimétrie d'extrémités), – de l’équivalent de dose ambiant H*(10) (pour la dosimétrie de l'environnement), ou – de l’équivalent de dose directionnel H ’(0,07) (pour la dosimétrie de l'environnement). 

 

Numéro de revue

ASN – Les 10 ans de l’ASN. La loi TECV. 14 ans de contrôle de la radioprotection. - Contrôle, 04/2016, no. 200, 52 p.

 

Rapports

IRSN - Constat radiologique minier du bassin versant de la Dordogne sur la base d’une démarche pluraliste menée avec les acteurs du territoire. – 05/2016, 52 p.

 

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine – Lessons learned from the Fukushima nuclear accident for improving safety and security of U.S. nuclear plants. Phase 2. – National Academies Press, 05/2016, 239 p.

 

AIEA – Nuclear accident knowledge taxonomy (Coll. Nuclear energy series no. NG-T-6.8). –05/2016, 52 p.

 

ASN – La sûreté nucléaire et la radioprotection en France en 2015. - 04/2016, 538 p.

 

Cour des comptes – L’imagerie médicale. – 04/2016, 163 p.

 

OMS – 1986-2016 : Chernobyl at 30. An update. – 25/04/2016, 7 p.

 

OMS – Communicating radiation risks in paediatric imaging. – 22/04/2016, 94 p.

 

AIEA – Criteria for radionuclide activity concentrations for food and drinking water. IAEA-TECDOC-1788. – 04/2016, 63 p.

 

NCRP – Commentary no. 25. Potential for central nervous system effects from radiation exposure during space activities Phase 1 : overview. – 2016, 86 p.

 

FOURNEL J, DURANTHON JP, VO VAN QUI JL et al. - Le financement du contrôle de la sûreté nucléaire et de la radioprotection. – IGF/ CGEDD/ CGE, 12/2015, 30 p.

 

Autres informations

Congrès

ICRS-13 & RPSD-2016 – 13th International Conference on Radiation Shielding and 19th Topical meeting of the radiation protection and Shielding Division of the ANS. Paris, 3-6 octobre 2016.

 

ATSR – 5th Forum européen de radioprotectique. Techniques, méthodes de démantèlement et radioprotection. La Grande Motte, 5-7 octobre 2016.

 

Journées

SFRP – Exposition au radon domestique. Paris, 12 septembre 2016.

 

SFEN – Actualités du cycle du combustible. Paris, 24 novembre 2016.

 

 

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BSE 30 septembre 2015 - no. 207

Documentation en Radioprotection d'EDF - DPI - Division Production Nucléaire

 


30 septembre 2015 - no. 207

 

Vient de paraître

 

Articles

DREGER S, PFINDER M, CHRISTIANSON L et al. – The effects of iodine blocking following nuclear accidents on thyroid cancer, hypothyroidism, and benign thyroid nodules : design of a systematic review. - Systematic reviews, 24/09/2015, 4, 126, 7 p.

KIMURA Y, OKUBO Y, HAYASHIDA N et al. – Evaluation of the relationship between current internal 137Cs exposure in residents and soil contamination west of Chernobyl in northern Ukraine. - Plos One, 24/09/2015, 10, 9, e0139007, 11 p.

DROZD VM, SAENKO VA, BRENNER AV et al. – Major factors affecting incidence of childhood thyroid cancer in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident : do nitrates in drinking water play a role ? - Plos One, 23/09/2015, 10, 9, e0137226, 14 p.

MURAKAMI M, ONO K, TSUBOKURA M et al. - Was the risk from nursing-home evacuation after the Fukushima accident higher than the radiation risk? – Plos One, 24/09/2015, 10, 9, e0139007, 11 p.

USMAN SM, JOCHER GR, MCDONOUGH WF et al. – AGM2015 : Antineutrino global map 2015. - Scientific reports, 01/09/2015, 5, 13945, 11 p.

ALEJO J, KOREN C, FERRER C et al. - Estimation of eye lens doses received by pediatric interventional cardiologists. – Applied radiation and isotopes, 09/2015, 103, 43-47.

  • abstract

Maximum Hp(0.07) dose to the eye lens received in a year by the pediatric interventional cardiologists has been estimated. Optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters were placed on the eyes of an anthropomorphic phantom, whose position in the room simulates the most common irradiation conditions. Maximum workload was considered with data collected from procedures performed in the Hospital. None of the maximum values obtained exceed the dose limit of 20mSv recommended by ICRP.

AZIZOVA TV, GRIGORIEVA ES, HUNTER N et al. – Risk of mortality from circulatory diseases in Mayak workers cohort following occupational radiation exposure. - Journal of radiological protection, 09/2015, 35, 3, 517-538.

  • abstract

Mortality from circulatory diseases (CD) (ICD-9 codes 390-459) was studied in an extended Mayak worker cohort, which included 22 377 workers first employed at the Mayak Production Association in 1948-1982 and followed up to the end of 2008. The enlarged cohort and extended follow-up as compared to the previous analyses provided an increased number of deaths from CD and improved statistical power of this mortality study. The analyses were based on dose estimates provided by a new Mayak Worker Dosimetry System 2008 (MWDS-2008). For the first time in the study of non-cancer effects in this cohort quantitative smoking data (smoking index) were taken into account. A significant increasing trend for CD mortality with increasing dose from external gamma-rays was found after having adjusted for non-radiation factors; the excess relative risk per unit dose (ERR/Gy) was 0.05 (95% confidence interval (CI): >0, 0.11). Inclusion of an additional adjustment for dose from internal alpha-radiation to the liver resulted in a two-fold increase of ERR/Gy = 0.10 (95% CI: 0.02, 0.21). A significant increasing trend in CD mortality with increasing dose from internal alpha-radiation to the liver was observed (ERR/Gy = 0.27, 95% CI: 0.12, 0.48). However the ERR/Gy decreased and lost its significance after adjusting for dose from external gamma-rays. Results of the current study are in good agreement with risk estimates obtained for the Japanese LSS cohort as well as other studies of cohorts of nuclear workers.

BOSCH DE BASEA M, PEARCE MS, KESMINIENE A et al.- EPI-CT: design, challenges and epidemiological methods of an international study on cancer risk after paediatric and young adult CT. - Journal of radiological protection, 09/2015, 35, 3, 611-628.

FIBACH E, RACHMILEWITZ EA – The effect of fermented papaya preparation on radioactive exposure. - Radiation research, 09/2015, 184, 3, 304-313.

  • abstract

Exposure to ionizing radiation causes cellular damage, which can lead to premature cell death or accumulation of somatic mutations, resulting in malignancy. The damage is mediated in part by free radicals, particularly reactive oxygen species. Fermented papaya preparation (FPP), a product of yeast fermentation of Carica papaya Linn, has been shown to act as an antioxidant. In this study, we investigated the potential of FPP to prevent radiation-induced damage. FPP (0-100 μg/ml) was added to cultured human foreskin fibroblasts and myeloid leukemia (HL-60) cells either before or after irradiation (0-18 Gy). After 1-3 days, the cells were assayed for: intracellular labile iron, measured by staining with calcein; reactive oxygen species generation, measured with dichlorofluorescein diacetate; apoptosis, determined by phosphatidylserine exposure; membrane damage, determined by propidium iodide uptake; and cell survival, determined by a cell proliferation assay. DNA damage was estimated by measuring 8-oxoguanine, a parameter of DNA oxidation, using a fluorescent-specific probe and by the comet assay. These parameters were also assayed in bone marrow cells of mice treated with FPP (by adding it to the drinking water) either before or after irradiation. Somatic mutation accumulation was determined in their peripheral red blood cells, and their survival was monitored. FPP significantly reduced the measured radiation-induced cytotoxic parameters. These findings suggest that FPP might serve as a radioprotector, and its effect on DNA damage and mutagenicity might reduce the long-term effects of radiation, such as primary and secondary malignancy.

