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BSE 18 décembre 2015 - no. 210

Nucléaire & Santé Actualités

Bibliographie Sélective Express

Documentation en Radioprotection d'EDF - DPI - Division Production Nucléaire

18 décembre 2015 - no. 210

Vient de paraître

Articles

HALEY BM, PAUNESKU T, GRDINA DJ et al. - The increase in animal mortality risk following exposure to sparsely ionizing radiation is not linear quadratic with dose. - Plos One, 09/12/2015, 10, 12, e0140989, 26 p.

ORITA M, HAYASHIDA N, NUKUI H et al. - Internal radiation exposure dose in Iwaki city, Fukushima prefecture after the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. – Plos One, 05/12/2015, 9, 12, e114407, 11 p.

BOGDANOVA TI, ZURNADZHY LY, NIKIFOROV YE et al. - Histopathological features of papillary thyroid carcinomas detected during four screening examinations of a Ukrainian-American cohort. – British journal of cancer, 01/12/2015, 113, 11,1556-1564.

  • abstract

BACKGROUND: There are limited data on the histopathology of papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs) diagnosed in irradiated populations. We evaluated the associations between iodine-131 dose and the histopathological characteristics of post-Chernobyl PTCs, the changes in these characteristics over time, and their associations with selected somatic mutations.

METHODS: This study included 115 PTCs diagnosed in a Ukrainian-American cohort (n=13 243) during prescreening and four successive thyroid screenings. Of these PTCs, 65 were subjected to somatic mutation profiling. All individuals were <18 years at the time of the Chernobyl accident and had direct thyroid radioactivity measurements. Statistical analyses included multivariate linear and logistic regression.

RESULTS: We identified a borderline significant linear-quadratic association (P=0.063) between iodine-131 dose and overall tumour invasiveness (presence of extrathyroidal extension, lymphatic/vascular invasion, and regional or distant metastases). Irrespective of dose, tumours with chromosomal rearrangements were more likely to have lymphatic/vascular invasion than tumours without chromosomal rearrangements (P=0.020) or tumours with BRAF or RAS point mutations (P=0.008). Controlling for age, there were significant time trends in decreasing tumour size (P<0.001), the extent of lymphatic/vascular invasion (P=0.005), and overall invasiveness (P=0.026).

CONCLUSIONS: We determined that the invasive properties of PTCs that develop in iodine-131-exposed children may be associated with radiation dose. In addition, based on a subset of cases, tumours with chromosomal rearrangements appear to have a more invasive phenotype. The increase in small, less invasive PTCs over time is a consequence of repeated screening examinations.

O’GRADY TJ, GATES MA, BOSCOE FP - Thyroid cancer incidence attributable to overdiagnosis in the United States 1981-2011. – International journal of cancer, 01/12/2015, 137, 11, 2664-2673.

  • abstract

Papillary thyroid cancer incidence has increased in the United States from 1978 through 2011 for both men and women of all ages and races. Overdiagnosis is partially responsible for this trend, although its magnitude is uncertain. This study examines papillary thyroid cancer incidence according to stage at diagnosis and estimates the proportion of newly diagnosed tumors that are attributable to overdiagnosis. We analyzed stage specific trends in papillary thyroid cancer incidence, 1981-2011, using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results national cancer registries. Yearly changes in early and late-stage thyroid cancer incidence were calculated. We estimate that the proportion of incident papillary thyroid cancers attributable to overdiagnosis in 2011 was 5.5 and 45.5% in men ages 20-49 and 50+ and 41.1 and 60.1% in women ages 20-49 and 50+, respectively. Overdiagnosis has resulted in an additional 82,000 incident papillary thyroid cancers that likely would never have caused any clinical symptoms. The detection of early-stage papillary thyroid cancer outpaced that of late-stage disease from 1981 through 2011, in part due to overdiagnosis. Further studies into the prevention, risk stratification and optimal treatment of papillary thyroid cancer are warranted in response to these trends.

