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BSE 31 juillet 2015 - no. 205

Documentation en Radioprotection d'EDF - DPI - Division Production Nucléaire


31 juillet 2015 - no. 205


Projets de publication 


HAMRA GB, RICHARDSON DB, CARDIS E et al. – Cohort profile : The International Nuclear Workers Study (INWORKS). - International journal of epidemiology, online 06/07/2015, 7 p. (pas d’abstract disponible)


ICRP – Radiological protection from cosmic radiation in aviation. ICRP ref 4842-6832-5414. – Annals of the ICRP, [online 30 juillet 2015], 36 p.

  • draft disponible sur le site de l’ICRP (contribution possible jusqu’au 30 octobre 2015)


Vient de paraître

TANI K, KURIHARA O, KIM E et al. – Implementation of iodine biokinetic model for interpreting I-131 contamination in breast milk after the Fukushima nuclear disaster. - Scientific reports, 


EVRARD O, LACEBY JP, LEPAGE H et al. – Radiocesium transfer from hillslopes to the Pacific Ocean after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident : A review. - Journal of environmental radioactivity, 02/07/2015, 148, 92-110.

  • abstract

The devastating tsunami triggered by the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011 inundated the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) resulting in a loss of cooling and a series of explosions releasing the largest quantity of radioactive material into the atmosphere since the Chernobyl nuclear accident. Although 80% of the radionuclides from this accidental release were transported over the Pacific Ocean, 20% were deposited over Japanese coastal catchments that are subject to frequent typhoons. Among the radioisotopes released during the FDNPP accident, radiocesium (134Cs and 137Cs) is considered the most serious current and future health risk for the local population. The goal of this review is to synthesize research relevant to the transfer of FDNPP derived radiocesium from hillslopes to the Pacific Ocean. After radiocesium fallout deposition on vegetation and soils, the contamination may remain stored in forest canopies, in vegetative litter on the ground, or in the soil. Once radiocesium contacts soil, it is quickly and almost irreversibly bound to fine soil particles. The kinetic energy of raindrops instigates the displacement of soil particles, and their bound radiocesium, which may be mobilized and transported with overland flow. Soil erosion is one of the main processes transferring particle-bound radiocesium from hillslopes through rivers and streams, and ultimately to the Pacific Ocean. Accordingly this review will summarize results regarding the fundamental processes and dynamics that govern radiocesium transfer from hillslopes to the Pacific Ocean published in the literature within the first four years after the FDNPP accident. The majority of radiocesium is reported to be transported in the particulate fraction, attached to fine particles. The contribution of the dissolved fraction to radiocesium migration is only relevant in base flows and is hypothesized to decline over time. Owing to the hydro-meteorological context of the Fukushima region, the most significant transfer of particulate-bound radiocesium occurs during major rainfall and runoff events (e.g. typhoons and spring snowmelt). There may be radiocesium storage within catchments in forests, floodplains and even within hillslopes that may be remobilized and contaminate downstream areas, even areas that did not receive fallout or may have been decontaminated. Overall this review demonstrates that characterizing the different mechanisms and factors driving radiocesium transfer is important. In particular, the review determined that quantifying the remaining catchment radiocesium inventory allows for a relative comparison of radiocesium transfer research from hillslope to catchment scales. Further, owing to the variety of mechanisms and factors, a transdisciplinary approach is required involving geomorphologists, hydrologists, soil and forestry scientists, and mathematical modellers to comprehensively quantify radiocesium transfers and dynamics. Characterizing radiocesium transfers from hillslopes to the Pacific Ocean is necessary for ongoing decontamination and management interventions with the objective of reducing the gamma radiation exposure to the local population.


DAVIS FG, YU KL, PRESTON D et al. - Solid cancer incidence in the Techa river incidence cohort: 1956-2007. – Radiation research, 07/2015, 184, 1, 56-65

