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BSE 24 novembre 2015 - no. 209

Nucléaire & Santé Actualités

Bibliographie Sélective Express

Documentation en Radioprotection d'EDF - DPI - Division Production Nucléaire

24 novembre 2015 - no. 209

Vient de paraître


GARNIER-LAPLACE J, BEAUGELIN-SEILLER K, DELLA-VEDOVA C et al. - Radiological dose reconstruction for birds reconciles outcomes of Fukushima with knowledge of dose-effect relationships. - Scientific reports, 16/11/2015, 5, 16594, 13 p.

KREUZER M, FENSKE N, SCHNELZER M et al. - Lung cancer risk at low radon exposure rates in German uranium miners. – British journal of cancer, 03/11/2015, 113, 9, 1367-1369.

  • abstract

BACKGROUND: A determination of the risk of lung cancer at low levels of radon exposure is important for occupational radiation protection.

METHODS: The risk of death from lung cancer at low radon exposure rates was investigated in the subcohort of 26 766 German uranium miners hired in 1960 or later.

RESULTS: A clear association between lung cancer mortality (n=334 deaths) and cumulative exposure to radon in working level months (WLM) was found. The excess relative risk per WLM was 0.013 (95% confidence intervals: 0.007; 0.021).


CONCLUSIONS: The present findings provide strong evidence for an increased lung cancer risk after long-term exposure to low radon exposure rates among Wismut miners. The results are compatible to those from residential radon studies and miner studies restricted to low levels.

ZABLOTSKA LB, NADYROV EA, POLYANSKAYA ON et al. – Risk of thyroid follicular adenoma among children and adolescents in Belarus exposed to iodine-131 after the Chornobyl accident. - American journal of epidemiology, 01/11/2015, 182, 9, 781-790.

  • abstract

Several studies reported an increased risk of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents exposed to radioactive iodines, chiefly iodine-131 ((131)I), after the 1986 Chornobyl (Ukrainian spelling) nuclear power plant accident. The risk of benign thyroid tumors following such radiation exposure is much less well known. We have previously reported a novel finding of significantly increased risk of thyroid follicular adenoma in a screening study of children and adolescents exposed to the Chornobyl fallout in Ukraine. To verify this finding, we analyzed baseline screening data from a cohort of 11,613 individuals aged ≤18 years at the time of the accident in Belarus (mean age at screening = 21 years). All participants had individual (131)I doses estimated from thyroid radioactivity measurements and were screened according to a standardized protocol. We found a significant linear dose response for 38 pathologically confirmed follicular adenoma cases. The excess odds ratio per gray of 2.22 (95% confidence interval: 0.41, 13.1) was similar in males and females but decreased significantly with increasing age at exposure (P < 0.01), with the highest radiation risks estimated for those exposed at <2 years of age. Follicular adenoma radiation risks were not significantly modified by most indicators of past and current iodine deficiency. The present study confirms the (131)I-associated increases in risk of follicular adenoma in the Ukrainian population and adds new evidence on the risk increasing with decreasing age at exposure.

BERNHARDSSON C, RAAF CL, MATTSSON S - Spatial variability of the dose rate from 137Cs fallout in settlements in Russia and Belarus more than two decades after the Chernobyl accident. – Journal of environmental radioactivity, 11/2015, 149, 144-149.

  • abstract

Radionuclides from the 1986 Chernobyl accident were released and dispersed during a limited period of time, but under widely varying weather conditions. As a result, there was a high geographical variation in the deposited radioactive fallout per unit area over Europe, depending on the released composition of fission products and the weather during the 10 days of releases. If the plume from Chernobyl coincided with rain, then the radionuclides were unevenly distributed on the ground. However, large variations in the initial fallout also occurred locally or even on a meter scale. Over the ensuing years the initial deposition may have been altered further by different weathering processes or human activities such as agriculture, gardening, and decontamination measures. Using measurements taken more than two decades after the accident, we report on the inhomogeneous distribution of the ground deposition of the fission product (137)Cs and its influence on the dose rate 1 m above ground, on both large and small scales (10(ths) of km(2) - 1 m(2)), in the Gomel-Bryansk area close to the border between Belarus and Russia. The dose rate from the deposition was observed to vary by one order of magnitude depending on the size of the area considered, whether human processes were applied to the surface or not, and on location specific properties (e.g. radionuclide migration in soil).

