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BSE 31 août 2015 - no. 206

Documentation en Radioprotection d'EDF - DPI - Division Production Nucléaire

 


31 août 2015 - no. 206

 

Projets de publication 

Rapport

ICRP – The ICRP computational framework for internal dose assessment for reference workers : specific absorbed fractions. ICRP ref 4835-9252-8934. – Annals of the ICRP, [online 5 août 2015], 58 p.

  • draft disponible sur le site de l’ICRP http://www.icrp.org (contribution possible jusqu’au 9 octobre 2015)

 

Vient de paraître

Articles

BRAUNER EV, LOFT S, SORENSEN M et al. - Residential radon exposure and skin cancer incidence in a prospective Danish cohort. - Plos One, 14/08/2015, 14 p.

NOLAN J, WEBER KA - Natural uranium contamination in major U.S. aquifers linked to nitrate. - Environmental science and technology letters, 11/08/2015, 2, 8, 215-220.

ISHIKAWA T, YASUMURA S, OZASA K et al. – The Fukushima Health Management Survey : estimation of external doses to residents in Fukushima Prefecture. - Scientific reports, 04/08/2015, 5, 12712, 11 p.

CLANCEY G, CHHEM R – Hiroshima, Nagasaki and Fukushima. – Lancet, 01/08/2015, 386, 9992, 405-406.

  • pas d’abstract disponible

HASEGAWA A, TANIGAWA K, OHTSURU A et al. - Health effects of radiation and other health problems in the aftermath of nuclear accidents, with an emphasis on Fukushima. - Lancet, 01/08/2015, 386, 9992, 479-488.

  • abstract

437 nuclear power plants are in operation at present around the world to meet increasing energy demands. Unfortunately, five major nuclear accidents have occurred in the past--ie, at Kyshtym (Russia [then USSR], 1957), Windscale Piles (UK, 1957), Three Mile Island (USA, 1979), Chernobyl (Ukraine [then USSR], 1986), and Fukushima (Japan, 2011). The effects of these accidents on individuals and societies are diverse and enduring. Accumulated evidence about radiation health effects on atomic bomb survivors and other radiation-exposed people has formed the basis for national and international regulations about radiation protection. However, past experiences suggest that common issues were not necessarily physical health problems directly attributable to radiation exposure, but rather psychological and social effects. Additionally, evacuation and long-term displacement created severe health-care problems for the most vulnerable people, such as hospital inpatients and elderly people.

KAMIYA K, OZASA K, AKIBA O et al. - Long-term effects of radiation exposure on health. - Lancet, 01/08/2015, 386, 9992, 469-478.

  • abstract

Late-onset effects of exposure to ionising radiation on the human body have been identified by long-term, large-scale epidemiological studies. The cohort study of Japanese survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki (the Life Span Study) is thought to be the most reliable source of information about these health effects because of the size of the cohort, the exposure of a general population of both sexes and all ages, and the wide range of individually assessed doses. For this reason, the Life Span Study has become fundamental to risk assessment in the radiation protection system of the International Commission on Radiological Protection and other authorities. Radiation exposure increases the risk of cancer throughout life, so continued follow-up of survivors is essential. Overall, survivors have a clear radiation-related excess risk of cancer, and people exposed as children have a higher risk of radiation-induced cancer than those exposed at older ages. At high doses, and possibly at low doses, radiation might increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and some other non-cancer diseases. Hereditary effects in the children of atomic bomb survivors have not been detected. The dose-response relation for cancer at low doses is assumed, for purposes of radiological protection, to be linear without a threshold, but has not been shown definitively. This outstanding issue is not only a problem when dealing appropriately with potential health effects of nuclear accidents, such as at Fukushima and Chernobyl, but is of growing concern in occupational and medical exposure. Therefore, the appropriate dose-response relation for effects of low doses of radiation needs to be established.

MC CURRY J – Hiroshima survivors remember. - Lancet, 01/08/2015, 386, 9992, 417-418.

  • pas d’abstract disponible

OHTSURU A, TANIGAWA K, KUMAGAI A et al. - Nuclear disasters and health : lessons learned, challenges, and proposals. - Lancet, 01/08/2015, 386, 9992, 489-497.