  • abstract





Previously reported studies of the Techa River Cohort have established associations between radiation dose and the occurrence of solid cancers and leukemia (non-CLL) that appear to be linear in dose response. These analyses include 17,435 cohort members alive and not known to have had cancer prior to January 1, 1956 who lived in areas near the river or Chelyabinsk City at some time between 1956 and the end of 2007, utilized individualized dose estimates computed using the Techa River Dosimetry System 2009 and included five more years of follow-up. The median and mean dose estimates based on these doses are consistently higher than those based on earlier Techa River Dosimetry System 2000 dose estimates. This article includes new site-specific cancer risk estimates and risk estimates adjusted for available information on smoking. There is a statistically significant (P = 0.02) linear trend in the smoking-adjusted all-solid cancer incidence risks with an excess relative risk (ERR) after exposure to 100 mGy of 0.077 with a 95% confidence interval of 0.013-0.15. Examination of site-specific risks revealed statistically significant radiation dose effects only for cancers of the esophagus and uterus with an ERR per 100 mGy estimates in excess of 0.10. Esophageal cancer risk estimates were modified by ethnicity and sex, but not smoking. While the solid cancer rates are attenuated when esophageal cancer is removed (ERR = 0.063 per 100 mGy), a dose-response relationship is present and it remains likely that radiation exposure has increased the risks for most solid cancers in the cohort despite the lack of power to detect statistically significant risks for specific sites.


DUAN P, QUAN C, HU C et al . - Nonlinear dose-response relationship between radon exposure and the risk of lung cancer : evidence from a meta-analysis of published observational studies.– European journal of cancer prevention, 07/2015, 24, 4, 267-277.

  • abstract





Although radon exposure (RE) has been confirmed to increase the risk of lung cancer (LC),questions remain about the shape of the dose-response relationship between RE and the risk of LC. We carried out a dose-response meta-analysis to investigate and quantify the potential dose-response association between residential and occupational exposure to radon and the risk of LC. All cohort and case-control studies published in English and Chinese on Embase, PubMed, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) digital databases through November 2013 were identified systematically. We extracted effect measures (relative risk, odds ratio, standardized mortality ratio, standardized incidence ratio, or standardized rate ratio) from individual studies to generate pooled results using meta-analysis approaches. We derived meta-analytic estimates using random-effects models taking into account the correlation between estimates. Restricted cubic splines and generalized least-squares regression methods were used to model a potential curvilinear relationship and to carry out a dose-response meta-analysis. Stratified analysis, sensitivity analysis, and assessment of bias were performed in our meta-analysis. Sixty publications fulfilling the inclusion criteria for this meta-analysis were finally included. Occupational RE was associated with LC [risk ratio 1.86, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.67-2.09; I2=92.2%; 27 prospective studies], for pooled risk estimate of the: standardized mortality ratio [2.00 (95% CI=1.82-2.32)]; standardized incidence ratio [1.45 (95% CI=1.20-1.74)]; relative risk [2.10 (95% CI=1.64-2.69)]. In a subgroup analysis of uranium miners and residents exposed to occupational uranium, the summary risk was 2.23 (95% CI=1.86-2.68) and 1.23 (95% CI=1.05-1.44). The overall metaanalysis showed evidence of a nonlinear association between RE and the risk of LC (P(nonlinearity)<0.014); in addition, the point value of residential radon also improved the results quantitatively, where odds ratios were 1.11 (95% CI=1.07-1.15) and 1.21 (95% CI=1.14-1.29) when the radon concentration was at the point of 100 and 200 Bq/m3 compared with the lowest. For 17 prospective studies with at least three categories of occupational cumulative radon dose, the dose-risk model estimated a risk ratio of 1.26 (95% CI=1.21-1.30) for 100 working level months and 1.51 (95% CI=1.38-1.65) for 200 working level months, respectively. The assessment of risk of bias within individual studies and across studies indicated risk that was unlikely to alter these results markedly. This meta-analysis shows a nonlinear dose-response association between environmental RE and the risk of LC. This increased risk is particularly apparent when the cumulative exposure to radon is well beyond that resulting from exposure to the recommended limit concentration for a prolonged period of time.


GARCIA-PEREZ J, LOPEZ-ABENTE G, GOMEZ-BARROSO D et al. - Childhood leukemia and residential proximity to industrial and urban sites. – Environmental research, 07/2015, 140, 542-553.

  • abstract





BACKGROUND : Few risk factors for the childhood leukemia are well established. While a small fraction of cases of childhood leukemia might be partially attributable to some diseases or ionizing radiation exposure, the role of industrial and urban pollution also needs to be assessed.

OBJECTIVES : To ascertain the possible effect of residential proximity to both industrial and urban areas on childhood leukemia, taking into account industrial groups and toxic substances released.

METHODS : We conducted a population-based case-control study of childhood leukemia in Spain, covering 638 incident cases gathered from the Spanish Registry of Childhood Tumors and for those Autonomous Regions with 100% coverage (period 1990-2011), and 13,188 controls, individually matched by year of birth, sex, and autonomous region of residence. Distances were computed from the respective subject's residences to the 1068 industries and the 157 urban areas with ≥10,000 inhabitants, located in the study area. Using logistic regression, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for categories of distance to industrial and urban pollution sources were calculated, with adjustment for matching variables.

