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BSE 22 janvier 2015 - no. 199

Documentation en Radioprotection d'EDF - DPI - Division Production Nucléaire


22 janvier 2015 - no. 199


Projets de publication



IMAIZUMI M, OHISHI W, NAKASHIMA E et al. - Association of radiation dose with prevalence of thyroid nodules among atomic bomb survivors exposed in childhood (2007-2011). – JAMA internal medicine, online 29/12/2014.

  • Abstract

Importance: Few studies have evaluated the association of radiation dose with thyroid nodules among adults exposed to radiation in childhood.

Objective: To evaluate radiation dose responses on the prevalence of thyroid nodules in atomic bomb survivors exposed in childhood.

Design, Setting, and Participants: This survey study investigated 3087 Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors who were younger than 10 years at exposure and participated in the thyroid study of the Adult Health Study at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. Thyroid examinations including thyroid ultrasonography were conducted between October 2007 and October 2011, and solid nodules underwent fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Data from 2668 participants (86.4% of the total participants; mean age, 68.2 years; 1213 men; and 1455 women) with known atomic bomb thyroid radiation doses (mean dose, 0.182 Gy; median dose, 0.018 Gy; dose range, 0-4.040 Gy) were analyzed.

Main Outcomes and Measures: The prevalence of all thyroid nodules having a diameter of 10 mm or more (consisting of solid nodules [malignant and benign] and cysts), prevalence of small thyroid nodules that were less than 10 mm in diameter detected by ultrasonography, and atomic bomb radiation dose-responses.

Results: Thyroid nodules with a diameter of 10 mm or more were identified in 470 participants (17.6%): solid nodules (427 cases [16.0%]), malignant tumors (47 cases [1.8%]), benign nodules (186 cases [7.0%]), and cysts (49 cases [1.8%]), and all were significantly associated with thyroid radiation dose. Excess odds ratios per gray unit were 1.65 (95% CI, 0.89-2.64) for all nodules, 1.72 (95% CI, 0.93-2.75) for solid nodules, 4.40 (95% CI, 1.75-9.97) for malignant tumors, 2.07 (95% CI, 1.16-3.39) for benign nodules, and 1.11 (95% CI, 0.15-3.12) for cysts. The interaction between age at exposure and the dose was significant for the prevalence of all nodules (P = .003) and solid nodules (P < .001), indicating that dose effects were significantly higher with earlier childhood exposure. No interactions were seen for sex, family history of thyroid disease, antithyroid antibodies, or seaweed intake. No dose-response relationships were observed for small (<10-mm diameter) thyroid nodules.

Conclusions and Relevance: Radiation effects on thyroid nodules exist in atomic bomb survivors 62 to 66 years after their exposure in childhood. However, radiation exposure is not associated with small thyroid nodules.


SMITH N, BROWN RM, WILLIAMS WJ et al. - Arrival of the Fukushima radioactivity plume in North American continental waters. – Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, online 29/12/2014, 6 p.



Vient de paraître


BAYSSON H – Radon dans les habitations en France : de l’exposition au risque. - EMC Pathologie professionnelle et de l’environnement, 01-03/2015, 186, 16-504-A-10, 6 p.

  • Résumé

Le radon, gaz radioactif d'origine naturelle, est présent dans l'air intérieur des habitations, mais à des concentrations variables, dépendant de la richesse en uranium et en radium des sous-sols. Il est responsable d'un peu plus du tiers de l'exposition de la population à la radioactivité. Son inhalation entraîne une irradiation alpha dans l'épithélium bronchique. L'impact sanitaire de l'exposition au radon et ses descendants a été appréhendé grâce aux études épidémiologiques mises en place sur les mineurs d'uranium dans les années 1960. Le caractère carcinogène du radon pour le poumon a été reconnu en 1988 par l'Agence internationale de recherche contre le cancer. Depuis, de nombreux travaux épidémiologiques ont permis de confirmer ce résultat, même à de faibles niveaux d'exposition, et d'affiner la connaissance de la relation exposition-risque. Un projet international européen a rassemblé 13 études cas-témoins utilisant un même protocole : questionnaire commun ; reconstruction de l'exposition domestique sur 30 ans ; intercomparaison des méthodes de mesure ; critères d'inclusion identiques ; reconstitution de la consommation tabagique. Au total, l'analyse a porté sur plus de 7000 cas et 14 000 témoins. Elle a montré que le risque de cancer du poumon augmentait en fonction de la concentration de radon dans les habitations. Cette relation exposition-risque était observée aussi bien chez les fumeurs que chez les non-fumeurs. Entre 2004 et 2007, ces résultats ont été corroborés par les publications des résultats de deux études similaires conduites en Chine et en Amérique du Nord. Ils confirment l'effet du radon domestique sur le risque de cancer du poumon et font du radon la deuxième cause de cancer pulmonaire, loin toutefois derrière le tabac.