GIARDINA PA, LAURITA MJ, SHAH SK – A review of Joseph J. Mangano's study on the variation in thyroid cancer incidence. - Health physics, 09/2015, 109, 3, 258-264.

  • abstract

Researchers have attempted to link incidences of papillary thyroid cancer with radioiodine releases from nuclear power plants. Thyroid cancer detection rates are examined together with overall population exposure to ionizing radiation and actual radioiodine releases from the Indian Point Energy Center to determine if a causal relationship exists. A critical review of the statistical analyses used in previous papers is then presented.

HUNTER N, MUIRHEAD CR, BOCHICCHIO F et al. - Calculation of lifetime lung cancer risks associated with radon exposure, based on various models and exposure scenarios. - Journal of radiological protection, 09/2015, 35, 3, 539-555.

  • abstract

The risk of lung cancer mortality up to 75 years of age due to radon exposure has been estimated for both male and female continuing, ex- and never-smokers, based on various radon risk models and exposure scenarios. We used risk models derived from (i) the BEIR VI analysis of cohorts of radon-exposed miners, (ii) cohort and nested case-control analyses of a European cohort of uranium miners and (iii) the joint analysis of European residential radon case-control studies. Estimates of the lifetime lung cancer risk due to radon varied between these models by just over a factor of 2 and risk estimates based on models from analyses of European uranium miners exposed at comparatively low rates and of people exposed to radon in homes were broadly compatible. For a given smoking category, there was not much difference in lifetime lung cancer risk between males and females. The estimated lifetime risk of radon-induced lung cancer for exposure to a concentration of 200 Bq m(-3) was in the range 2.98-6.55% for male continuing smokers and 0.19-0.42% for male never-smokers, depending on the model used and assuming a multiplicative relationship for the joint effect of radon and smoking. Stopping smoking at age 50 years decreases the lifetime risk due to radon by around a half relative to continuing smoking, but the risk for ex-smokers remains about a factor of 5-7 higher than that for never-smokers. Under a sub-multiplicative model for the joint effect of radon and smoking, the lifetime risk of radon-induced lung cancer was still estimated to be substantially higher for continuing smokers than for never smokers. Radon mitigation-used to reduce radon concentrations at homes-can also have a substantial impact on lung cancer risk, even for persons in their 50 s; for each of continuing smokers, ex-smokers and never-smokers, radon mitigation at age 50 would lower the lifetime risk of radon-induced lung cancer by about one-third. To maximise risk reductions, smokers in high-radon homes should both stop smoking and remediate their homes.

KITAHARA CM, LINET MS, RAJARAMAN P et al. – A new era of low-dose radiation epidemiology. - Current environmental health reports, 09/2015, 2, 3, 236-249.

KORZENEVA IB, KOSTUYK SV, ERSHOVA LS et al. – Human circulating plasma DNA significantly decreases while lymphocyte DNA damage increases under chronic occupational exposure to low-dose gamma-neutron and tritium β-radiation. - Mutation research/Fundamentals and molecular mechanisms of mutagenesis, 09/2015, 779, 1-15.

  • abstract

The blood plasma of healthy people contains cell-fee (circulating) DNA (cfDNA). Apoptotic cells are the main source of the cfDNA. The cfDNA concentration increases in case of the organism's cell death rate increase, for example in case of exposure to high-dose ionizing radiation (IR). The objects of the present research are the blood plasma and blood lymphocytes of people, who contacted occupationally with the sources of external gamma/neutron radiation or internal β-radiation of tritium N=176). As the controls (references), blood samples of people, who had never been occupationally subjected to the IR sources, were used (N=109). With respect to the plasma samples of each donor there were defined: the cfDNA concentration (the cfDNA index), DNase1 activity (the DNase1 index) and titre of antibodies to DNA (the Ab DNA index). The general DNA damage in the cells was defined (using the Comet assay, the tail moment (TM) index). A chronic effect of the low-dose ionizing radiation on a human being is accompanied by the enhancement of the DNA damage in lymphocytes along with a considerable cfDNA content reduction, while the DNase1 content and concentration of antibodies to DNA (Ab DNA) increase. All the aforementioned changes were also observed in people, who had not worked with the IR sources for more than a year. The ratio cfDNA/(DNase1×Ab DNA×TM) is proposed to be used as a marker of the chronic exposure of a person to the external low-dose IR. It was formulated the assumption that the joint analysis of the cfDNA, DNase1, Ab DNA and TM values may provide the information about the human organism's cell resistivity to chronic exposure to the low-dose IR and about the development of the adaptive response in the organism that is aimed, firstly, at the effective cfDNA elimination from the blood circulation, and, secondly - at survival of the cells, including the cells with the damaged DNA.

LIAN Y, XIAO J, JI X et al. – Protracted low-dose radiation exposure and cataract in a cohort of Chinese industry radiographers. - Occupational and environmental medicine, 09/2015, 72, 9, 640-647.

  • abstract

OBJECTIVES : The aim of this study was to assess the risk of cataract following protracted low doses of radiation exposure among industry radiographers and comparison groups of unexposed workers.

METHODS : A cohort of 1401 industry radiographers and 1878 unexposed workers in China was followed up for 12 years. The lens doses were based on individual monitoring. Presence of cataract was assessed clinically based on lens photographs using the Lens Opacities Classification System III. Radiation dose-response analyses were performed for cataract incidence by using Poisson regression, adjusting for confounding factors.

RESULTS : Industry radiographers were significantly more likely than unexposed workers to develop cortical (HR=2.58, 95% CI 1.36 to 3.82), posterior subcapsular (PSC) cataract (HR=3.57, 95% CI 1.27 to 4.79) and mixed cataract (HR=3.25, 95% CI 1.20 to 6.78), but not nuclear cataract (HR=0.93, 95% CI 0.78 to 1.11). Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, old age at exposure, and high body mass index (>27 km/m(2)) were significantly associated with increased risk of cortical, PSC and mixed cataracts. However, the risk decreased for regular users of shielded enclosures, lead eyeglasses and lead aprons. No dose-effect relationship was observed for cortical (excess relative risk (ERR)/Sv=0.16; 95% CI -0.04 to 0.36) and PSC cataract (ERR/Sv=0.14; 95% CI -0.90 to 0.76).

CONCLUSIONS : The results indicated a radiation effect for cortical and PSC cataract at doses less than the annual limit of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) guidelines. Regarding current eye risk guidelines, the results challenged the ICRP assumption that cataract is a dose-limiting ocular pathology. Regular use of radiation-protective equipment is therefore strongly recommended for eye safety.

TAWN EJ, CURWEN GB, JONAS P et al. - Chromosome aberrations determined by FISH in radiation workers from the Sellafield nuclear facility. - Radiation research, 09/2015, 184, 3, 296-303.

ZHANG Y, CHEN H, HUANG H et al. - Diagnostic radiography exposure increases the risk for thyroid microcarcinoma : a population-based case-control study. – European journal of cancer prevention, 09/2015, 24, 5, 439-446.

