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BSE 29 mai 2015 - no. 203

Documentation en Radioprotection d'EDF - DPI - Division Production Nucléaire


29 mai 2015 - no. 203


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LINDGREN A, STEPANOVA E, VDOVENKO V et al. – Individual whole-body concentration of (137)Cesium is associated with decreased blood counts in children in the Chernobyl-contaminated areas, Ukraine, 2008-2010. - Journal of exposure science and environmental epidemiology, 05-06/2015, 25, 3, 334-342.

  • abstract

The Narodichesky region, Zhitomir Oblast, Ukraine, is situated ∼80 km from the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, which exploded in 1986 and polluted the environment. A previous study found that children living in villages with high activity of (137)Cesium (Cs) in the soil had decreased levels of hemoglobin, erythrocytes and thrombocytes. These findings motivated the present study that used a more comprehensive exposure assessment, including individual whole-body concentrations (WBC) of (137)Cs (Bq/kg). This cross-sectional sample examined between 2008-2010, included 590 children in the age 0-18 years. Children with higher individual log(WBC) activity in the body had significantly decreased hemoglobin, erythrocyte and thrombocyte counts. The effect of log(WBC) on decreased thrombocyte count was only seen in children older than 12 years. The average village activity of (137)Cs (kBq/m(2)) in soil was associated with decreased blood counts only indirectly, through (137)Cs in the body as an intermediate variable. Children in this study were born at least 4 years after the accident and thus exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation from (137)Cs. This cross-sectional study indicates that low levels may be associated with decreased blood counts, but we cannot exclude that these results are due to residual confounding factors.

ZOLLNER S,SOKOLNIKOV ME, EIDEMULLER M - Beyond two-stage models for lung carcinogenesis in the mayak workers : implications for plutonium risk. – Plos One, 22/05/2015, 10, 5, e012638, 20 p.

KEIL AP, RICHARDSON DB, TROESTER MA. - Healthy worker survivor bias in the colorado plateau uranium miners cohort. – American journal of epidemiology, 15/05/2015, 181, 10, 762-770.

  • abstract

Cohort mortality studies of underground miners have been used to estimate the number of lung cancer deaths attributable to radon exposure. However, previous studies of the radon-lung cancer association among underground miners may have been subject to healthy worker survivor bias, a type of time-varying confounding by employment status. We examined radon-mortality associations in a study of 4,124 male uranium miners from the Colorado Plateau who were followed from 1950 through 2005. We estimated the time ratio (relative change in median survival time) per 100 working level months (radon exposure averaging 130,000 mega-electron volts of potential α energy per liter of air, per working month) using G-estimation of structural nested models. After controlling for healthy worker survivor bias, the time ratio for lung cancer per 100 working level months was 1.168 (95% confidence interval: 1.152, 1.174). In an unadjusted model, the estimate was 1.102 (95% confidence interval: 1.099, 1.112)-39% lower. Controlling for this bias, we estimated that among 617 lung cancer deaths, 6,071 person-years of life were lost due to occupational radon exposure during follow-up. Our analysis suggests that healthy worker survivor bias in miner cohort studies can be substantial, warranting reexamination of current estimates of radon's estimated impact on lung cancer mortality.

PARIHAR VK, ALLEN B, TRAN KK et al. – What happens to your brain on the way to Mars. - Science advances, 01/05/2015, 1, 4, e1400256, 6 p.

SIMONETTO C, SCHOLLNBERGER H, AZIZOVA TV et al. – Cerebrovascular diseases in workers at Mayak PA : the difference in radiation risk between incidence and mortality. - Plos One, 01/05/2015, 10, 5, e0125904.

CONTIS G, FOLEY TP - Depression, suicide ideation, and thyroid tumors among Ukrainian adolescents exposed as children to chernobyl radiation. – Journal of clinical medicine research, 05/2015, 7, 5, 332-338.

CURWEN GB, SOTNIK NV, CADWELL KK et al. – Chromosome aberrations in workers with exposure to α-particle radiation from internal deposits of plutonium : expectations from in vitro studies and comparisons with workers with predominantly external γ-radiation exposure. - Radiation and environmental biophysics, 05/2015, 54, 2, 195-206.