SALGADO-ESPINOSA T, BARROS-DIOS JM, RUANO-RAVINA A – Radon exposure and oropharyngeal cancer risk. - Cancer letters, 01/12/2015, 369, 1, 45-49.

  • abstract

Oropharyngeal cancer is a multifactorial disease. Alcohol and tobacco are the main risk factors. Radon is a human carcinogen linked to lung cancer risk, but its influence in other cancers is not well known. We aim to assess the effect of radon exposure on the risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer through a systematic review of the scientific literature. This review performs a qualitative analysis of the available studies. 13 cohort studies were included, most of them mortality studies, which analysed the relationship between occupational or residential radon exposure with oropharyngeal cancer mortality or incidence. Most of the included studies found no association between radon exposure and oral and pharyngeal cancer. This lack of effect was observed in miners studies and in general population studies. Further research is necessary to quantify if this association really exists and its magnitude, specially performing studies in general population, preferably living in areas with high radon levels.

ALIYU AS, EVANGELIOU N, MOUSSEAU TA et al. – An overview of current knowledge concerning the health and environmental consequences of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. - Environmental international, 12/2015, 85, 213-228.

  • abstract

Since 2011, the scientific community has worked to identify the exact transport and deposition patterns of radionuclides released from the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) in Japan. Nevertheless, there still remain many unknowns concerning the health and environmental impacts of these radionuclides. The present paper reviews the current understanding of the FDNPP accident with respect to interactions of the released radionuclides with the environment and impacts on human and non-human biota. Here, we scrutinize existing literature and combine and interpret observations and modeling assessments derived after Fukushima. Finally, we discuss the behavior and applications of radionuclides that might be used as tracers of environmental processes. This review focuses on (137)Cs and (131)I releases derived from Fukushima. Published estimates suggest total release amounts of 12-36.7PBq of (137)Cs and 150-160PBq of (131)I. Maximum estimated human mortality due to the Fukushima nuclear accident is 10,000 (due to all causes) and the maximum estimates for lifetime cancer mortality and morbidity are 1500 and 1800, respectively. Studies of plants and animals in the forests of Fukushima have recorded a range of physiological, developmental, morphological, and behavioral consequences of exposure to radioactivity. Some of the effects observed in the exposed populations include the following: hematological aberrations in Fukushima monkeys; genetic, developmental and morphological aberrations in a butterfly; declines in abundances of birds, butterflies and cicadas; aberrant growth forms in trees; and morphological abnormalities in aphids. These findings are discussed from the perspective of conservation biology.

KERR GD, EGBERT SD, AL-NABULSI I et al. – Workshop report on atomic bomb dosimetry-review of dose related factors for the evaluation of exposures to residual radiation at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. - Health physics, 12/2015, 109, 6, 582-599.

  • abstract

Groups of Japanese and American scientists, supported by international collaborators, have worked for many years to ensure the accuracy of the radiation dosimetry used in studies of health effects in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Reliable dosimetric models and systems are especially critical to epidemiologic studies of this population because of their importance in the development of worldwide radiation protection standards. While dosimetry systems, such as Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86) and Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02), have improved, the research groups that developed them were unable to propose or confirm an additional contribution by residual radiation to the survivor's total body dose. In recognition of the need for an up-to-date review of residual radiation exposures in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, a half-day technical session was held for reports on newer studies at the 59th Annual HPS Meeting in 2014 in Baltimore, MD. A day-and-a-half workshop was also held to provide time for detailed discussion of the newer studies and to evaluate their potential use in clarifying the residual radiation exposure to atomic bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The process also involved a re-examination of very early surveys of radioisotope emissions from ground surfaces at Hiroshima and Nagasaki and early reports of health effects. New insights were reported on the potential contribution to residual radiation from neutron-activated radionuclides in the airburst's dust stem and pedestal and in unlofted soil, as well as from fission products and weapon debris from the nuclear cloud. However, disparate views remain concerning the actual residual radiation doses received by the atomic bomb survivors at different distances from the hypocenter. The workshop discussion indicated that measurements made using thermal luminescence and optically stimulated luminescence, like earlier measurements, especially in very thin layers of the samples, could be expanded to detect possible radiation exposures to beta particles and to determine their significance plus the extent of the various residual radiation areas at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Other suggestions for future residual radiation studies are included in this workshop report.