RESULTS : Excess risk of childhood leukemia was observed for children living near (≤2.5km) industries (OR=1.31; 95%CI=1.03-1.67) - particularly glass and mineral fibers (OR=2.42; 95%CI=1.49-3.92), surface treatment using organic solvents (OR=1.87; 95%CI=1.24-2.83), galvanization (OR=1.86; 95%CI=1.07-3.21), production and processing of metals (OR=1.69; 95%CI=1.22-2.34), and surface treatment of metals (OR=1.62; 95%CI=1.22-2.15) - , and urban areas (OR=1.36; 95%CI=1.02-1.80).

CONCLUSIONS : Our study furnishes some evidence that living in the proximity of industrial and urban sites may be a risk factor for childhood leukemia.


HALLEGUEN-CADOT C, TENAILLEAU L, LAROCHE P. et al. – Tritium : bilan des connaissances actuelles. – EMC-Pathologie professionnelle et de l’environnement, 07/2015, 10, 188, 16-515-A-20,6 p.

  • résumé




Cet article fait le point sur l'ensemble des connaissances concernant le tritium, radionucléide réputé comme étant faiblement radiotoxique et qui n'aurait pas tendance à s'accumuler dans les composés environnementaux et les organismes. En réalité, si la problématique du tritium sous sa forme libre est relativement bien documentée, elle demeure toutefois à l'origine de nombreuses discussions. De plus, sa forme liée aux molécules organiques (TOL) suscite encore plus d'interrogations sur le plan scientifique. La technique de mesure du tritium dans l'eau la plus couramment utilisée et la seule normalisée est la scintillation liquide qui présente l'avantage d'être rapide et peu coûteuse, mais la qualité des techniques de mesure ne suffit pas à garantir la pertinence des résultats obtenus car tout va dépendre de la qualité du prélèvement, de sa préservation et de la qualité de son traitement. L'importance du tritium sur le plan médiatique est indubitable car le tritium est le seul radionucléide dont les rejets vontaugmenter dans l'avenir du fait de l'évolution des techniques de production d'électricité et de retraitement des combustibles.


MARUI A, GALLARDO AH - Managing groundwater radioactive contamination at the Daiichi Nuclear Plant. – International journal of environmental research and public health, 07/2015, 12, 7, 


NAKASHIMA E - Radiation dose response estimation with emphasis on low dose range using restricted cubic splines : application to all solid cancer mortality data, 1950-2003, in atomic bomb survivors. – Health physics, 07/2015, 109, 1, 15-24.

  • abstract

Using the all solid cancer mortality data set of the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort from 1950 to 2003 (LSS Report 14) data among atomic bomb survivors, excess relative risk (ERR) statistical analyses were performed using the second degree polynomial and the threshold and restricted cubic spline (RCS) dose response models. For the RCS models with 3 to 7 knots of equally spaced percentiles with margins in the dose range greater than 50 mGy, the dose response was assumed to be linear at less than 70 to 90 mGy. Due to the skewed dose distribution of atomic bomb survivors, the current knot system for the RCS analysis results in a detailed depiction of the dose response as less than approximately 0.5 Gy. The 6 knot RCS models for the all-solid cancer mortality dose response of the whole dose or less than 2 Gy were selected with the AIC model selection criterion and fit significantly better (p < 0.05) than the linear (L) model. The usual RCS includes the L-global model but not the quadratic (Q) nor linear-quadratic (LQ) global models. The authors extended the RCS to include L or LQ global models by putting L or LQ constraints on the cubic spline in the lower and upper tails, and the best RCS model selected with AIC criterion was the usual RCS with Lconstraints in both the lower and upper tails. The selected RCS had a linear dose-response model in the lower dose range (i.e., < 0.2-0.3 Gy) and was compatible with the linear nothreshold (LNT) model in this dose range. The proposed method is also useful in describing the dose response of a specific cancer or non-cancer disease incidence/mortality.


SAHOO SK, ZUNIC ZC, KRITSANANUWAT R et al. – Distribution of uranium, thorium and some stable trace and toxic elements in human hair and nails in Niška Banja Town, a high natural background radiation area of Serbia (Balkan Region, South-East Europe). – Journal of environmental radioactivity, 07/2015, 145, 66-77.