  • abstract

mFISH analysis of chromosome aberration profiles of 47 and 144 h lymphocyte cultures following exposure to 193 mGy α-particle radiation confirmed that the frequency of stable aberrant cells and stable cells carrying translocations remains constant through repeated cell divisions. Age-specific rates and in vitro dose-response curves were used to derive expected translocation yields in nine workers from the Mayak nuclear facility in Russia. Five had external exposure to γ-radiation, two of whom also had exposure to neutrons, and four had external exposure to γ-radiation and internal exposure to α-particle radiation from incorporated plutonium. Doubts over the appropriateness of the dose response used to estimate translocations from the neutron component made interpretation difficult in two of the workers with external exposure, but the other three had translocation yields broadly in line with expectations. Three of the four plutonium workers had translocation yields in line with expectations, thus supporting the application of the recently derived in vitro α-particle dose response for translocations in stable cells. Overall this report demonstrates that with adequate reference in vitro dose-response curves, translocation yield has the potential to be a useful tool in the validation of red bone marrow doses resulting from mixed exposure to external and internal radiation.

DRUBAY D, CAER-LORHO S, LAROCHE P et al. - Mortality from circulatory system diseases among French uranium miners : a nested case-control study. – Radiation research, 05/2015, 183, 5, 550-562.

  • abstract

A significant association has been observed between radon exposure and cerebrovascular disease (CeVD) mortality among French uranium miners, but risk factors for circulatory system diseases (CSD) have not been previously considered. We conducted new analyses in the recently updated (through 2007) French cohort of uranium miners (n = 5,086), which included 442 deaths from CSD, 167 of them from ischemic heart disease (IHD) and 105 from CeVD. A nested case-control study was then set up to collect and investigate the influence of these risk factors on the relationships between mortality from CSD and occupational external gamma ray and internal ionizing radiation exposure (radon and long-lived radionuclides) in this updated cohort. The nested case-control study included miners first employed after 1955, still employed in 1976 and followed up through 2007. Individual information about CSD risk factors was collected from medical files for the 76 deaths from CSD (including 26 from IHD and 16 from CeVD) and 237 miners who had not died of CSD by the end of follow-up. The exposure-risk relationships were assessed with a Cox proportional hazard model weighted by the inverse sampling probability. A significant increase in all CSD and CeVD mortality risks associated with radon exposure was observed in the total cohort [hazard ratios: HRCSD/100 working level months (WLM) = 1.11, 95% confidence interval (1.01; 1.22) and HRCeVD/100 WLM = 1.25 (1.09; 1.43), respectively]. A nonsignificant exposure-risk relationship was observed for every type of cumulative ionizing radiation exposure and every end point [e.g., HRCSD/100WLM = 1.43 (0.71; 2.87)]. The adjustment for each CSD risk factor did not substantially change the exposure-risk relationships. When the model was adjusted for overweight, hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia and smoking status, the HR/100WLM for CSD, for example, was equal to 1.21 (0.54; 2.75); and when it was adjusted for risk factors selected with the Akaike information criterion, it was equal to 1.44 (0.66; 3.14). To our knowledge, this is the first study to use a uranium miner cohort to consider the major standard CSD risk factors in assessing the relationships between ionizing radiation exposure and the risk of death from these diseases. These results suggest that the significant relationship between CeVD risk and radon exposure observed in the total French cohort is probably not affected by the CSD risk factors. Extending the collection of information about CSD risk factors to a larger subsample would be useful to confirm this result.

EIDEMULLER M, HOLMBERG E, JACOB P et al. – Breast cancer risk and possible mechanisms of radiation-induced genomic instability in the Swedish hemangioma cohort after reanalyzed dosimetry. – Mutation research–Fundamentals and molecular mechanisms of mutagenesis, 05/2015, 775, 1-9.

GRANT EJ, OZASA K, BAN N et al. – A report from the 2013 international symposium : the evaluation of the effects of low-dose radiation exposure in the life span study of atomic bomb survivors and other similar studies. - Health physics, 05/2015, 108, 5, 551-556.

  • abstract

The RERF International Low-Dose Symposium was held on 5-6 December 2013 at the RERF campus in Hiroshima, Japan, to discuss the issues facing the Life Span Study (LSS) and other low-dose studies. Topics included the current status of low-dose risk detection, strategies for low-dose epidemiological and statistical research, methods to improve communication between epidemiologists and biologists, and the current status of radiological studies and tools. Key points made by the participants included the necessity of pooling materials over multiple studies to gain greater insight where data from single studies are insufficient; generating models that reflect epidemiological, statistical, and biological principles simultaneously; understanding confounders and effect modifiers in the current data; and taking into consideration less studied factors such as the impact of dose rate. It is the hope of all participants that this symposium be used as a trigger for further studies, especially those using pooled data, in order to reach a greater understanding of the health effects of low-dose radiation.