KIM SB, OLFERT J, BAGLAN N et al. – Canadian inter-laboratory organically bound tritium (OBT) analysis exercise. – Journal of environmental radioactivity, 12/2015, 150, 236-241.

  • abstract

Tritium emissions are one of the main concerns with regard to CANDU reactors and Canadian nuclear facilities. After the Fukushima accident, the Canadian Nuclear Regulatory Commission suggested that models used in risk assessment of Canadian nuclear facilities be firmly based on measured data. Procedures for measurement of tritium as HTO (tritiated water) are well established, but there are no standard methods and certified reference materials for measurement of organically bound tritium (OBT) in environmental samples. This paper describes and discusses an inter-laboratory comparison study in which OBT in three different dried environmental samples (fish, Swiss chard and potato) was measured to evaluate OBT analysis methods currently used by CANDU Owners Group (COG) members. The variations in the measured OBT activity concentrations between all laboratories were less than approximately 20%, with a total uncertainty between 11 and 17%. Based on the results using the dried samples, the current OBT analysis methods for combustion, distillation and counting are generally acceptable. However, a complete consensus OBT analysis methodology with respect to freeze-drying, rinsing, combustion, distillation and counting is required. Also, an exercise using low-level tritium samples (less than 100 Bq/L or 20 Bq/kg-fresh) would be useful in the near future to more fully evaluate the current OBT analysis methods.

LEE T, SIGURDSON AJ, PRESTON DL et al. - Occupational ionising radiation and risk of basal cell carcinoma in US radiologic technologists (1983-2005). – Occupational and environmental medicine, 12/2015, 72, 12, 862-869.

  • abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine risk for incident basal cell carcinoma from cumulative low-dose ionising radiation in the US radiologic technologist cohort.

METHODS: We analysed 65 719 Caucasian technologists who were cancer-free at baseline (1983-1989 or 1994-1998) and answered a follow-up questionnaire (2003-2005). Absorbed radiation dose to the skin in mGy for estimated cumulative occupational radiation exposure was reconstructed for each technologist based on badge dose measurements, questionnaire-derived work history and protection practices, and literature information. Radiation-associated risk was assessed using Poisson regression and included adjustment for several demographic, lifestyle, host and sun exposure factors.

RESULTS: Cumulative mean absorbed skin dose (to head/neck/arms) was 55.8 mGy (range 0-1735 mGy). For lifetime cumulative dose, we did not observe an excess radiation-related risk (excess relative risk/Gy=-0.01 (95% CI -0.43 to 0.52). However, we observed that basal cell carcinoma risk was increased for radiation dose received before age 30 (excess relative risk/Gy=0.59, 95% CI -0.11 to 1.42) and before 1960 (excess relative risk/Gy=2.92, 95% CI 1.39 to 4.45).

CONCLUSIONS: Basal cell carcinoma risk was unrelated to low-dose radiation exposure among radiologic technologists. Because of uncertainties in dosimetry and sensitivity to model specifications, both our null results and our findings of excess risk for dose received before age 30 and exposure before 1960 should be interpreted with caution.

MICHEL R, DARAOUI A, GORNY M et al. - Retrospective dosimetry of iodine-131 exposures using iodine-129 and caesium-137 inventories in soils. A critical evaluation of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident in parts of Northern Ukraine. - Journal of environmental radioactivity, 12/2015, 150, 20-35.