  • abstract

Human hair and nails can be considered as bio-indicators of the public exposure to certain natural radionuclides and other toxic metals over a long period of months or even years. The level of elements in hair and nails usually reflect their levels in other tissues of body. Niška Banja, a spa town located in southern Serbia, with locally high natural background radiation was selected for the study. To assess public exposure to the trace elements, hair and nail samples were collected and analyzed. The concentrations of uranium, thorium and some trace and toxic elements (Mn, Ni, Cu, Sr, Cd, and Cs) were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). U and Th concentrations in hair varied from 0.0002 to 0.0771 μg/g and from 0.0002 to 0.0276 μg/g, respectively. The concentrations in nails varied from 0.0025 to 0.0447 μg/g and from 0.0023 to 0.0564 μg/g for U and Th, respectively. We found significant correlations between some elements in hair and nails. Also indications of spatial clustering of high values could be found. However, this phenomenon as well as the large variations in concentrations of heavy metals in hair and nail could not be explained. As hypotheses, we propose possible exposure pathways which may explain the findings, but the current data does not allow testing them.


ZIMMERMANN MB, GALETTI V – Iodine intake as a risk factor for thyroid cancer : a comprehensive review of animal and human studies. - Thyroid research, 18/06/2015, 8, 8, 21 p.


DAVIES L, MORRIS LG, HAYMART M et al. - American association of clinical endocrinologists and American college of endocrinology disease state clinical review : the increasing incidence of thyroid cancer. – Endocrine practice, 06/2015, 21, 6, 686-696.


GLUZMAN DF, SKLYARENKO LM, ZAVELEVICH MP et al. – Overview on association of different types of leukemias with radiation exposure. - Experimental oncology, 06/2015, 37, 2, 89-93.


PEREZ AF, DEVIC C, COLIN C et al. - Les faibles doses de radiations : vers une nouvelle lecture de l’évaluation du risque ? - Bulletin du cancer, 06/2015, 102, 6, 527-538.

  • résumé

D’après les données d’Hiroshima, le risque de cancer provoqué par les radiations ionisantes est significatif à partir de 100 mSv pour une population considérée comme radiorésistante et uniforme. Toutefois, les données radiobiologiques apportent aujourd’hui des éléments nouveaux qui mettent en lumière des aspects qui n’avaient pas été jusque là pris en compte dans la définition des doses seuils : le facteur individuel, l’effet de l’étalement ou de répétition de dose. La détermination objective du risque pour des doses inférieures à 100 mSv est avant tout conditionnée par un niveau élevé de détectabilité et de significativité statistique. Pourtant, il apparaît que toute la rigueur méthodologique n’est pas systématiquement appliquée dans les publications scientifiques. De plus, une mauvaise communication des données entraîne souvent des effets d’annonce dans les médias qui n’améliorent pas la lisibilité de la problématique. Cette publication a pour objet d’appréhender la complexité des phénomènes spécifiques aux faibles doses dans leur globalité, en confrontant les données biologiques récentes aux données épidémiologiques.


YOUNGMAN MJ – Review of methods to measure internal contamination in an emergency. -Journal of radiological protection, 06/2015, 35, 2, R1-R15.


Compte-rendu de congrès

Radiation protection in medicine. International Conference. Varna (Bulgarie), 30 mai -2 juin 2014. –Radiation protection dosimetry, 2015, 165, 1-4, 1-525.



INRS - Radiographie industrielle gamma sur chantier avec appareil portatif. Recommandations aux opérateurs. Fiche gammagraphie. – 06/2015, ED 4243, 4 p.


INRS - Radiographie industrielle gamma sur chantier avec appareil portatif. Recommandations aux entreprises intervenantes (prestataires). Fiche gammagraphie. – 06/2015, ED 4244, 4 p.


INRS - Radiographie industrielle gamma sur chantier avec appareil portatif. Recommandations aux entreprises utilisatrices. Fiche gammagraphie. – 06/2015, ED 4245, 4 p.



ASN – Guide de l'ASN no. 6. Mise à l'arrêt définitif, démantèlement et déclassement des installations nucléaires en France. - 16/07/2015, 28 p.


ASN - Guide de l'ASN no. 11. Evénements significatifs dans le domaine de la radioprotection (hors installations nucléaires de base et transports de matières radioactives) : déclaration et codification des critères. – 07/2015, 20 p.