  • abstract

Past nuclear disasters, such as the atomic bombings in 1945 and major accidents at nuclear power plants, have highlighted similarities in potential public health effects of radiation in both circumstances, including health issues unrelated to radiation exposure. Although the rarity of nuclear disasters limits opportunities to undertake rigorous research of evidence-based interventions and strategies, identification of lessons learned and development of an effective plan to protect the public, minimise negative effects, and protect emergency workers from exposure to high-dose radiation is important. Additionally, research is needed to help decision makers to avoid premature deaths among patients already in hospitals and other vulnerable groups during evacuation. Since nuclear disasters can affect hundreds of thousands of people, a substantial number of people are at risk of physical and mental harm in each disaster. During the recovery period after a nuclear disaster, physicians might need to screen for psychological burdens and provide general physical and mental health care for many affected residents who might experience long-term displacement. Reliable communication of personalised risks has emerged as a challenge for health-care professionals beyond the need to explain radiation protection. To overcome difficulties of risk communication and provide decision aids to protect workers, vulnerable people, and residents after a nuclear disaster, physicians should receive training in nuclear disaster response. This training should include evidence-based interventions, support decisions to balance potential harms and benefits, and take account of scientific uncertainty in provision of community health care. An open and joint learning process is essential to prepare for, and minimise the effects of, future nuclear disasters.

REICH MR, GOTO A - Towards long-term responses in Fukushima. - Lancet, 01/08/2015, 386, 9992, 498-500.

  • pas d’abstract disponible

SIMON SL, BOUVILLE A - Health effects of nuclear weapons testing. - Lancet, 01/08/2015, 386, 9992, 407-409.

  • pas d’abstract disponible

ALLODJI RS, SCHWARTZ B, DIALLO I et al. - Simulation-extrapolation method to address errors in atomic bomb survivor dosimetry on solid cancer and leukaemia mortality risk estimates, 1950-2003. – Radiation and environmental biophysics, 08/2015, 54, 3, 273-283.

  • abstract

Analyses of the Life Span Study (LSS) of Japanese atomic bombing survivors have routinely incorporated corrections for additive classical measurement errors using regression calibration. Recently, several studies reported that the efficiency of the simulation-extrapolation method (SIMEX) is slightly more accurate than the simple regression calibration method (RCAL). In the present paper, the SIMEX and RCAL methods have been used to address errors in atomic bomb survivor dosimetry on solid cancer and leukaemia mortality risk estimates. For instance, it is shown that using the SIMEX method, the ERR/Gy is increased by an amount of about 29 % for all solid cancer deaths using a linear model compared to the RCAL method, and the corrected EAR 10(-4) person-years at 1 Gy (the linear terms) is decreased by about 8 %, while the corrected quadratic term (EAR 10(-4) person-years/Gy(2)) is increased by about 65 % for leukaemia deaths based on a linear-quadratic model. The results with SIMEX method are slightly higher than published values. The observed differences were probably due to the fact that with the RCAL method the dosimetric data were partially corrected, while all doses were considered with the SIMEX method. Therefore, one should be careful when comparing the estimated risks and it may be useful to use several correction techniques in order to obtain a range of corrected estimates, rather than to rely on a single technique. This work will enable to improve the risk estimates derived from LSS data, and help to make more reliable the development of radiation protection standards.

DROZDOVITCH V, MINENKO V, GOLOVANOV I et al. – Thyroid dose estimates for a cohort of Belarusian children exposed to (131)i from the Chernobyl accident : assessment of uncertainties. - Radiation research, 08/2015, 184, 2, 203-218.

  • abstract

Deterministic thyroid radiation doses due to iodine-131 ((131)I) intake were reconstructed in a previous article for 11,732 participants of the Belarusian-American cohort study of thyroid cancer and other thyroid diseases in individuals exposed during childhood or adolescence to fallout from the Chernobyl accident. The current article describes an assessment of uncertainties in reconstructed thyroid doses that accounts for the shared and unshared errors. Using a Monte Carlo simulation procedure, 1,000 sets of cohort thyroid doses due to (131)I intake were calculated. The arithmetic mean of the stochastic thyroid doses for the entire cohort was 0.68 Gy. For two-thirds of the cohort the arithmetic mean of individual stochastic thyroid doses was less than 0.5 Gy. The geometric standard deviation of stochastic doses varied among cohort members from 1.33 to 5.12 with an arithmetic mean of 1.76 and a geometric mean of 1.73. The uncertainties in thyroid dose were driven by the unshared errors associated with the estimates of values of thyroid mass and of the (131)I activity in the thyroid of the subject; the contribution of shared errors to the overall uncertainty was small. These multiple sets of cohort thyroid doses will be used to evaluate the radiation risks of thyroid cancer and noncancer thyroid diseases, taking into account the structure of the errors in the dose estimates.