  • abstract

Thyroid cancer incidence and diagnostic radiography exposures, particularly computed tomography (CT) scanning and nuclear medicine examinations, have increased substantially in the USA. However, very few epidemiologic studies have directly investigated their associations. A population-based case-control study was conducted in Connecticut in 2010-2011, including 462 histologically confirmed incident thyroid cancer cases and 498 population-based controls. Multivariate unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate the associations between diagnostic radiography and the risk of thyroid cancer, controlling for potential confounding factors. Exposure to any form of diagnostic radiography was associated with an increased risk of well-differentiated thyroid microcarcinoma [tumor size≤10 mm, odds ratio (OR)=2.76, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.31-5.81]. The highest risk increase occurred with nuclear medicine examinations (excluding cardiology tests and thyroid uptake studies; OR=5.47, 95% CI: 2.10-14.23), followed by chest CT scanning (OR=4.30, 95% CI: 1.66-11.14), head and neck CT scanning (OR=3.88, 95% CI: 1.75-8.63), upper gastrointestinal series (OR=3.56, 95% CI: 1.54-8.21), lower gastrointestinal series (OR=3.29, 95% CI: 1.41-7.66), kidney radiography involving dye injection into a vein or artery (OR=3.21, 95% CI: 1.20-8.54), mammography (OR=2.95, 95% CI: 1.14-7.61), chest radiography (OR=2.93, 95% CI: 1.37-6.29), and abdomen CT scanning (OR=2.54, 95% CI: 1.02-6.30). No significant associations were found between these imaging modalities and thyroid tumors larger than 10 mm. This study provides the first direct evidence that CT scanning and nuclear medicine examinations are associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer. The novel finding that an array of diagnostic radiography procedures are associated with thyroid microcarcinomas warrants further investigation.

DURAND A, DUTZER M - Gestion des déchets de faible et moyenne activité à vie courte. Gestion des déchets de très faible activité. – Techniques de l’ingénieur-Génie nucléaire, 07/2015, BN 3659, 15 p.

  • résumé

Les déchets de faible et moyenne activité à vie courte représentent environ 90 % du volume des déchets radioactifs produits en France. Ils sont stockés dans une installation de surface dans le département de l’Aube. La sûreté repose sur un concept multibarrières comportant les colis, les ouvrages de stockage et le site de stockage. Le processus d’agrément garantie que l’activité résiduelle des déchets après décroissance radioactive ne conduise pas à un risque significatif à la fin de la période de surveillance (300 ans pour les déchets FMA-VC, 30 ans pour les déchets TFA). INTRODUCTION La France bénéficie d'une expérience industrielle de plus de 40 ans dans le domaine du stockage des déchets de faible et moyenne activité à vie courte. Cette expérience a commencé en 1969 avec l'ouverture du centre de stockage de la Manche (CSM). C'est sur ce site que s'est construit le concept de stockage associé à ce type de déchets. Son exploitation s'est terminée en 1994 et, après des travaux de couverture, le CSM est entré en phase de surveillance en 2003. Le concept développé au CSM a pu être mis pleinement en place sur le centre de stockage de l'Aube (CSA) mis en service en 1992 et qui a pris sa suite. Le CSA devrait être exploité jusqu'à l'horizon 2050. La montée en puissance des programmes de démantèlement des installations nucléaires anciennes, en particulier des réacteurs de première génération, a conduit à préciser la réglementation applicable à la gestion des déchets au sein des installations nucléaires. Cette réglementation ne retient pas le principe d'un seuil de libération pour les déchets dont la radioactivité serait sans risque sanitaire mais la mise en place d'un zonage des déchets visant à séparer les secteurs où les déchets risquent d'être contaminés ou activés et ceux où il n'y a aucun risque d'y détecter de la radioactivité. Pour répondre aux besoins de prise en charge des déchets dans ce contexte réglementaire, un nouveau centre de stockage dédié aux déchets de très faible activité (Cires) a été ouvert en 2003. Conçus, construits et exploités par l'Agence nationale pour la gestion des déchets radioactifs (Andra), ces centres de stockage permettent de prendre en charge environ 90 % du volume de déchets radioactifs produits sur le territoire français.

HERVIOU K, LAVARENNE C - Sûreté des centrales nucléaires en France après l'accident de Fukushima. - Techniques de l’ingénieur-Génie nucléaire, 07/2015, BN 3825, 8 p.

  • résumé

A la suite de l’accident de Fukushima, des évaluations ont été menées par les exploitants nucléaires français afin d’apprécier le comportement de leurs installations lors de situations extrêmes du type de celle rencontrée à Fukushima. Des dispositions complémentaires seront progressivement mises en place pour réduire les risques associées à ces situations. Ces dispositions comporteront des moyens fixes robustes, constituant le « noyau dur » permettant d’assurer la maîtrise des fonctions de sûreté des installations au moins pendant les premiers jours suivant l’accident, ainsi que des moyens mobiles pouvant être acheminés et installés sur le site par la Force d’action rapide nucléaire (FARN), constituée d’équipes entraînées aux interventions dans des conditions difficiles. Les plans d’urgence seront également adaptés pour faire face à une situation accidentelle susceptible d’affecter l’ensemble des installations d’un même site. INTRODUCTION Les centrales électronucléaires françaises sont conçues pour résister à différentes agressions d'origine naturelle : séismes, inondations, neige, vent, températures extrêmes, etc. Lors de leur conception, les caractéristiques des agressions susceptibles d'affecter la sûreté des installations sont déterminées (intensité pour les séismes, cinétique de montée des eaux et niveau associé pour les inondations, vitesse et force pour les vents...) ; ces caractéristiques dépendent bien évidemment du site d'implantation. Ces informations sont ensuite utilisées pour dimensionner les installations, c'est-à-dire mettre en oeuvre des dispositions garantissant que les équipements nécessaires à la sûreté de l'installation resteront disponibles et opérationnels en cas d'agression. Les agressions considérées et leurs caractéristiques ont été plusieurs fois réévaluées depuis la conception initiale des centrales nucléaires françaises, à l'occasion des réexamens de sûreté périodiques ou à la suite d'événements survenus en France (grands froids dans les années 1985-1987, inondation partielle de la centrale du Blayais fin 1999, canicules en 2003 et 2006). L'accident de Fukushima, survenu au Japon le 11 mars 2011, a rappelé, d'une part que l'occurrence d'agressions naturelles dépassant les caractéristiques retenues pour le dimensionnement des installations ne pouvait pas être totalement écartée, d'autre part que ces agressions pouvaient affecter l'ensemble des dispositions mises en place en termes de prévention des accidents et de limitation des conséquences d'un accident qui surviendrait malgré les dispositions de prévention. Le séisme de Tohoku a ainsi notamment entraîné un tsunami d'une hauteur dépassant celle des digues de protection mises en place : l'eau qui a envahi les bâtiments a entraîné la perte des sources d'alimentation électrique puis, progressivement, la perte des moyens de refroidissement des coeurs des réacteurs et des piscines de désactivation du combustible usé. Ces pertes successives ont conduit à la fusion du coeur de trois des six réacteurs à eau bouillante construits sur le site et à la dégradation de la sûreté des entreposages en piscines d'entreposage des assemblages combustibles usés. Cet accident a entraîné des rejets radioactifs importants dans l'environnement par voie atmosphérique, mais également par voie liquide, en mer. À la suite de cet accident, des évaluations complémentaires de sûreté (ECS) ont été menées par les exploitants nucléaires français afin d'apprécier le comportement de leurs installations en situation extrême du type de celle survenue au Japon le 11 mars 2011. En conclusion de cet examen et bien que la capacité des centrales nucléaires françaises à faire face aux agressions plausibles ait été confirmée, il a été jugé utile de mettre en oeuvre des dispositions complémentaires visant à renforcer leur protection contre les agressions naturelles extrêmes et de réduire le risque de rejets radioactifs en cas de perte durable des alimentations électriques ou des sources de refroidissement. Des évaluations de ce type ont également été menées dans le reste du monde, en particulier en Europe et dans les grands pays nucléarisés. Elles ont également conduit à compléter les dispositions de conception existantes mais sous des formes diverses, par exemple par la mise à place, sur site, de moyens mobiles pouvant être connectés à l'installation après une agression.