Numéro de revue

Suivi à long terme des adultes ayant été traités dans l'enfance pour un cancer. - Bulletin du cancer, 07-08/2015, 102, 7-8, 577-706. (sommaire en PJ9)



ZONABEND F – La presqu’ile au nucléaire : Three Mile Island, Tchernobyl, Fukushima... et après ? – Ed. Odile Jacob, 05/2014, 240 p.



IRSN – La radioprotection des travalleurs. Exposition professionnelle aux rayonnements ionisants en France : bilan 2014. – 07/2015, PRP-HOM/2015-0004, 118 p.


SCHNEIDER M, FROGGATT A – The world nuclear industry status report 2015. – Mycle Schneider Consulting project, 07/2015, 202 p.


CNE2 – Rapport d’évaluation no. 9 des recherches et études relatives à la gestion des matières et des déchets radioactifs. - Commission nationale d’évaluation, 06/2015, 126 p.


INCA – Rapport d’activité 2014. – 06/2015, 88 p.


ANDRA – Inventaire national des matières et déchets radioactifs. Edition 2015. – 06/2015, nb p.


ICRP – Publication 128 : Radiological dose to patients from radiopharmaceuticals. A compendium of current information related to frequently used substances. – Annals of the ICRP, 2015, 44, 2S, 321 p.

  • contents et abstract

This report provides a compendium of current information relating toradiation dose to patients, including biokinetic models, biokinetic data, dose coefficients for organ and tissue absorbed doses, and effective dose for major radiopharmaceuticals based on the radiation protection guidance given in Publication 60(ICRP, 1991). These data were mainly compiled from Publications 53, 80, and 106(ICRP, 1987, 1998, 2008), and related amendments and corrections. This report alsoincludes new information for 82Rb-chloride, iodide (123I, 124I, 125I, and 131I) and 123I-labelled 2ß-carbomethoxy 3ß-(4-iodophenyl)-N-(3-fluoropropyl) nortropane (FP-CIT). The coefficients tabulated in this publication will be superseded in duecourse by values calculated using new International Commission on RadiationUnits and Measurements/International Commission on Radiological Protectionadult and paediatric reference phantoms and Publication 103 methodology (ICRP,2007). The data presented in this report are intended for diagnostic nuclear medicineand not for therapeutic applications.


ICRP – Publication 129 : Radiological protection in cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). –Annals of the ICRP, 2015, 44, 1, 127 p.

  • contents et abstract

The objective of this publication is to provide guidance on radiologicalprotection in the new technology of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT).Publications 87 and 102 dealt with patient dose management in computed tomography (CT) and multi-detector CT. The new applications of CBCT and the associated radiological protection issues are substantially different from those ofconventional CT. The perception that CBCT involves lower doses was only true ininitial applications. CBCT is now used widely by specialists who have little or notraining in radiological protection. This publication provides recommendations onradiation dose management directed at different stakeholders, and covers principlesof radiological protection, training, and quality assurance aspects. Advice on appropriate use of CBCT needs to be made widely available. Advice on optimisation of protection when using CBCT equipment needs to be strengthened, particularly withrespect to the use of newer features of the equipment. Manufacturers should standardise radiation dose displays on CBCT equipment to assist users in optimisation of protection and comparisons of performance. Additional challenges to radiological protection are introduced when CBCT-capable equipment is used for both fluoroscopy and tomography during the same procedure. Standardised methods need to be established for tracking and reporting of patient radiation doses from these procedures. The recommendations provided in this publication may evolve in the future as CBCT equipment and applications evolve. As with previous ICRP publications, the Commission hopes that imaging professionals, medical physicists, and manufacturers will use the guidelines and recommendations provided in this publication for implementation of the Commission’s principle of optimisation of protection of patients and medical workers, with the objective of keeping exposures as low as reasonably achievable, taking into account economic and societal factors, and consistent with achieving the necessary medical outcomes.


Autres informations



CRIIRAD - France / impact de Tchernobyl 29 ans après. Dans les Alpes, certains sols sont toujours des « déchets radioactifs ». – 30/07/2015, 7 p. 



ICRP - International workshop on the Fukushima dialogue initiative. Rehabilitation of living conditions after the nuclear accident. Fukushima (Japon), 12-13 décembre 2015.



SFRP - Evolutions en matière de suivi des rejets et de surveillance de la radioactivité dans l’environnement. Paris, 5-6 novembre 2015. Journées techniques


Table ronde

SFRP - L'application de l'arrêté "certification" pour les entreprises intervenant au sein d’installations nucléaires de base. Paris, 28 septembre 2015. Table ronde



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