ITAKURA K, TAKAHASHI I, NAKASHIMA E et al. - Exposure to atomic bomb radiation and age-related macular degeneration in later life : the Hiroshima-Nagasaki atomic bomb survivor study. - Investigative ophthalmology and visual science, 08/2015, 56, 9, 5401-5406.

KANAGARAJ K, ABDOUL SYED BASHEERUDEEN S, TAMIZH SELVAN G et al. - Assessment of dose and DNA damages in individuals exposed to low dose and low dose rate ionizing radiations during computed tomography imaging. – Mutation research-Genetic toxicology and environmental mutagenesis, 08/2015, 789-790, 1-6.

  • abstract

PURPOSE : Computed tomography (CT) is a frequently used imaging modality that contributes to a tenfold increase in radiation exposure to the public when compared to other medical imaging modalities. The use of radiation for therapeutic need is always rationalized on the basis of risk versus benefit thereby increasing concerns on the dose received by patients undergoing CT imaging. Therefore, it was of interest to us to investigate the effects of low dose and low dose-rate X-irradiation in patients who underwent CT imaging by recording the doses received by the eye, forehead and thyroid, and to study the levels of damages in the lymphocytes in vivo.

MATERIALS AND METHODS : Lithium manganese borate doped with terbium (LMB:Tb) thermo luminescence dosimeters (TLD) were used to record the doses in the patient's (n=27) eye, forehead, and thyroid and compared with the dose length product (DLP) values. The in vivo DNA damages measured were compared before and after CT imaging using chromosomal aberration (CA) and micronucleus (MN) assays.

RESULTS : The overall measured organ dose ranged between 2±0.29 and 520±41.63mGy for the eye, 0.84±0.29 and 210±20.50mGy for the forehead, and 1.79±0.43 and 185±0.70mGy for the thyroid. The in vivo damages measured from the blood lymphocytes of the subjects showed an extremely significant (p<0.0001) increase in CA frequency and significant (p<0.001) increase in MN frequency after exposure, compared to before exposure.

CONCLUSION : The results suggest that CT imaging delivers a considerable amount of radiation dose to the eye, forehead, and thyroid, and the observed increase in the CA and MN frequencies show low dose radiation effects calling for protective regulatory measures to increase patient's safety. This study is the first attempt to indicate the trend of doses received by the patient's eye, forehead and thyroid and measured directly in contrast to earlier values obtained by extrapolation from phantoms, and to assess the in vivo low dose effects in an Indian patient population undergoing CT procedures.

LEE WJ, HA M, HWANG SS et al. – The radiologic technologists' health study in South Korea : study design and baseline results. - International archives of occupational and environmental health, 08/2015, 88, 6, 759-769.

  • abstract

PURPOSE : To describe the study design, methods, and baseline results of a prospective cohort of radiologic technologists which we have initiated in South Korea.

METHODS : The cohort participants were enrolled through a self-administered questionnaire survey administered from April 2012 to May 2013. Survey data were linked with radiation dosimetry, a cancer registry, and health insurance data by personal identification numbers. A nationwide representative survey was also conducted using a stratified random sampling design with face-to-face interviews.

RESULTS : A total of 12,387 radiologic technologists were enrolled, which accounted for approximately 63 % of all diagnostic radiologic technologists working in South Korea. For nationwide survey, 585 workers were interviewed using the detailed questionnaire, and buccal cells were also collected by scraping the inside of the cheek. The majority of study subjects were under 50-year-old and male workers. The average annual effective dose of radiation declined both men (from 2.75 to 1.43 mSv) and women (from 1.34 to 0.95 mSv) over the period of 1996-2011. A total of 99 cancers (66 cancers in men and 33 in women) were reported from 1992 to 2010. The standardized incidence ratio of all cancer combined was significantly lower in men (SIR = 0.75, 95 % CI 0.58-0.96) than general population, but the ratios for thyroid cancer were significantly higher than expected among both men and women.

CONCLUSIONS : This cohort provides comprehensive information on work activities and health status of diagnostic radiologic technologists. In addition, the nationwide representative sample provides unique opportunities compared with previous radiologic technologist studies.

RAGE E, CAER-LORHO S, DRUBAY D et al. - Mortality analyses in the updated French cohort of uranium miners (1946-2007). - International archives of occupational and environmental health, 08/2015, 88, 6, 717-730.

  • abstract

PURPOSE : The objectives are to analyze mortality risks in the extended follow-up of the French uranium miners' cohort and to examine their potential relation to occupational exposure to ionizing radiation (IR).