CASEY JA, OGBURN EL, RASMUSSEN SG et al. – Predictors of indoor radon concentrations in Pennsylvania, 1989-2013. – Environmental health perspectives, 11/2015, 123,11, 1130-1137.

DE VATHAIRE F, HADDY N, ALLODJI RS et al. - Thyroid radiation dose and other risk factors of thyroid carcinoma following childhood cancer. – Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism, 11/2015, 100, 11, 4282-4290.

  • abstract

CONTEXT: Thyroid carcinoma is a frequent complication of childhood cancer radiotherapy. The dose response to thyroid radiation dose is now well established, but the potential modifier effect of other factors requires additional investigation.

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the role of potential modifiers of the dose response.

DESIGN: We followed a cohort of 4338 5-year survivors of solid childhood cancer treated before 1986 over an average of 27 years. The dose received by the thyroid gland and some other anatomical sites during radiotherapy was estimated after reconstruction of the actual conditions in which irradiation was delivered.

RESULTS: Fifty-five patients developed thyroid carcinoma. The risk of thyroid carcinoma increased with a radiation dose to the thyroid of up to two tenths of Gy, then leveled off for higher doses. When taking into account the thyroid radiation dose, a surgical or radiological splenectomy (>20 Gy to the spleen) increased thyroid cancer risk (relative risk [RR] = 2.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-4.0), high radiation doses (>5 Gy) to pituitary gland lowered this risk (RR = 0.2; 95% CI, 0.1-0.6). Patients who received nitrosourea chemotherapy had a 6.6-fold (95% CI, 2.5-15.7) higher risk than those who did not. The excess RR per Gy of radiation to the thyroid was 4.7 (95% CI, 1.7-22.6). It was 7.6 (95% CI,

1.6-33.3) if body mass index at time of interview was equal or higher than 25 kg/m(2), and 4.1 (95% CI, 0.9-17.7) if not (P for interaction = .1).

CONCLUSION: Predicting thyroid cancer risk following childhood cancer radiation therapy probably requires the assessment of more than just the radiation dose to the thyroid. Chemotherapy, splenectomy, radiation dose to pituitary gland, and obesity also play a role.

DE VATHAIRE F, SCWHARTZ B, EL-FAYECH C et al. – Risk of a second kidney carcinoma following childhood cancer : role of chemotherapy and radiation dose to kidneys. - Journal of urology, 11/2015, 194, 5, 1390-1395.

  • abstract

PURPOSE: Kidney carcinoma is a rare second malignancy following childhood cancer.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: We sought to quantify risk and assess risk factors for kidney carcinoma following treatment for childhood cancer. We evaluated a cohort of 4,350 patients who were 5-year cancer survivors and had been treated for cancer as children in France and the United Kingdom. Patients were treated between 1943 and 1985, and were followed for an average of 27 years. Radiation dose to the kidneys during treatment was estimated with dedicated software, regardless of the site of childhood cancer.

RESULTS: Kidney carcinoma developed in 13 patients. The cumulative incidence of kidney carcinoma was 0.62% (95% CI 0.27%-1.45%) at 40 years after diagnosis, which was 13.3-fold higher (95% CI 7.1-22.3) than in the general population. The absolute excess risk strongly increased with longer duration of followup (p <0.0001). Compared to the general population, the incidence of kidney carcinoma was 5.7-fold higher (95% CI 1.4-14.7) if radiotherapy was not performed or less than 1 Gy had been absorbed by the kidney but 66.3-fold higher (95% CI 23.8-142.5) if the radiation dose to the kidneys was 10 to 19 Gy and 14.5-fold higher (95% CI 0.8-63.9) for larger radiation doses to the kidney. Treatment with chemotherapy increased the risk of kidney carcinoma (RR 5.1, 95% CI 1.1-22.7) but we were unable to identify a specific drug or drug category responsible for this effect.

CONCLUSIONS: Moderate radiation dose to the kidneys during childhood cancer treatment increases the risk of a second kidney carcinoma. This incidence will be further increased when childhood cancer survivors reach old age.

KITAHARA CM, LINET MS, DROZDOVITCH V et al. – Cancer and circulatory disease risks in US radiologic technologists associated with performing procedures involving radionuclides. - Occupational and environmental medicine, 11/2015, 72, 11, 770-776.