  • abstract

The radiation exposure of thyroid glands due to (131)I as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident was investigated retrospectively based on (129)I and (137)Cs inventories in soils in Northern Ukraine. To this end, soil samples from 60 settlements were investigated for (129)I, (127)I, and (137)Cs by AMS, ICP-MS and gamma-spectrometry, respectively. Sampling was performed between 2004 und 2007. In those parts of Northern Ukraine investigated here the (129)I and (137)Cs inventories are well correlated, the variability of the individual (129)I/(137)Cs ratios being, however, high. Both the (129)I and (137)Cs inventories in the individual 5 samples for each settlement allowed estimating the uncertainties of the inventories due to the variability of the radionuclide deposition and consequently of the retrospective dosimetry. Thyroid equivalent doses were calculated from the (129)I and the (137)Cs inventories using aggregated dose coefficients for 5-year old and 10-year-old children as well as for adults. The highest thyroid equivalent doses (calculated from (129)I inventories) were calculated for Wladimirowka with 30 Gy for 5-years-old children and 7 Gy for adults. In 35 settlements of contamination zone II the geometric mean of the thyroid equivalent doses was 2.0 Gy for 5-years-old children with a geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 3.0. For adults the geometric mean was 0.47 Gy also with a GSD of 3.0. In more than 25 settlements of contamination zone III the geometric means were 0.82 Gy for 5-years old children with a GSD of 1.8 and 0.21 Gy for adults (GSD 1.8). For 45 settlements, the results of the retrospective dosimetry could be compared with thyroid equivalent doses calculated using time-integrated (131)I activities of thyroids which were measured in 1986. Thus, a critical evaluation of the results was possible which demonstrated the general feasibility of the method, but also the associated uncertainties and limitations.

MUELLER W, GILHAM C - Childhood leukemia and proximity to nuclear power plants : a systematic review and meta-analysis. – Journal of cancer policy, 12/2015, 6, 44-56.

RUEDIG E, JOHNSON TE - An evaluation of health risk to the public as a consequence of in situ uranium mining in Wyoming, USA. - Journal of environmental radioactivity, 12/2015, 150, 170-178.

  • abstract

In the United States there is considerable public concern regarding the health effects of in situ recovery uranium mining. These concerns focus principally on exposure to contaminants mobilized in groundwater by the mining process. However, the risk arising as a result of mining must be viewed in light of the presence of naturally occurring uranium ore and other constituents which comprise a latent hazard. The United States Environmental Protection Agency recently proposed new guidelines for successful restoration of an in situ uranium mine by limiting concentrations of thirteen groundwater constituents: arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, silver, nitrate (as nitrogen), molybdenum, radium, total uranium, and gross α activity. We investigated the changes occurring to these constituents at an ISR uranium mine in Wyoming, USA by comparing groundwater quality at baseline measurement to that at stability (post-restoration) testing. Of the groundwater constituents considered, only uranium and radium-226 showed significant (p < 0.05) deviation from site-wide baseline conditions in matched-wells. Uranium concentrations increased by a factor of 5.6 (95% CI 3.6-8.9 times greater) while radium-226 decreased by a factor of about one half (95% CI 0.42-0.75 times less). Change in risk was calculated using the RESRAD (onsite) code for an individual exposed as a resident-farmer; total radiation dose to a resident farmer decreased from pre-to post-mining by about 5.2 mSv y(-1). Higher concentrations of uranium correspond to increased biomarkers of nephrotoxicity, however the clinical significance of this increase is unclear.

UCHIYAMA K, MIYASHITA M, SATO H et al. - A study of thyroid 131I activity of five human subjects exposed to a radioactive plume at Tamura City in Fukushima. - Health physics, 12/2015, 109, 6, 573-581.