METHODS : The total cohort includes 5,086 uranium miners employed in the CEA-COGEMA group and followed up from 1946 to 2007. Vital status, causes of death, and cumulative radon exposures were recorded. The post-55 subcohort includes 3,377 miners first employed after 1955, for whom long-lived radionuclides (LLR) and external gamma-ray exposure were also recorded. External mortality analyses were performed by computing standardized mortality ratios (SMR). Excess relative risks (ERRs) due to IR exposures were estimated from Poisson regression models.

RESULTS : The miners included in the total cohort were followed up for 35.4 years and exposed to 36.6 working level months (WLM) on average. There was no evidence of a difference in overall mortality between miners and the general French male population. Miners had a statistically significant excess mortality rate from lung cancer (SMR = 1.34 [95 % CI 1.16-1.53]) and from kidney cancer (SMR = 1.60 [1.03-2.39]). Cumulative radon exposure was significantly associated with lung cancer risk (ERR/100 WLM = 0.71 [0.31-1.30]) and cerebrovascular risk (ERR/100 WLM = 0.41 [0.04-1.03]). In the post-55 subcohort, this excess mortality from lung cancer remained associated with exposure to radon, and also with exposure to LLR and external gamma rays.

CONCLUSIONS : The analyses in the extended follow-up strengthen the results previously observed among French uranium miners about their excess risk of mortality and its association with their occupational IR exposure.

SCHNEIDER U, WALSH L – Age at exposure and attained age variations of cancer risk in the Japanese A-bomb and radiotherapy cohorts. - Medical physics, 08/2015, 42, 8, 4755.

  • abstract

PURPOSE : Phenomenological risk models for radiation-induced cancer are frequently applied to estimate the risk of radiation-induced cancers at radiotherapy doses. Such models often include the effect modification, of the main risk to radiation dose response, by age at exposure and attained age. The aim of this paper is to compare the patterns in risk effect modification by age, between models obtained from the Japanese atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivor data and models for cancer risks previously reported for radiotherapy patients. Patterns in risk effect modification by age from the epidemiological studies of radiotherapy patients were also used to refine and extend the risk effect modification by age obtained from the A-bomb survivor data, so that more universal models can be presented here.

METHODS : Simple log-linear and power functions of age for the risk effect modification applied in models of the A-bomb survivor data are compared to risks from epidemiological studies of second cancers after radiotherapy. These functions of age were also refined and fitted to radiotherapy risks. The resulting age models provide a refined and extended functional dependence of risk with age at exposure and attained age especially beyond 40 and 65 yr, respectively, and provide a better representation than the currently available simple age functions.

RESULTS : It was found that the A-bomb models predict risk similarly to the outcomes of testicular cancer survivors. The survivors of Hodgkin's disease show steeper variations of risk with both age at exposure and attained age. The extended models predict solid cancer risk increase as a function of age at exposure beyond 40 yr and the risk decrease as a function of attained age beyond 65 yr better than the simple models.

CONCLUSIONS : The standard functions for risk effect modification by age, based on the A-bomb survivor data, predict second cancer risk in radiotherapy patients for ages at exposure prior to 40 yr and attained ages before 55 yr reasonably well. However, for larger ages, the refined and extended models can be applied to predict the risk as a function of age.

TING CY, WANG HE, LIN JP et al. – Evaluating the radiation from accidental exposure during a nondestructive testing event. - Health physics, 08/2015, 109, 2, 171-176.

  • abstract

Industrial radiography is a common nondestructive testing (NDT) method used in various industries. An investigation was conducted for a 1999 incident in Taiwan where two workers (Operators A and B) were accidently exposed to an unshielded Ir source while conducting industrial radiography. Operators A and B experienced acute close-range radiation exposure to a source of Ir for 3 h at a strength of 2.33 × 10 Bq. The health of mammary glands, bone marrow, thyroid glands, eyes, and genital organs of these two workers after radiation exposure was examined. Subsequently, Operator A experienced severe radiation injury, including tissue necrosis and keratinization in the fingers, chromosomal abnormalities, reduced blood cell count, diffuse hyperplasia of the thyroid gland, opaque spots in the crystalline lens, and related radiation effects. The results showed that the left index finger and thumb, eyes, and gonads of Operator A were exposed to a radiation dose of about 369-1,070, 23.1-67.4, 2.4-5.3, and 4.2-11.6 Gy, respectively. Effective dose for Operator A was estimated to range from 6.9 to 18.9 Sv. The left fingers, thumb, eyes, and gonads of Operator B were exposed to a radiation dose of 184.9-646.2, 11.8-40.7, 0.49-3.33, and 0.72-7.18 Gy, respectively, and his effective dose was between 2.5 and 11.5 Sv. This accident indicated a major flaw in the control and regulation of radiation safety for conducting NDT industrial radiography in 1999; however, similar problems still exist. Modifications of the Ionizing Radiation Protection Act in Taiwan are suggested in this study to regulate the management of NDT industries, continually educate the NDT workers in radiation safety, and enact notification provisions for medical care systems toward acute radiation exposure events.