  • abstract

OBJECTIVES: The number of nuclear medicine procedures has increased substantially over the past several decades, with uncertain health risks to the medical workers who perform them. We estimated risks of incidence and mortality from cancer and circulatory disease associated with performing procedures involving the use of radionuclides.

METHODS: From a nationwide cohort of 90 955 US radiologic technologists who completed a mailed questionnaire during 1994-1998, 22 039 reported ever performing diagnostic radionuclide procedures, brachytherapy, radioactive iodine therapy, or other radionuclide therapy. We calculated multivariable-adjusted HRs and 95% CIs for incidence (through 2003-2005) and mortality (through 2008) associated with performing these procedures.

RESULTS: Ever (versus never) performing radionuclide procedures was not associated with risks for most end points examined. However, we observed increased risks for squamous cell carcinoma of the skin (HR=1.29, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.66) with ever performing diagnostic radionuclide procedures, for myocardial infarction incidence (HR=1.37, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.70), all-cause mortality (HR=1.10, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.20) and all-cancer mortality (HR=1.20, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.43) with ever performing brachytherapy, and for mortality from all causes (HR=1.14, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.30), breast cancer (HR=2.68, 95% CI 1.10 to 6.51), and myocardial infarction (HR=1.76, 95% CI 1.02 to 3.04) with ever performing other radionuclide therapy procedures (excluding brachytherapy and radioactive iodine); increasing risks were also observed with greater frequency of performing these procedures, particularly before 1980.

CONCLUSIONS: The modest health risks among radiologic technologists performing procedures using radionuclides require further examination in studies with individual dose estimates, more detailed information regarding types of procedures performed and radionuclides used, and longer follow-up.

KOYA PK, JAIKRISHAN G, SUDHEER KR et al. - Sex ratio at birth : scenario from normal- and high-level natural radiation areas of Kerala coast in south-west India. – Radiation and environmental biophysics, 11/2015, 54, 4, 453-463.

  • abstract

Newborns were monitored for congenital malformations in four government hospitals located in high-level (ambient dose >1.5 mGy/year) and normal-level (≤1.5 mGy/year) natural radiation areas of Kerala, India, from August 1995 to December 2012. Sex ratio at birth (SRB) among live singleton newborns and among previous children, if any, of their mothers without history of any abortion, stillbirth or twins is reported here. In the absence of environmental stress or selective abortion of females, global average of SRB is about 1050 males to 1000 females. A total of 151,478 singleton, 1031 twins, 12 triplets and 1 quadruplet deliveries were monitored during the study period. Sex ratio among live singleton newborns was 1046 males (95 % CI 1036-1057) for 1000 females (77,153 males:73,730 females) and was comparable to the global average. It was similar in high-level and normal-level radiation areas of Kerala with SRB of 1050 and 1041, respectively. It was consistently more than 1000 and had no association with background radiation levels, maternal and paternal age at birth, parental age difference, gravida status, ethnicity, consanguinity or year of birth. Analysis of SRB of the children of 139,556 women whose reproductive histories were available suggested that couples having male child were likely to opt for more children and this, together with enhanced rate of males at all birth order, was skewing the overall SRB in favour of male children. Though preference for male child was apparent, extreme steps of sex-selective abortion or infanticide were not prevalent.

LAIDRA K, RAHU K, TEKKEL M et al. - Mental health and alcohol problems among Estonian cleanup workers 24 years after the Chernobyl accident. – Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology, 11/2015, 50, 11, 1753-1760.

  • abstract

PURPOSE: To study the long-term mental health consequences of the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident among cleanup workers from Estonia.

METHODS: In 2010, 614 Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers and 706 geographically and age-matched population-based controls completed a mail survey that included self-rated health, the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL), alcohol symptoms (AUDIT), and scales measuring depressive, anxiety, agoraphobia, fatigue, insomnia, and somatization symptoms. Respondents were dichotomized into high (top quartile) and low symptom groups on each measure.

RESULTS: Logistic regression analysis detected significant differences between cleanup workers and controls on all measures even after adjustment for ethnicity, education, marital status, and employment status. The strongest difference was found for somatization, with cleanup workers being three times more likely than controls to score in the top quartile (OR = 3.28, 95 % CI 2.39-4.52), whereas for alcohol problems the difference was half as large (OR = 1.52, 95 % CI 1.16-1.99). Among cleanup workers, arrival at Chernobyl in 1986 (vs. later) was associated with sleep problems, somatization, and symptoms of agoraphobia.