HARRIS C, KREEGER D, PATRICK R et al. - Twenty-five years of environmental radionuclide concentrations near a nuclear power plant. - Health physics, 05/2015, 108, 5, 503-513.

  • abstract

The areas in and along a 262-km length of the Susquehanna River in Pennsylvania were monitored for the presence of radioactive materials. This study began two months after the 1979 Three Mile Island (TMI) partial reactor meltdown; it spanned the next 25 y. Monitoring points included stations at the PPL Susquehanna and TMI nuclear power plants. Monthly gamma measurements document concentrations of radionuclides from natural and anthropogenic sources. During this study, various series of gamma-emitting radionuclide concentration measurements were made in many general categories of animals, plants, and other inorganic matter. Sampling began in 1979 before the first start-up of the PPL Susquehanna power plant. Although all species were not continuously monitored for the entire period, an extensive database was compiled. In 1986, the ongoing measurements detected fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear accident. These data may be used in support of dose or environmental transport calculations.

KREUZER M, DUFEY F, LAURIER D et al. – Mortality from internal and external radiation exposure in a cohort of male German uranium millers, 1946-2008. - International archives of occupational and environmental health, 05/2015, 88, 4, 431-441.

  • abstract

PURPOSE: To examine exposure-response relationships between ionizing radiation and several mortality outcomes in a subgroup of 4,054 men of the German uranium miner cohort study, who worked between 1946 and 1989 in milling facilities, but never underground or in open pit mines.

METHODS: Mortality follow-up was from 1946 to 2008, accumulating 158,383 person-years at risk. Cumulative exposure to radon progeny in working level months (WLM) (mean = 8, max = 127), long-lived radionuclides from uranium ore dust in kBqh/m(3) (mean = 3.9, max = 132), external gamma radiation in mSv (mean = 26, max = 667) and silica dust was estimated by a comprehensive job-exposure matrix. Internal Poisson regression models were applied to estimate the linear excess relative risk (ERR) per unit of cumulative exposure.

RESULTS: Overall, a total of 457, 717 and 111 deaths occurred from malignant cancer, cardiovascular diseases and non-malignant respiratory diseases, respectively. Uranium ore dust and silica dust were not associated with mortality from any of these disease groups. A statistically significant relationship between cumulative radon exposure and mortality from all cancers (ERR/100 WLM = 1.71; p = 0.02), primarily due to lung cancer (n = 159; ERR/100 WLM = 3.39; p = 0.05), was found. With respect to cumulative external gamma radiation, an excess of mortality of solid cancers (n = 434; ERR/Sv = 1.86; p = 0.06), primarily due to stomach cancer (n = 49, ERR/Sv = 10.0; p = 0.12), was present.

CONCLUSION: The present findings show an excess mortality from lung cancer due to radon exposure and from solid cancers due to external gamma radiation in uranium millers that was not statistically significant. Exposure to uranium was not associated with any cause of death, but absorbed organ doses were estimated to be low.

O’CONNOR U, WALSH C, GALLAGHER A et al. – Occupational radiation dose to eyes from interventional radiology procedures in light of the new eye lens dose limit from the International Commission on Radiological Protection. - British journal of radiology, 05/2015, 88, 1049, 20140627.

  • abstract

OBJECTIVE: In 2011, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommended a substantial reduction in the equivalent dose limit for the lens of the eye, in line with a reduced threshold of absorbed dose for radiation-induced cataracts. This is of particular relevance in interventional radiology (IR) where it is well established that staff doses can be significant, however, there is a lack of data on IR eye doses in terms of Hp(3). Hp(3) is the personal dose equivalent at a depth of 3 mm in soft tissue and is used for measuring lens dose. We aimed to obtain a reliable estimate of eye dose to IR operators.

METHODS: Lens doses were measured for four interventional radiologists over a 3-month period using dosemeters specifically designed to measure Hp(3).

RESULTS: Based on their typical workloads, two of the four interventional radiologists would exceed the new ICRP dose limit with annual estimated doses of 31 and 45 mSv to their left eye. These results are for an "unprotected" eye, and for IR staff who routinely wear lead glasses, the dose beneath the glasses is likely to be significantly lower. Staff eye dose normalized to patient kerma-area product and eye dose per procedure have been included in the analysis.

CONCLUSION: Eye doses to IR operators have been established using a dedicated Hp(3) dosemeter. Estimated annual doses have the potential to exceed the new ICRP limit.

ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: We have estimated lens dose to interventional radiologists in terms of Hp(3) for the first time in an Irish hospital setting.