  • abstract

Thyroid I activities were determined for five human subjects from a disaster medical assistance team of Fukui Prefectural Hospital. The team was dispatched to the Tamura City Sports Park, 40 km from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. They were exposed to a radioactive plume on 15 March 2011. In vivo measurements at Fukui Prefectural Hospital were conducted around 17 h after the team left the park. A thyroid counter equipped with a 51-mm-diameter × 51-mm-thick NaI(Tl) detector with a 20-mm-thick lead collimator was used. Mock iodine (Ba and Cs) with a thyroid uptake neck phantom was used for calibration. On 16 March 2011, at 11:30, thyroid activity of a member of the team age 53 y, who was never administered stable iodine, was 268 ± 38 Bq. The remaining four men, aged 49, 35, 34, and 27 y, ingested two stable iodine pills (a total of 100 mg of potassium iodide) approximately 36 h before being exposed to the plume. Their thyroid activity values were 249 ± 86 Bq, 676 ± 107 Bq, 569 ± 96 Bq, and 1,082 ± 119 Bq, respectively. An inverse relationship between age and thyroid activity was observed among those who ingested potassium iodide before exposure, indicating that stable iodine administration may have a protective effect. Thyroid I activity was reduced by approximately 70% in the oldest person. This can be explained by the iodine metabolism in the thyroid of younger individuals being significantly faster than that of older individuals.

DELTOUR I, TRETYAKOV F, TSAREVA Y et al. – Mortality of populations potentially exposed to ionising radiation, 1953-2010, in the closed city of Ozyorsk, Southern Urals : a descriptive study. -Environmental health, 27/11/2015, 14, 1, 91, 12 p.

MITSUTAKE N, FUKUSHIMA T, MATSUSE M et al. – BRAF(V600E) mutation is highly prevalent in thyroid carcinomas in the young population in Fukushima : a different oncogenic profile from Chernobyl. - Scientific reports, 20/11/2015, 5, 16976, 7 p.

QUARTO M, PUGLIESE M, LA VERDE G et al. - Radon exposure assessment and relative effective dose estimation to inhabitants of Puglia region, South Italy. – International journal of environmental research and public health, 11/2015, 12, 11, 14948-14957.

RAABE OG – Concerning ionizing radiation-induced cancer from internally deposited radionuclides. - International journal of radiation biology, 10/2015, 91, 10, 810-819.

  • abstract

PURPOSE: A comparative evaluation was conducted of ionizing radiation-induced cancer from internally deposited radionuclides.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were evaluated for humans for (226)Ra, and for laboratory animal studies for alpha-emitters (228)Ra, (226)Ra, (224)Ra, (238)Pu, (239)Pu, (228)Th, (252)Cf, (249)Cf, and (241)Am, and for beta-emitters (90)Sr, (90)Y, (91)Y, and (144)Ce. Intake routes included ingestion, inhalation, and injection.

RESULTS: Cancer risk associated with protracted ionizing radiation exposure is a non-linear function of lifetime average dose rate to the affected tissues. The lifetime effects are best described by three-dimensional average-dose-rate/time/response surfaces that compete with other causes of death during an individual's lifetime. At the higher average dose rates the principal deleterious effects are those associated with radiation-induced injury, while at intermediate average dose rates radiation-induced cancer predominates.

CONCLUSIONS: The cumulative radiation dose is neither an accurate nor an appropriate measure of cancer risk associated with protracted ionizing radiation exposure. At low average dose rates the long latency time required for radiation-induced cancer may exceed the natural lifespan yielding a lifespan virtual threshold for radiation-induced cancer for cumulative doses below about 5-10 Sv for bone, bone marrow and lungs.

 

Guide

EDF-UTO – Guide pratique. Transport des matières et objets radioactifs. – édition 2015, 120 p.

 

Ouvrage

JALOUNEX J - Éléments de sécurité et de non-prolifération. – IRSN/EDP Sciences, 2015, 109 p.

Rapports

IRSN - La sûreté et la radioprotection du parc électronucléaire français en 2014. Le point de vue de l’IRSN. – 2015, 52 p.