CONCLUSION: The toll of cleanup work was evident 24 years after the Chernobyl accident among Estonian cleanup workers indicating the need for focused mental health interventions.


RUHM W, WOLOSCHAK GE, SHORE RE et al. - Dose and dose-rate effects of ionizing radiation : a discussion in the light of radiological protection. – Radiation and environmental biophysics, 11/2015, 54, 4, 379-401.

  • abstract

The biological effects on humans of low-dose and low-dose-rate exposures to ionizing radiation have always been of major interest. The most recent concept as suggested by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is to extrapolate existing epidemiological data at high doses and dose rates down to low doses and low dose rates relevant to radiological protection, using the so-called dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor (DDREF). The present paper summarizes what was presented and discussed by experts from ICRP and Japan at a dedicated workshop on this topic held in May 2015 in Kyoto, Japan. This paper describes the historical development of the DDREF concept in light of emerging scientific evidence on dose and dose-rate effects, summarizes the conclusions recently drawn by a number of international organizations (e.g., BEIR VII, ICRP, SSK, UNSCEAR, and WHO), mentions current scientific efforts to obtain more data on low-dose and low-dose-rate effects at molecular, cellular, animal and human levels, and discusses future options that could be useful to improve and optimize the DDREF concept for the purpose of radiological protection.

SELMANSBERGER M, BRASELMANN H, HESS J et al. - Genomic copy number analysis of Chernobyl papillary thyroid carcinoma in the Ukrainian-American Cohort. – Carcinogenesis, 11/2015, 36, 11, 1381-1387.

  • abstract

One of the major consequences of the 1986 Chernobyl reactor accident was a dramatic increase in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) incidence, predominantly in patients exposed to the radioiodine fallout at young age. The present study is the first on genomic copy number alterations (CNAs) of PTCs of the Ukrainian-American cohort (UkrAm) generated by array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of CNA profiles revealed a significant enrichment of a subgroup of patients with female gender, long latency (>17 years) and negative lymph node status. Further, we identified single CNAs that were significantly associated with latency, gender, radiation dose and BRAF V600E mutation status. Multivariate analysis revealed no interactions but additive effects of parameters gender, latency and dose on CNAs. The previously identified radiation-associated gain of the chromosomal bands 7q11.22-11.23 was present in 29% of cases. Moreover, comparison of our radiation-associated PTC data set with the TCGA data set on sporadic PTCs revealed altered copy numbers of the tumor driver genes NF2 and CHEK2. Further, we integrated the CNA data with transcriptomic data that were available on a subset of the herein analyzed cohort and did not find statistically significant associations between the two molecular layers. However, applying hierarchical clustering on a 'BRAF-like/RAS-like' transcriptome signature split the cases into four groups, one of which containing all BRAF-positive cases validating the signature in an independent data set.

SADETZKI S, CHETRIT A, SGAN-COHEN HD et al. - Long-term effects of exposure to ionizing irradiation on periodontal health status. The tinea capitis cohort study. - Front public health, 19/11/2015, 3, 226, 8 p.

WATANABE Y, ICHIKAWA S, KUBOTA M et al. – Morphological defects in native Japanese fir trees around the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. - Scientific reports, 28/08/2015, 5, 13232, 7 p.


Comptes-rendus de congrès

TOKONAMI S, MC LAUGHLIN J, CHEN J et al. - 9th International symposium on the natural radiation environment (NRE-IX). Hirosaki (Japon), 22-26 septembre 2014. – Radiation protection dosimetry, 01/11/2015, 167, 1-3, 1-383.



ASN – Guide no. 7 : Transport à usage civil de colis ou de substances radioactives sur la voie publique. Tome 3 : conformité des modèles de colis non soumis à agrément. – 13/11/2015, 23 p.



AFNOR - Qualité de l'eau - Détermination de l'activité volumique du tritium - Méthode par comptage des scintillations en milieu liquide. – 21/11/2015, NF EN ISO 9698, 36 p.

  • résumé

Le présent document spécifie les conditions de détermination de l'activité volumique du tritium dans des échantillons d'eau environnementale ou d'eau tritiée ([3H]H2O) par comptage des scintillations en milieu liquide.

AFNOR – Qualité de l'eau - Mesurage des activités alpha globale et bêta globale des eaux non salines - Méthode de comptage par scintillation liquide. - 23/10/2015, NF EN ISO 11704, 20 p.