SHIMURA T, YAMAGUCHI I, TERADA H et al. – Radiation occupational health interventions offered to radiation workers in response to the complex catastrophic disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. - Journal of radiation research, 05/2015, 56, 3, 413-421.

SHIMURA T, YAMAGUCHI I, TERADA H et al. – Public health activities for mitigation of radiation exposures and risk communication challenges after the Fukushima nuclear accident. - Journal of radiation research, 05/2015, 56, 3, 422-429.

YASUI S – Governmental re-evaluation of the committed effective dose received by emergency workers at the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. - Journal of occupational and environmental hygiene, 05/2015, 12, 5, D60-D70.

  • abstract

In April 2013, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) noticed that significant discrepancies were present between the committed effective dose (CED) data for emergency workers at the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant provided by TEPCO and that reported by five primary contractors. The MHLW, based on re-evaluation of the data, provided administrative guidance which required TEPCO and the five primary contractors to readjust the CED data for 479 workers (2.5% of 19,346 emergency workers). Of these, data for 450 workers from the primary contractors were readjusted based on the change in assessment methods. Doses were readjusted to higher values for 431 workers and doses were readjusted to lower values for 19 workers, CED data were corrected due to calculation errors for 29 workers from seven contractors, 12 additional workers were found to have received more than 50 mSv but no more than 100 mSv, an increase of 1.7% over the previously established count of 723 workers who had received that dose. Six additional workers were found to have received more than 100 mSv, an increase of 3.6% compared with the previous count of 167 workers. Major issues addressed during re-evaluation included: a) selection of intake scenario for the calculation of the residual activity ratio; b) assumptions about the intake date; c) assessments of exposure to radiation from (132)I and (132)Te; and d) assumptions about (131)I exposure in cases where (131)I was undetectable. Regarding the divergent CED data of 138 workers, the MHLW also confirmed that the CEDs assessed by the primary contractors were valid. To prevent the recurrence of similar incidents, the MHLW issued administrative guidance documents to TEPCO and primary contractors to employ standardized CED assessment methods on July 5. 2013.

PINA JOMIR G, MICHEL X, LECOMPTE Y et al. – Gestion des déchets et des effluents radioactifs générés lors de la prise en charge d’un blessé radiocontaminé dans une structure hospitalière. - Radioprotection, 04-06/2015, 50, 2, 145-151.

  • résumé

La gestion des déchets et des effluents radioactifs générés à la suite de la prise en charge d’un blessé radiocontaminé dans une chaîne de décontamination hospitalière doit être anticipée pour respecter la règlementation qui s’y rattache. Cette gestion spécifique sera d’autant plus complexe que le volume des déchets sera important. La première étape consiste à contrôler la présence effective d’une contamination par mesure de l’activité radiologique, afin de réaliser un tri en amont, dans le but de réduire le volume de déchets radiocontaminés générés. La filière d’élimination est ensuite adaptée aux caractéristiques physiques du radionucléide, en particulier sa période. Si cette période est inférieure à 100 jours, la gestion se fait en décroissance pendant au moins 10 périodes avant élimination dans les filières applicables aux déchets hospitaliers. Pour une période supérieure à 100 jours, des mesures spécifiques de pré-traitement et de mise en fûts doivent être mises en oeuvre avant colisage pour respecter les spécificités requises par l’Agence Nationale pour la gestion des Déchets RadioActifs (ANDRA), seul organisme identifié pour la reprise des déchets de ce type. Le traitement des effluents liquides nécessite l’intervention d’une entreprise spécialisée. La gestion post accidentelle des déchets hospitaliers radiocontaminés soulève également le problème de la responsabilité financière et de la détention hospitalière de sources non médicales.

RENAUD P, PARACHE V, ROUSSEL-DEBET S - Internal doses of French adult population linked to the intake of radionuclides from the decay-chains of uranium and thorium by foodstuffs ingestion. – Radioprotection, 04-06/2015, 50, 2, 117-121.

  • abstract

This study provides the first dose assessment to the French adult population due to the intake of radionuclides from the decay chains of uranium and thorium by foodstuff ingestion (water consumption excepted). This dose varies widely with the consumption of seafood, from less than 200 μSv.y-1 for people who do not consume shellfish or crustaceans at all, to more than 2,000 μSv.y-1 for the biggest consumers (about 150 kg.y-1 according to specific dietary surveys carried out along the French seaside). For moderate consumers of seafood (around 4.6 kg.y-1), who probably represent a major part of the population, this internal dose would be around 330 μSv.y-1. This variable consumption of seafood overshadows all the other causes of variability of these internal dose estimates.