STUTZMANN A, LECLERCQ S, MANSOUR C - Chimie des milieux primaire et secondaire des centrales nucléaires REP françaises. - Techniques de l’ingénieur-Génie nucléaire, 07/2015, BN 3748, 25 p.

  • résumé

Limiter les phénomènes de corrosion, augmenter la disponibilité des tranches, contrôler les rejets dans l’environnement et réduire la contamination radioactive, sont autant de défis que le chimiste doit relever pour le bon fonctionnement et la maîtrise de la sûreté des réacteurs à eau sous pression. L’optimisation judicieuse de la chimie des milieux primaire et secondaire des centrales REP françaises, durant toutes les phases de l’exploitation, est le principal levier permettant de répondre aux enjeux précédents. INTRODUCTION Le parc nucléaire français compte 58 tranches nucléaires de type REP (réacteurs à eau pressurisée), de puissance électrique allant de 900 à 1 450 MWe, réparties sur 19 sites. La durée de fonctionnement d'une tranche nucléaire de type REP, dont le principe de fonctionnement est synthétisé dans un encadré (§ 1), est réexaminée tous les 10 ans. Elle est aujourd'hui estimée à 40 ans. Pour estimer cette durée et dès le début de l'exploitation, il est nécessaire de connaître les principaux modes de dégradation des composants des réacteurs et d'assurer leur maintien en bon état de fonctionnement ou de procéder à leur remplacement quand c'est possible. Les phénomènes de corrosion des parties métalliques des circuits primaires et secondaires sont à l'origine de la plupart des dégradations constatées. En plus des effets directs de la corrosion sur les matériaux (risque de fissuration, fragilisation, perte de masse), il existe des effets indirects qui vont contribuer à l'apparition de phénomènes où les produits de corrosion libérés sont responsables de dépôts dans des zones sensibles, de l'encrassement et du colmatage des générateurs de vapeur (GV) du côté secondaire et sont aussi à l'origine de la radioactivité déposée dans le circuit primaire. Pour maîtriser les différents phénomènes, plusieurs leviers d'action sont nécessaires. Que ce soit l'amélioration continue des procédés de fabrication des composants, ou encore des modes de fonctionnement optimisés, le choix d'une chimie adaptée constitue finalement un des outils principaux pour maintenir en bon état les composants des différents circuits. L'eau étant le principal vecteur des éléments en solution, le contrôle des paramètres chimiques durant toutes les phases de l'exploitation permet de maîtriser la plupart des phénomènes de dégradation. Par ailleurs, plus récemment, les évolutions de la chimie doivent prendre en compte les différents enjeux de la loi TSN codifiée dans le Code de l'environnement, qui place au même niveau les différents intérêts protégés par la loi (sûreté, radioprotection, protection de l'environnement, santé et sécurité).

La première partie de l'article est consacrée au circuit primaire et la deuxième au circuit secondaire des centrales REP françaises. Dans chaque partie, les principaux modes de dégradation et les enjeux associés sont présentés, suivis par le choix du conditionnement chimique par circuit. Enfin, des voies nouvelles d'optimisation sont proposées.

SELMANSBERGER M, KAISER JC, HESS J et al. – Dose-dependent expression of CLIP2 in post-Chernobyl papillary thyroid carcinomas. - Carcinogenesis, 07/2015, 36, 7, 748-756.

 

Compte-rendu de congrès

CHERUBINI C, CUCINOTTA FA, MENZEL HG et al. - MICROS 2013. 16th International symposium on microdosimetry. Trévise (Italie), 20-25 octobre 2013. – Radiation protection dosimetry, 2015, 166, 1-4, 398 p.

 

Ouvrages

SORIN F – Déchets nucléaires : où est le problème ? – EDP Sciences, 09/2015, 160 p.

COLAS-LINHART N, PETIET A – La saga nucléaire. Témoignages d’acteurs. – L’Harmattan, 08/2015, 254 p. (sommaire en PJ12)

 

Rapports

CCSN - Étude des conséquences d’un grave accident nucléaire hypothétique et de l’efficacité des mesures d’atténuation. - Commission canadienne de sûreté nucléaire, 09/2015, 144 p.

IRSN - Valeur Guide Environnementale (VGE) et valeurs de référence spécifiques (QS) pour l’uranium. Synthèse et éléments pour l’application aux eaux douces françaises. – 09/2015, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS/2015-004, 28 p.

ASN, Ministère du travail, IRSN – Livre blanc sur la surveillance radiologique des expositions des travailleurs. – 06/2015, 234 p.

IRSN - Bilan de la surveillance de la radioactivité en Polynésie française en 2014. – 09/2015, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SESURE, 44 p.

INHESJ – Fukushima. 2011-2014. Retour sur une crise exceptionnelle. – Premier Ministre – Institut National des Hautes Etudes de la Sécurité et de la Justice, 07/2014, 76 p.

 

Autres informations

Emission de TV

Japon : retour à Fukushima. – ARTE reportage, samedi 3 octobre 2015 à 18h35.

 

Journées

SFEN – Les matériaux pour le stockage géologique des déchets. Paris, 17 novembre 2015.

SFEN – Nucléaire et environnement. Paris, 26 et 27 novembre 2015.

Séminaire

Réseau Régional Grand-Ouest des PCR et Acteurs de la Radioprotection – 26ème séminaire radioprotection. Caen, 5 novembre 2015.

annonce disponible sur le site http://www.unicaen.fr/services/imogere/pdf/26eme-seminaire.pdf

 

et pour toute information : Cette adresse e-mail est protégée contre les robots spammeurs. Vous devez activer le JavaScript pour la visualiser.

 

 

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BSE 29 juillet 2016 - no. 217

 

29 juillet 2016 - no. 217

Documentation en Radioprotection d'EDF - DPI - Division Production Nucléaire

 

Projets de publication

Article

FOURNIER L, LAURENT O, SAMSON E et al. - External radiation dose and cancer mortality among French nuclear workers : considering potential confounding by internal radiation exposure. – International archives of occupational and environmental health, online 06/07/2016, 9 p.

  • abstract

OBJECTIVES: French nuclear workers have detailed records of their occupational exposure to external radiation that have been used to examine associations with subsequent cancer mortality. However, some workers were also exposed to internal contamination by radionuclides. This study aims to assess the potential for bias due to confounding by internal contamination of estimates of associations between external radiation exposure and cancer mortality.

METHODS: A cohort of 59,004 workers employed for at least 1 year between 1950 and 1994 by CEA (Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique), AREVA NC, or EDF (Electricité de France) and badge-monitored for external radiation exposure were followed through 2004 to assess vital status and cause of death. A flag based on a workstation-exposure matrix defined four levels of potential for internal contamination. Standardized mortality ratios were assessed for each level of the internal contamination indicator. Poisson regression was used to quantify associations between external radiation exposure and cancer mortality, adjusting for potential internal contamination.

RESULTS: For solid cancer, the mortality deficit tended to decrease as the levels of potential for internal contamination increased. For solid cancer and leukemia excluding chronic lymphocytic leukemia, adjusting the dose-response analysis on the internal contamination indicator did not markedly change the excess relative risk per Sievert of external radiation dose.

CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that in this cohort, neglecting information on internal dosimetry while studying the association between external dose and cancer mortality does not generate a substantial bias. To investigate more specifically the health effects of internal contamination, an effort is underway to estimate organ doses due to internal contamination.

 

Rapports

ICRP – Occupational intakes of radionuclides Part 4. ICRP ref 4849-5568-5428. – Annals of the ICRP, [online 14 juillet 2016], 337 p.

  • draft disponible sur le site de l’ICRP http://www.icrp.org (contribution possible jusqu’au 16 septembre 2016)

 

ICRP – Dose coefficients for non-human biota environmentally exposed to radiation. ICRP ref 4851-0615-0964. – Annals of the ICRP, [online 4 juillet 2016], 92 p.

  • draft disponible sur le site de l’ICRP http://www.icrp.org (contribution possible jusqu’au 7 octobre 2016)

 

Vient de paraître

Articles

DELP MD, CHARVAT JM, LIMOLI CL et al. - Apollo lunar astronauts show higher cardiovascular disease mortality : possible deep space radiation effects on the vascular endothelium. – Scientific reports, 28/07/2016, 8, 29901, 11 p.

EBNER DK, OHSAWA M, IGARI K et al. - Lifestyle-related diseases following the evacuation after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident : a retrospective study of Kawauchi Village with long-term follow-up. – BMJ Open, 11/07/2016, 6, 7, e011641, 8 p.

 

KUNII Y, SUZUKI Y, SHIGA T et al. - Severe psychological distress of evacuees in evacuation zone caused by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident : the Fukushima Health management Survey. – Plos One, 08/07/2016, 11, 7, e0158821, 15 p.

UEMURA M, OHIRA T, YASUMURA S et al. – Association between psychological distress and dietary intake among evacuees after the Great East Japan Earthquake in a cross-sectional study : the Fukushima Health Management Survey. - BMJ Open, 05/07/2016, 6, 7, e011534, 13 p.

BRECHIGNAC F, OUGHTON D, MAYS C et al. - Addressing ecological effects of radiation on populations and ecosystems to improve protection of the environment against radiation : Agreed statements from a Consensus Symposium. – Journal of environmental radioactivity, 07/2016, 158-159, 21-29.

  • abstract

This paper reports the output of a consensus symposium organized by the International Union of Radioecology in November 2015. The symposium gathered an academically diverse group of 30 scientists to consider the still debated ecological impact of radiation on populations and ecosystems. Stimulated by the Chernobyl and Fukushima disasters' accidental contamination of the environment, there is increasing interest in developing environmental radiation protection frameworks. Scientific research conducted in a variety of laboratory and field settings has improved our knowledge of the effects of ionizing radiation on the environment.

However, the results from such studies sometimes appear contradictory and there is disagreement about the implications for risk assessment. The Symposium discussions therefore focused on issues that might lead to different interpretations of the results, such as laboratory versus field approaches, organism versus population and ecosystemic inference strategies, dose estimation approaches and their significance under chronic exposure conditions. The participating scientists, from across the spectrum of disciplines and research areas, extending also beyond the traditional radioecology community, successfully developed a constructive spirit directed at understanding discrepancies. From the discussions, the group has derived seven consensus statements related to environmental protection against radiation, which are supplemented with some recommendations. Each of these statements is contextualized and discussed in view of contributing to the orientation and integration of future research, the results of which should yield better consensus on the ecological impact of radiation and consolidate suitable approaches for efficient radiological protection of the environment.

TERAS LR, DIVER WR, TURNER MC et al. - Residential radon exposure and risk of incident hematologic malignancies in the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort. – Environmental research, 07/2016, 148, 46-54.

  • abstract 

Dosimetric models show that radon, an established cause of lung cancer, delivers a non negligible dose of alpha radiation to the bone marrow, as well as to lymphocytes in the tracheobronchial epithelium, and therefore could be related to risk of hematologic cancers. Studies of radon and hematologic cancer risk, however, have produced inconsistent results. To date there is no published prospective, population-based study of residential radon exposure and hematologic malignancy incidence. We used data from the American Cancer

Society Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort established in 1992, to examine the association between county-level residential radon exposure and risk of hematologic cancer.

The analytic cohort included 140,652 participants (66,572 men, 74,080 women) among which 3019 incident hematologic cancer cases (1711 men, 1308 women) were identified during 19 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to calculate multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for radon exposure and hematologic cancer risk. Women living in counties with the highest mean radon concentrations (>148Bq/m(3)) had a statistically significant higher risk of hematologic cancer compared to those living in counties with the lowest (<74Bq/m(3)) radon levels (HR=1.63, 95% CI:1.23-2.18), and there was evidence of a dose-response relationship (HRcontinuous=1.38, 95% CI:1.15-1.65 per 100Bq/m(3); p-trend=0.001). There was no association between county-level radon and hematologic cancer risk among men. The findings of this large, prospective study suggest residential radon may be a risk factor for lymphoid malignancies among women. Further study is needed to confirm these findings.

VRAL A, DECORTE V, DEPUYDT J et al. - A semi‐ automated FISH‐ based micronucleus‐ centromere assay for biomonitoring of hospital workers exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation. – Molecular medicine reports, 07/2016, 14, 1, 103-110.

TSUBOKURA M, NOMURA S, SAKAIHARA K et al. - Estimated association between dwelling soil contamination and internal radiation contamination levels after the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in Japan. - BMJ Open, 09/06/2016, 6, 6, e010970, 8 p.

LAURENT O, GOMOLKA M, HAYLOCK R et al. – Concerted Uranium Research in Europe (CURE): toward a collaborative project integrating dosimetry, epidemiology and radiobiology to study the effects of occupational uranium exposure. - Journal of radiological protection, 06/2016, 36, 2, 319-345.

WAKEFORD R - Chernobyl and Fukushima-where are we now ? Editorial. – Journal of radiological protection, 06/2016, 36, 2, E1-E5.

YAMASHITA S – Adolescent thyroid cancer after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident : mass screening effect or a real increase ? - ASCO Daily news, 26/05/2016, 6 p.

ATSR – Qu’est-ce qu’un site pollué par la radioactivité ? - Rayonnements ionisants, 04-06/2016, 2,6-14. (pas de résumé disponible)

MICHEL LA, DONCKIER J, ROSIERE A - Post-Chernobyl incidence of papillary thyroid cancer among Belgian children less than 15 years of age in April 1986 : a 30-year surgical experience. - Acta Chirurgica Belgica, 04/2016, 116, 2, 101-113.

  • abstract

OBJECTIVE: We raised the question of a possible relationship in Belgium between the occurrence of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and age of children (<15 years) at the time of the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident in April 1986.

SETTING: Referral university centre for endocrine surgery.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-year prospective study of the experience of a surgical team with PTC since the Chernobyl accident, taken out of 2349 patients operated on for any thyroid lesions from April 1986 to April 2015, comparing the incidence of PTC by age groups.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENT: Comparison of PTC incidence in patients >15 years (group A) and children <15 years (group B) in April 1986.

RESULTS: Out of a total of 2349 patients having undergone thyroid surgery for all types of lesions during 30 year after Chernobyl and born before April 1986, 2164 were >15 years of age at the time of the nuclear accident (group A) and 175 developed PTC (8.1%) compared to 36 PTC (19.5%) that occurred in 185 children <15 years of age (group B) in April 1986 (p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS: Radiation exposure affected residents of countries (including Belgium) well beyond Ukraine and Belarus. This was demonstrated by a 1990 meteorological report. Over 30 years, there has been a persistent higher incidence of PTC among Belgian children below the age of 15 years at the time of the Chernobyl accident. This relationship with age has even been strengthened by the implementation of more sophisticated immunohistochemical biomarkers diagnostic technology since April 2011.