  • résumé

Le présent document spécifie une méthode de détermination des activités alpha globale et bêta globale dans les eaux, pour les radionucléides qui ne sont pas volatils à 80 °C. Les isotopes du radon et leurs produits de désintégration à période courte ne sont pas inclus dans la détermination. La méthode est applicable aux eaux brutes et potables ayant un résidu sec inférieur à 5 g/l et lorsque aucune correction n'est nécessaire pour l'affaiblissement lumineux de couleur.

AFNOR –- Qualité de l'eau - Détermination de l'activité volumique du carbone 14 - Méthode par comptage des scintillations en milieu liquide. - 23/10/2015, NF EN ISO 13162, 31 p.

  • résumé

Le présent document spécifie les conditions de détermination de l’activité volumique du 14C dans des échantillons d’eau environnementale ou d’eau contenant du 14C par comptage des scintillations en milieu liquide. La méthode est applicable à l’analyse de toute molécule organique soluble dans l’eau qui se mélange bien au cocktail scintillant. Elle ne s’applique pas pour les micelles ou les «grosses» particules (lipides, acide fulvique, acide humique, etc.) qui se mélangent mal au cocktail scintillant et à l’eau. Une partie de l’énergie bêta est perdue sans excitation du cocktail scintillant et les résultats sont sous-estimés. La méthode n’est pas applicable à l’analyse du 14C organiquement lié ; sa détermination nécessite un traitement chimique supplémentaire (tel qu’une oxydation chimique, une combustion). Les activités volumiques du 14C inférieures à 106 Bq l-1 peuvent être déterminées sans dilution de l’échantillon.

AFNOR –- Qualité de l'eau - Détermination simultanée des activités volumiques du tritium et du carbone 14 - Méthode par comptage des scintillations en milieu liquide. - 09/10/2015, NF EN ISO 13168, 25 p.

  • résumé

Le présent document s'applique aux compteurs à scintillations en milieu liquide et requiert la préparation d'une source scintillante obtenue en mélangeant l'échantillon et un cocktail scintillant hydrophile. Le présent document décrit les conditions de mesurage de l'activité des émetteurs bêta purs par scintillation en milieu liquide adaptées au mesurage simultané du tritium et du carbone 14 dans des échantillons d’eau de l'environnement. Le présent document est applicable à tous les types d'eaux ayant une activité volumique de 5 Bq.l-1 à 106 Bq.l-1 (limite supérieure des compteurs à scintillations en milieu liquide pour le comptage direct). Il est possible de réaliser une dilution pour obtenir une solution d’activité compatible avec l’instrument de mesure. Le présent document est applicable aux eaux brutes et aux eaux filtrées selon l’EN 872. Le domaine de mesure est lié à la méthodologie utilisée : nature de la prise d’essai, préparation du mélange scintillant — prise d'essai, ensemble de mesure. D’autre part, le domaine de mesure est lié aux niveaux d’activité des autres nucléides interférents présents dans l’échantillon.


Numéros de revue

ASN - Les enjeux du démantèlement. Mise à jour des normes de base en radioprotection. L’approche HERCA/WENRA. – Contrôle, 10/2015, no.199, 60 p.

Role of the immune system and inflammation in ionizing radiation effects. - Cancer letters, 28/11/2015, 368, 2, 153-290.



AIEA – Preparedness and response for a nuclear or radiological emergency. General safety requirements no. GSR Part 7. – 11/2015, 136 p.

NCRP – Commentary no. 24. Health effects of low doses of radiation : perspectives on integrating radiation biology and epidemiology. – 2015, 78 p.

AIEA – Security of nuclear material in transport. Implementing guide. Nuclear security series no. 26-G. – 10/2015, 120 p.

IRSN – Baromètre 2015 : la perception des risques et de la sécurité par les français. – 07/2015, 160 p.



Autres informations


Notes d’information

IRSN - Mieux estimer la dose aux espèces non humaines pour évaluer les conséquences écologiques des expositions chroniques aux rayonnements ionisants dans les territoires contaminés après l’accident de Fukushima. – 24/11/2015, 4 p.

IRSN - Point sur la situation d’un ancien salarié de TEPCO auquel le ministère de la santé japonais a accordé le 20 octobre 2015 une compensation financière. – 12/11/2015, 2 p.



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