ANSOBORLO E, LEBARON-JACOBS L, PRAT O – Uranium in drinking-water : a unique case of guideline value increases and discrepancies between chemical and radiochemical guidelines. - Environment international, 04/2015, 77, 1-4.

  • abstract

BACKGROUND: Uranium represents a unique case for an element naturally present in the environment, as its chemical guideline value in drinking water significantly increased from 2 μg/L in 1998 up to 15 μg/L in 2004 and then to 30 μg/L in 2011, to date corresponding to a multiplication factor of 15 within a period of just 13 years.

OBJECTIVES: In this commentary we summarize the evolution of uranium guideline values in drinking-water based on both radiological and chemical aspects, emphasizing the benefit of human studies and their contribution to recent recommendations. We also propose a simpler and better consistency between radiological and chemical values.

DISCUSSION: The current chemical guideline value of 30 μg/L is still designated as provisional because of scientific uncertainties regarding uranium toxicity. During the same period, the radiological guideline for (238)U increased from 4 Bq/L to 10 Bq/L while that for (234)U decreased from 4 Bq/L to 1 Bq/L. These discrepancies are discussed here, and a value of 1 Bq/L for all uranium isotopes is proposed to be more consistent with the current chemical value of 30 μg/L.

CONCLUSION: Continuous progress in the domains of toxicology and speciation should enable a better interpretation of the biological effects of uranium in correlation with epidemiological human studies. This will certainly aid future proposals for uranium guideline values.


Note d’information

IRSN - Note d’information sur les accidents ayant affecté les réacteurs nucléaires du site de Saint-Laurent-des-Eaux en 1969 et en 1980. – 18/05/2015, 4 p.


AFNOR – Sécurité de protection du citoyen - NRBC-E- Utilisation d'équipements portables de détection et d'identification nucléaire et radiologique dans le domaine de la sécurité globale. - 15/05/2015, NF X 52-121, 33 p.

  • résumé et sommaire

Le présent document concerne l'utilisation d’équipements portables de détection et d’identification de matières radioactives et nucléaires dans le contexte des événements relevant du terrorisme, de la malveillance et du trafic illicite. Il décrit des conseils de base pour l'utilisation de ces appareils et fournit des recommandations pour leur distinction et utilisation spécifiques Les applications recouvrent la caractérisation pré-événementielle, la levée de doute et l'intervention préventive. Ces instruments portables peuvent avoir une ou plusieurs des fonctions suivantes : détection, confirmation d’une détection, localisation, identification, catégorisation et transmission de données. Il s'agit d'instruments tels que : appareil de détection de poche, appareil de détection et d’identification de poche, instruments portables de haute sensibilité pour la détection photonique, instruments portables de haute sensibilité pour la détection neutronique, instruments portables pour la détection et l'identification des radionucléides et détecteurs de rayonnement de type sac-à-dos. Le document s’appuie sur les spécifications IEC de conception et de performance relatives aux différents appareils.


GISQUET E - Six questions pour tirer les leçons de la catastrophe de Fukushima sur le plan des facteurs organisationnels et humains. – IRSN, 05/2015, Rapport condensé PSN-SRDS/SFOHREX no. 2015-02, 29 p.

GISQUET E, OLDER M - Human and organizational factors perspective on the Fukushima nuclear accident. – IRSN, 05/2015, Rapport complet PSN-SRDS/SFOHREX no. 2015-01, 100 p.

  • disponible sur le site

AIEA – Mission report. IAEA International peer review mission on mid-and-long-term roadmap towards the decommissioning of TEPCO’s Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station units 1-4 (Third Mission, 9-17 february 2015). - 13/05/2015, 58 p.

EPRI – Pressurized water reactor shutdown activity releases. 2014 Summary. 2015 Radiation management and source term technical strategy group report. – 05/2015, no. 3002005483, 144 p.

IRSN - Examen des systèmes nucléaires de 4ème génération. - 04/2015, 246 p.

ASN – Maîtrise des doses délivrées aux patients en imagerie médicale. Bilan du programme d’actions recommandées par l’ASN – Janvier 2015. - 04/2015, 61 p.


Autres informations


ICRP 2015 – 3rd International symposium on the system of radiological protection. Seoul (Corée du sud), 20-22 octobre 2015.

IRPA 14 – Practising radiation protection - Sharing the Experience and New Challenges. Le Cap (Afrique du sud), 9-13 mai 2016.



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