 

LEHRER S, GREEN S, ROSENZWEIG KE – Reduced ovarian cancer incidence in women exposed to low dose ionizing background radiation or radiation to the ovaries after treatment for breast cancer or rectosigmoid cancer. - Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention, 2016, 17, 6, 2979, 2982.

VERREET T, VERSLEGERS M, QUINTENS R et al. - Current evidence for developmental, structural, and functional brain defects following prenatal radiation exposure. - Neural plasticity, 2016, 1243527, 17 p.

 

Comptes-rendus de congrès

First International Conference on Risk Perception, Communication and Ethics of Exposures to Ionizing Radiation (RICOMET). Brdo Castle (Slovénie), 15-16 juin 2015. - Journal of radiological protection, 06/2016, 36, 2, E11-E-15, S1-S192.

Association Belge de radioprotection - Public communication on nuclear emergencies. Bruxelles (Belgique), 4 mars 2016. – Annales de l’Association Belge de radioprotection, 04-06/2016, 41, 1, 1-73.

ASN – Séminaire sur les risques de leucémies et exposition aux rayonnements ionisants, Paris, 9 juin 2015.

 

Dossier

Le projet CIGEO, pour stocker les déchets les plus radioactifs. – Revue générale nucléaire, 05- 06/2016, 3, 12-46.

 

Note d’information

IRSN – Rejets de césium radioactif sous forme de microbilles de silice lors de l’accident de Fukushima-Daiichi. - 22/07/2016, 5 p.

 

Rapport

Autorité environnementale – Avis délibéré de l’Autorité environnementale sur le plan national de gestion des matières et des déchets radioactifs (2016-2018). - 20/07/2016, 37 p.

 

Autres informations

Journée

RP Cirkus - 3èmes Journées techniques du Radioprotection Cirkus. Lyon, 12-13 octobre 2016.

SFRP – 10ème Rencontres des personnes compétentes en radioprotection. - Paris, 8-9 novembre 2016.

 

 

L’objectif de cette diffusion est uniquement de vous informer sur les dernières publications dans le domaine Nucléaire et Santé.

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BSE 30 octobre 2015 - no. 208

Nucléaire & Santé Actualités

Bibliographie Sélective Express

Documentation en Radioprotection d'EDF - DPI - Division Production Nucléaire

30 octobre 2015 - no. 208

 

Projet de publication

Article

TSUDA T, TOKINOBU A, YAMAMOTO E et al. - Thyroid cancer detection by ultrasound among residents ages 18 years and younger in Fukushima, Japan : 2011 to 2014. – Epidemiology, online 05/10/2015, 7 p.

 

 

Vient de paraître

Articles

MIURA S, AKAZAWA Y, KURASHIGE T et al. – The Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors' tumor tissue bank. - Lancet, 31/10/2015, 386, 10005, 1738-1739. (pas d’abstract disponible)

LITTLE MP – Ionising radiation in the workplace. Editorial. - British medical journal, 21/10/2015, 351, h5405, 2 p.

RICHARDSON DB, CARDIS E, DANIELS RD et al. - Risk of cancer from occupational exposure to ionising radiation : retrospective cohort study of workers in France, the United Kingdom, and the United States (INWORKS). - British medical journal, 21/10/2015, 351, h5359, 8 p.

AKIYAMA J, KATO S, TSUBOKURA M et al. – Minimal internal radiation exposure in residents living south of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant disaster. – PlosOne, 20/10/2015, 10, 10, e0140482, 10 p.

ASADUZZAMAN K, MANNAN F, KHANDAKER MU et al. - Assessment of natural radioactivity levels and potential radiological risks of common building materials used in Bangladeshi dwellings. - PlosOne, 16/10/2015, 10, 10, e0140667, 16 p.

LITTLE MP, KWON D, ZABLOTSKA LB et al. - Impact of uncertainties in exposure assessment on thyroid cancer risk among persons in Belarus exposed as children or adolescents due to the Chernobyl accident. - PlosOne, 14/10/2015, 10, 10, e0139826, 16 p.

HAYANO RS, TSUBOKURA M, MIYAZAKI M et al. – Whole-body counter surveys of over 2700 babies and small children in and around Fukushima Prefecture 33 to 49 months after the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. - Proceedings of the Japan Academy-series B, 09/10/2015, 91, 8, 440-446.

DERYABINA TG, KUCHMEL SV, NAGORSKAYA LL et al. – Long-term census data reveal abundant wildlife populations at Chernobyl. - Current biology, 05/10/2015, 25, 19, R824-R826.

 

AZIZOVA TV, GRIGORYEVA ES, HAYLOCK RG et al. - Ischaemic heart disease incidence and mortality in an extended cohort of Mayak workers first employed in 1948-1982. – British institute of radiology, 10/2015, 88, 1054, 20150169.

  • abstract

OBJECTIVE: Incidence and mortality from ischaemic heart disease (IHD) was studied in an extended cohort of 22,377 workers first employed at the Mayak Production Association during 1948-82 and followed up to the end of 2008.

METHODS: Relative risks and excess relative risks per unit dose (ERR/Gy) were calculated based on the maximum likelihood using Epicure software (Hirosoft International Corporation, Seattle, WA). Dose estimates used in analyses were provided by an updated "Mayak Worker Dosimetry System-2008".

RESULTS: A significant increasing linear trend in IHD incidence with total dose from external γ-rays was observed after having adjusted for non-radiation factors and dose from internal radiation {ERR/Gy = 0.10 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.04 to 0.17]}. The pure quadratic model provided a better fit of the data than did the linear one. No significant association of IHD mortality with total dose from external γ-rays after having adjusted for non-radiation factors and dose from internal alpha radiation was observed in the study cohort [ERR/Gy = 0.06 (95% CI: <0 to 0.15)]. A significant increasing linear trend was observed in IHD mortality with total absorbed dose from internal alpha radiation to the liver after having adjusted for non-radiation factors and dose from external γ-rays in both the whole cohort [ERR/Gy = 0.21 (95% CI: 0.01 to 0.58)] and the subcohort of workers exposed at alpha dose <1.00 Gy [ERR/Gy = 1.08 (95% CI: 0.34 to 2.15)]. No association of IHD incidence with total dose from internal alpha radiation to the liver was found in the whole cohort after having adjusted for non-radiation factors and external gamma dose [ERR/Gy = 0.02 (95% CI: not available to 0.10)]. Statistically significant dose effect was revealed in the subcohort of workers exposed to internal alpha radiation at dose to the liver <1.00 Gy [ERR/Gy = 0.44 (95% CI: 0.09 to 0.85)].

CONCLUSION: This study provides strong evidence of IHD incidence and mortality association with external γ-ray exposure and some evidence of IHD incidence and mortality association with internal alpha-radiation exposure.

 

ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: It is the first time the validity of internal radiation dose estimates has been shown to affect the risk of IHD incidence.

BRENNER DJ – Should we worry about inherited radiation risks ? - Lancet oncology, 10/2015, 16, 13, 1275-1276. (pas d’abstract disponible)

CHUMAK V, DROZDOVITCH V, KRYUCHKOV V et al. – Dosimetry support of the Ukrainian-American case-control study of leukemia and related disorders among Chornobyl cleanup workers. - Health physics, 10/2015, 109, 4, 296-301.