YAJIMA K, KURIHARA O, OHMACHI Y et al. - Estimating annual individual doses for evacuees returning home to areas affected by the Fukushima nuclear accident. - Health physics, 08/2015, 109, 2, 122-133.

  • abstract

To contribute to the reconstruction and revitalization of Fukushima Prefecture following the 2011 nuclear power disaster, annual individual doses were estimated for evacuees who will return home to Tamura City, Kawauchi Village, and Iitate Village in Fukushima. Ambient external dose rates and individual doses obtained with personal dosimeters were measured at many residential and occupational sites throughout the study areas to obtain fundamental data needed for the estimation. The measurement results indicated that the ratio of individual dose based on a personal dosimeter to the ambient external dose measurement was 0.7 with 10% uncertainty. Multiplying the ambient external dose by 0.7 may be an appropriate measure of the effective dose to an individual in the investigated area. Annual individual doses were estimated for representative lifestyles and occupations based on the ambient external dose rates at the measurement sites, taking into account the relationship between the ambient external dose and individual dose. The results were as follows: 0.6-2.3 mSv y in Tamura, 1.1-5.5 mSv y in Kawauchi, and 3.8-17 mSv y in Iitate. For all areas investigated, the estimated dose to outdoor workers was higher than that to indoor workers. Identifying ways to reduce the amount of time that an outdoor worker spends outdoors would provide an effective measure to reduce dose.

BORDY JM – Monitoring of eye lens doses in radiation protection - Radioprotection, 07-09/2015, 50, 3, 177-185.

POURCELOT L, BOULET B, CARIO N - Utilisation des isotopes de l’uranium et du rapport U/Th pour évaluer le marquage des végétaux consécutif aux rejets d’uranium des installations du cycle du combustible. - Radioprotection, 07-09/2015, 50, 3, 209-214.

  • résumé

Cette note s’appuie sur des données de la surveillance de l’environnement des installations du cycle du combustible. Il s’agit d’évaluer l’uranium ajouté dans l’environnement terrestre par les rejets. Ainsi, nous illustrons par la mesure des isotopes de l’uranium dans les plantes terrestres les conséquences d’un rejet chronique et d’un rejet incidentel d’uranium appauvri dans l’atmosphère. Cependant, cette méthode analytique atteint ses limites quand les rejets des installations concernent l’uranium naturel. Distinguer l’uranium naturel provenant des rejets et l’uranium qui dérive du fond radiologique devient alors délicat. C’est pourquoi, nous proposons de normaliser l’activité en uranium des plantes prélevées autour des sites nucléaires par rapport à l’activité en 232Th, en considérant que la source de ce dernier est le fond radiologique.

SPYCHER BD, LUPATSCH JE, ZWAHLEN M et al. – Background ionizing radiation and the risk of childhood cancer : a census-based nationwide cohort study. - Environmental health perspectives, 06/2015, 123, 6, 622-628.

 

Norme

AFNOR – Radioprotection – Installations de radiologie gamma. – 15/08/2015, NF M 62-102, 18 p.

  • résumé

Le présent document précise les conditions d’utilisation des installations de radiologie gamma, en accord avec la protection des personnes et de l’environnement. Dans ce but, il donne les spécifications relatives à la réalisation de l’installation et celles nécessaires à sa réception et à sa vérification. Les parties des systèmes de commande relatives à la sécurité et/ou les dispositifs de protection ainsi que leurs pièces constitutives doivent être choisis et/ou réalisés, assemblés et/ou combinés dans le respect des documents applicables de manière à faire face aux influences attendues. Le présent document s’applique uniquement aux secteurs industriels et de la recherche.

 

Rapports

CCSN – Study of consequences of a hypothetical severe nuclear accident and effectiveness of mitigation measures. - Commission canadienne de sûreté nucléaire, 08/2015, 138 p.

AIEA – The Fukushima Daiichi accident. – 08/2015, 1336 p.

AIEA – Method for developing a communication strategy and plan for a nuclear or radiological emergency. 07/2015, 38 p.

 


Autres informations

 

Outil

Le COD-IT de la Direction Générale du Travail (DGT). – version excel du 2 juillet 2015.

 

 

 

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