IRSN - Sûreté des installations nucléaires de base civiles autres que les réacteurs du parc électronucléaire français en 2013 – 2014. – 2015, 76 p.

ICRP – Publication 131 : Stem cell biology with respect to carcinogenesis aspects of radiological protection. – Annals of the ICRP, 2015, 44, 3/4, 367 p.

  • contents et abstract

This report provides a review of stem cells/progenitor cells and their responses to ionising radiation in relation to issues relevant to stochastic effects of radiation that form a major part of the International Commission on Radiological Protection’s system of radiological protection. Current information on stem cell characteristics, maintenance and renewal, evolution with age, location in stem cell ‘niches’, and radiosensitivity to acute and protracted exposures is presented in a series of substantial reviews as annexes concerning haematopoietic tissue, mammary gland, thyroid, digestive tract, lung, skin, and bone. This foundation of knowledge of stem cells is used in the main text of the report to provide a biological insight into issues such as the linear-no-threshold (LNT) model, cancer risk among tissues, doserate effects, and changes in the risk of radiation carcinogenesis by age at exposure and attained age. Knowledge of the biology and associated radiation biology of stem cells and progenitor cells is more developed in tissues that renew fairly rapidly, such as haematopoietic tissue, intestinal mucosa, and epidermis, although all the tissues considered here possess stem cell populations. Important features of stem cell maintenance, renewal, and response are the microenvironmental signals operating in the niche residence, for which a well-defined spatial location has been identified in some tissues. The identity of the target cell for carcinogenesis continues to point to the more primitive stem cell population that is mostly quiescent, and hence able to accumulate the protracted sequence of mutations necessary to result in malignancy. In addition, there is some potential for daughter progenitor cells to be target cells in particular cases, such as in haematopoietic tissue and in skin. Several biological processes could contribute to protecting stem cells from mutation accumulation: (a) accurate DNA repair; (b) rapidly induced death of injured stem cells; (c) retention of the DNA parental template strand during divisions in some tissue systems, so that mutations are passed to the daughter differentiating cells and not retained in the parental cell; and (d) stem cell competition, whereby undamaged stem cells outcompete damaged stem cells for residence in the niche. DNA repair mainly occurs within a few days of irradiation, while stem cell competition requires weeks or many months depending on the tissue type. The aforementioned processes may contribute to the differences in carcinogenic radiation risk values between tissues, and may help to explain why a rapidly replicating tissue such as small intestine is less prone to such risk. The processes also provide a mechanistic insight relevant to the LNT model, and the relative and absolute risk models. The radiobiological knowledge also provides a scientific insight into discussions of the dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor currently used in radiological protection guidelines. In addition, the biological information contributes potential reasons for the age-dependent sensitivity to radiation carcinogenesis, including the effects of in-utero exposure.

EPRI – Development of generic scaling factors for technetium-99 and iodine-129 in low and intermediate level waste. - 30/11/2015 , EPRI 3002005564, 124 p.

EPRI – Hard-to-measure radionuclides in nuclear power plant effluents. - 30/11/2015 , EPRI 3002005563, 710 p.

EPRI – Overview of the dose assessment process for emergency planning and response at nuclear power plants. - 23/11/2015 , EPRI 3002006823, 78 p.

 

Autres informations

Congrès

IRPA - 14th International Congress of the Radiation Protection Association. Practicing radiation protection. Le Cap (Afrique du sud), 9-13 mai 2016.

13th International Conference on Radiation Shielding (ICRS-13) & 19thTopical Meeting of the Radiation Protection & Shielding Division of the American Nuclear Society (RPSD-2016). Paris, 3-6 octobre 2016.

ATSR – 5th Forum européen de radioprotectique. Techniques, méthodes de démantèlement et radioprotection. La Grande Motte, 5-7 octobre 2016.

 

 

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