  • abstract

This paper describes dose reconstruction for a joint Ukrainian-American case-control study of leukemia that was conducted in a cohort of 110,645 male Ukrainian cleanup workers of the Chornobyl (Chernobyl) accident who were exposed to various radiation doses over the 1986-1990 time period. Individual bone-marrow doses due to external irradiation along with respective uncertainty distributions were calculated for 1,000 study subjects using the RADRUE method, which employed personal cleanup history data collected in the course of an interview with the subject himself if he was alive or with two proxies if he was deceased. The central estimates of the bone-marrow dose distributions range from 3.7 × 10 to 3,260 mGy, with an arithmetic mean of 92 mGy. The uncertainties in the individual stochastic dose estimates can be approximated by lognormal distributions; the average geometric standard deviation is 2.0.

FULLER N, LEREBOURS A, SMITH JT et al – The biological effects of ionising radiation on crustaceans : a review. - Aquatic toxicology, 10/2015, 167, 55-67.

  • abstract

Historic approaches to radiation protection are founded on the conjecture that measures to safeguard humans are adequate to protect non-human organisms. This view is disparate with other toxicants wherein well-developed frameworks exist to minimise exposure of biota. Significant data gaps for many organisms, coupled with high profile nuclear incidents such as Chernobyl and Fukushima, have prompted the re-evaluation of our approach toward environmental radioprotection. Elucidating the impacts of radiation on biota has been identified as priority area for future research within both scientific and regulatory communities. The crustaceans are ubiquitous in aquatic ecosystems, comprising greater than 66,000 species of ecological and commercial importance. This paper aims to assess the available literature of radiation-induced effects within this subphylum and identify knowledge gaps. A literature search was conducted pertaining to radiation effects on four endpoints as stipulated by a number of regulatory bodies: mortality, morbidity, reproduction and mutation. A major finding of this review was the paucity of data regarding the effects of environmentally relevant radiation doses on crustacean biology. Extremely few studies utilising chronic exposure durations or wild populations were found across all four endpoints. The dose levels at which effects occur was found to vary by orders of magnitude thus presenting difficulties in developing phyla-specific benchmark values and reference levels for radioprotection. Based on the limited data, mutation was found to be the most sensitive endpoint of radiation exposure, with mortality the least sensitive. Current phyla-specific dose levels and limits proposed by major regulatory bodies were found to be inadequate to protect species across a range of endpoints including morbidity, mutation and reproduction and examples are discussed within. These findings serve to prioritise areas for future research that will significantly advance understanding of radiation-induced effects in aquatic invertebrates and consequently enhance ability to predict the impacts of radioactive releases on the environment.

GLUZMAN DF, SKLYARENKO LM, KOVAL SV et al. - Myelodysplastic syndromes in Chernobyl clean-up workers. - Annals of hematology, 10/2015, 94, 10, 1639-1643.

  • abstract

The studies of the recent decades posed the question of the association between radiation exposure and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). This association has been proved in secondary MDS originating upon exposure to chemotherapeutics and/or radiation therapy. The long-term study in Japanese atomic (A)-bomb survivors demonstrated the significant linear dose-response for MDS confirming the link between radiation exposure and this form of hematopoietic malignancies. All these findings provide the strong basis for studying MDS in the persons exposed to radiation following the Chernobyl disaster, especially those in the cohort of Chernobyl clean-up workers of 1986-1987. The data on MDS among Chernobyl clean-up workers (1986-1987) diagnosed in 1996-2012 at the reference laboratory of RE Kavetsky Institute of Experimental Pathology, Oncology and Radiobiology are summarized. MDS cases were diagnosed in 23 persons (21 males and 2 females) having been exposed to radiation as clean-up workers of 1986-1987. Refractory anemia (RA) has been detected in 13, refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts (RARS)-in 2, and refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB)-in 8 patients. The median age of those MDS patients was 62.0 years. In addition, 5 cases of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) were recorded in the group of Chernobyl clean-up workers with the median time of 14.8 years from 1986-1987 to diagnosis. The association between radiation exposure and MDS is discussed. The suggested life-long risk for myelodysplastic syndromes among A-bomb survivors in Japan highlights the importance of the continuing follow-up studies in the affected populations in the post-Chernobyl period.

GRANT EJ, FURUKAWA K, SAKATA R et al. – Risk of death among children of atomic bomb survivors after 62 years of follow-up : a cohort study. - Lancet oncology, 10/2015, 16, 13, 1316-1323.

  • abstract

BACKGROUND: No clear epidemiological hereditary effects of radiation exposure in human beings have been reported. However, no previous studies have investigated mortality into middle age in a population whose parents were exposed to substantial amounts of radiation before conception. We assessed mortality in children of the atomic bomb survivors after 62 years of follow-up.

METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, we assessed 75 327 singleton children of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and unexposed controls, born between 1946 and 1984, and followed up to Dec 31, 2009. Parental gonadal doses of radiation from the atomic bombings were the primary exposures. The primary endpoint was death due to cancer or non-cancer disease, based on death certificates.

FINDINGS: Median follow-up was 54·3 years (IQR 45·4-59·3). 5183 participants died from disease. The mean age of the 68 689 surviving children at the end of follow-up was 53·1 years (SD 7·9) with 15 623 (23%) older than age 60 years. For parents who were exposed to a non-zero gonadal dose of radiation, the mean dose was 264 mGy (SD 463). We detected no association between maternal gonadal radiation exposure and risk of death caused by cancer (hazard ratio [HR] for 1 Gy change in exposure 0·891 [95% CI 0·693-1·145]; p=0·36) or risk of death caused by non-cancer diseases (0·973 [0·849-1·115]; p=0·69). Likewise, paternal exposure had no effect on deaths caused by cancer (0·815 [0·614-1·083]; p=0·14) or deaths caused by non-cancer disease (1·103 [0·979-1·241]; p=0·12). Age or time between parental exposure and delivery had no effect on risk of death.

INTERPRETATION: Late effects of ionising radiation exposure include increased mortality risks, and models of the transgenerational effects of radiation exposure predict more genetic disease in the children of people exposed to radiation. However, children of people exposed to the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki had no indications of deleterious health effects after 62 years. Epidemiological studies complemented by sensitive molecular techniques are needed to understand the overall effects of preconception exposure to ionising radiation on human beings.

 

FUNDING: Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, US Department of Energy.

GUDZENKO N, HATCH M, BAZYKA D et al. - Non-radiation risk factors for leukemia : a case-control study among Chornobyl cleanup workers in Ukraine. – Environmental research, 10/2015, 142, 72-76.

  • abstract

BACKGROUND: Occupational and environmental exposure to chemicals such as benzene has been linked to increased risk of leukemia. Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption have also been found to affect leukemia risk. Previous analyses in a large cohort of Chornobyl clean-up workers in Ukraine found significant radiation-related increased risk for all leukemia types. We investigated the potential for additional effects of occupational and lifestyle factors on leukemia risk in this radiation-exposed cohort.

METHODS: In a case-control study of chronic lymphocytic and other leukemias among Chornobyl cleanup workers, we collected data on a range of non-radiation exposures. We evaluated these and other potential risk factors in analyses adjusting for estimated bone marrow radiation dose. We calculated Odds Ratios and 95% Confidence Intervals in relation to lifestyle factors and occupational hazards.

RESULTS: After adjusting for radiation, we found no clear association of leukemia risk with smoking or alcohol but identified a two-fold elevated risk for non-CLL leukemia with occupational exposure to petroleum (OR=2.28; 95% Confidence Interval 1.13, 6.79). Risks were particularly high for myeloid leukemias. No associations with risk factors other than radiation were found for chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

 

CONCLUSIONS: These data - the first from a working population in Ukraine - add to evidence from several previous reports of excess leukemia morbidity in groups exposed environmentally or occupationally to petroleum or its products.

PEKHAM EC, SCHEURER ME, DANYSH HE et al – Residential radon exposure and incidence of childhood lymphoma in Texas, 1995-2011. - International journal of environmental research and public health, 10/2015, 12, 10, 12110-12126.

ROUSSE C, CHAUVET B – Recommandations pour les visites d’inspection de l’Autorité française de sûreté nucléaire. - Cancer/Radiothérapie, 10/2015, 19, 6-7, 634-637.

  • résumé

L’Autorité de sûreté nucléaire (ASN) est en charge du contrôle de la radioprotection en radiothérapie depuis 2002. Les contrôles s’opèrent sur la base des exigences inscrites dans les Codes de la santé publique et du travail ainsi que des référentiels de l’établissement contrôlé, définis dans son système de management de la qualité et de la sécurité des soins, en application de la décision no 2008-DC-0103 de l’ASN. Après avoir contrôlé le déploiement du système de management de la qualité, les contrôles ont porté sur la vérification de l’adéquation entre les procédures et leur mise en oeuvre, en sélectionnant des étapes du processus basées sur le retour d’expérience des événements déclarés à l’ASN. La connaissance des thématiques d’inspection, communiquées aux centres lors du lancement d’une campagne permet aux centres d’anticiper les demandes des inspecteurs. N’étant pas habilités à l’accès à des informations couvertes par le secret médical lorsqu’ils n’ont pas la qualité de médecin, les documents consultés doivent être expurgés de toute information permettant d’identifier les patients. Des échanges en amont de l’inspection doivent permettre de faciliter la mise à disposition des documents susceptibles d’être consultés. Enfin, les centres doivent organiser avec les inspecteurs des temps d’échanges avec les différents professionnels. Les progrès accomplis par les centres et les conclusions d’un groupe de travail associant les professionnels vont conduire à une évolution du contrôle. Ils seront pris en compte lors de l’élaboration d’un nouveau programme d’inspection pour la période 2016–2019. L’implémentation des évaluations des pratiques cliniques conduira également, à terme, à faire évoluer les pratiques d’inspection.

 

BERNIER MO, JOURNY N, BAYSSON H et al. – Potential cancer risk associated with CT scans : review of epidemiological studies and ongoing studies. - Progress in nuclear energy, 09/2015, 84, 116-119.

  • abstract

Introduction : The increasing use of computed tomography (CT) scans in paediatric population raises the question of a possible health impact of ionizing radiation exposure associated with CT scans.

Material and methods : Three cohort studies have been recently published that have assessed the risk of cancer related to CT examinations of children and young adults. The methodology and results of these studies are presented, as are ongoing studies and the perspectives they provide.

Results : The UK cohort included over 176, 000 young people, who underwent one or more CT scans between 1985 and 2002. The Australian study compared the risk of cancer and leukaemia in a population of 680, 000 young people exposed to CT scans between 1985 and 2005 to non-exposed people of similar ages. The third study, from Taiwan, compared the risk of malignant or benign brain tumour in a cohort of 24,418 children exposed to CT scans under 18 years of age between 1998 and 2006 to non–exposed people of similar ages. The British and Australian studies showed a significant dose–response relation between the exposure to CT and leukaemia or brain tumour. These results are consistent with predictions from A-bomb survivors' data. The Taiwanese study failed to show an overall increased risk of cancer, but observed that the risk of benign brain tumour was significantly increased. However, uncertainties in dosimetric estimation and potential bias linked to underlying medical conditions should be considered.

 

Conclusion and perspectives : Further studies with more accurate dosimetry and assessment of potential bias and uncertainties are needed. Ongoing national studies and the European collaborative EPI-CT study will help to better understand the relation between low-level radiation exposure and cancer and to support recommendations for patients' radiation protection.

 

Compte-rendu de congrès

AIEA, OMS – Radiation protection in medicine. Setting the scene for next decade. Bonn (Allemagne), 3-7 décembre 2013. – AIEA, 09/2015, 450 p.

 

Ouvrage

REUSS P – Parlons nucléaire en 30 questions. – La Documentation française, 2015, 2nde éd., 104 p.

 

Rapports

EPRI - Remote monitoring technology guide for radiation protection. Field implementation of remote monitoring, 2015 revision. - 29/10/2015, EPRI 3002005480, 112 p.

WISE-Paris – L’option nucléaire contre le changement climatique. Risques associés, limites et frein aux alternatives. – 10/2015, 24 p.

UNSCEAR – Developments since the 2013 UNSCEAR Report on the levels and effects of radiation exposure due to the nuclear accident following the great east-Japan earthquake and tsunami. A 2015 white paper to guide the Scientific Committee’s future programme of work. - 2015, 51 p.

EPRI – Sampling and measurement of tritium in soil. - 22/10/2015, EPRI 3002005565, 56 p.

 

AEN – Données sur l’énergie nucléaire 2015. – OCDE, 2015, NEA no.7246, 106 p.

IRSN - Guide pratique pour la réalisation des études dosimétriques de poste de travail présentant un risque d’exposition aux rayonnements ionisants (version 4). – 10/2015, IRSN PRP-HOM 2015-00009, 65 p.

AIEA - Inventory of radioactive material resulting from historical dumping, accidents and losses at sea. – 10/2015, IAEA TECDOC Series No. 1776, 48 p.

ICRP – Publication 130 : Occupational intakes of radionuclides. Part 1. – Annals of the ICRP, 2015, 44, 2, 188 p.

  • contents et abstract

This report is the first in a series of reports replacing Publications 30 and 68 to provide revised dose coefficients for occupational intakes of radionuclides by inhalation and ingestion. The revised dose coefficients have been calculated using the Human Alimentary Tract Model (Publication 100) and a revision of the Human Respiratory Tract Model (Publication 66) that takes account of more recent data. In addition, information is provided on absorption into blood following inhalation and ingestion of different chemical forms of elements and their radioisotopes. In selected cases, it is judged that the data are sufficient to make material-specific recommendations. Revisions have been made to many of the models that describe the systemic biokinetics of radionuclides absorbed into blood, making them more physiologically realistic representations of uptake and retention in organs and tissues, and excretion.

The reports in this series provide data for the interpretation of bioassay measurements as well as dose coefficients, replacing Publications 54 and 78. In assessing bioassay data such as measurements of whole-body or organ content, or urinary excretion, assumptions have to be made about the exposure scenario, including the pattern and mode of radionuclide intake, physical and chemical characteristics of the material involved, and the elapsed time between the exposure(s) and measurement.

This report provides some guidance on monitoring programmes and data interpretation.

BAYLON C, BRUNT R, LIVINGSTONE D – Cyber security at civil nuclear facilities. Understanding the risks. – Chatham House, 09/2015, 53 p.

 disponible sur le site http://www.chathamhouse.org

YOUNGMAN MJ - PHE facility for rapid monitoring of internal contamination in people. – Public Health England, 07/2015, PHE-CRCE-019, 26 p.

 

Autres informations

Congrès

2016 ISOE ALARA Symposium. Fort Lauderdale (Floride-USA), 10-13 janvier 2016.

ICRP Symposium on radiological protection dosimetry. Historical review and current activities. Tokyo, 18 février 2016.

2016 ISOE International Symposium on occupational exposure management at nuclear facilities. Bruxelles (Belgique), 1-3 juin 2016.

 

 

L’objectif de cette diffusion est uniquement de vous informer sur les dernières publications dans le domaine Nucléaire et Santé.

En aucun cas nous ne pouvons vous garantir la qualité des publications signalées.

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