AKIMOTO K - Annual and weekly cycles of radioactivity concentration observed in Fukushima city. – Health physics, 01/2015, 108, 1, 32-38.

  • Abstract

Weekly cycles in the radioactivity concentration of radiocesium measured in Fukushima City, Japan, are found embedded in an annual cycle of the same. The radioactivity concentration and fallout of radiocesium measured in Fukushima City during the period from June 2011 until July 2013 are analyzed to evaluate mainly their time dependences. Although on average the two quantities decrease at paces much faster than those of local dose rates, both of them show annual cycles, peaking during winter and spring and bottoming otherwise. These annual cycles, which are somewhat out of phase compared to those in Europe, are formed due to weathering. However, the local radioactivity concentration shows weekly cycles also, increasing on weekdays and decreasing at weekends. The causes of these weekly cycles are presumably vehicular traffic and precipitation. Therefore, both human and natural activities are playing important roles at different timescales on atmospheric migration of radiocesium deposited in Fukushima City.


BRAMLITT ET, SHONKA JJ - Radiation exposure of aviation crewmembers and cancer. - Health physics, 01/2015, 108, 1, 76-86.

  • Abstract

Crewmembers are exposed to galactic cosmic radiation on every flight and occasionally to solar protons on polar flights. Data are presented showing that the proton occasions are seven times more frequent than generally believed. Crewmembers are also exposed to neutrons and gamma rays from the sun and to gamma rays from terrestrial thunderstorms. Solar neutrons and gamma rays (1) expose the daylight side of Earth, (2) are most intense at lower latitudes, (3) may be as or more frequent than solar protons, and (4) have relativistic energies. The U.S. agency responsible for crewmember safety only considers the galactic component with respect to its recommended 20 mSv y(-1) limit, but it has an estimate for a thunderstorm dose of 30 mSv. In view of overlooked sources, possible over-limit doses, and lack of dosimetry, dose reconstructions are needed. However, using the agency dose estimates and the compensation procedure for U.S. nuclear weapon workers, the probability of crewmember cancers can be at least as likely as not. Ways to improve the quality of dose estimates are suggested, and a worker's compensation program specific to aviation crewmembers is recommended.


TSUBOKURA M, KATO S, NOMURA S et al. - Absence of internal radiation contamination by radioactive cesium among children affected by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant disaster. - Health physics, 01/2015, 108, 1, 39-43.

  • Abstract

Chronic internal radiation contamination accounts for a substantial fraction of long-term cumulative radiation exposure among residents in radiation-contaminated areas. However, little information is available on ongoing chronic internal radiation contamination among residents near the crippled Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Using a whole body counter, internal radiation contamination levels among elementary and middle school students who commute to 22 schools located within Minamisoma city were assessed between May and July 2013 (26 to 28 mo after the disaster). Of 3,299 elementary and middle school students in the city, 3,255 individuals (98%) were screened through school health check-ups. Not a single student was detected with internal radiation contamination due to radioactive cesium. The study found no risk of chronic internal radiation exposure among residents near the crippled nuclear power plant. Current food inspection by local governments, volunteers, and farmers has been functioning well within Fukushima prefecture. However, food management by screening suspected contamination along with whole body counter screening are key public health interventions and should be continued to avoid further internal radiation exposure in radiation-contaminated areas.


XING ZW, JIANG EH, DU JY et al. - Long-term follow-up of the genital organs and eye lenses in three cases of acute radiation sickness from a 60Co radiation accident in China. - Health physics, 01/2015, 108, 1, 1-7.

  • Abstract

A follow-up study aimed primarily at investigating late radiation effects on the genital organs and eye lenses was performed between 1999 and 2010 on three individuals who suffered from acute radiation sickness in China. The examination included a medical history, a physical examination, ultrasonography, laboratory analysis, and an ophthalmologic examination. In Case 1, amenorrhea occurred after exposure to a Co source. The uterus and ovaries were significantly narrowed in the second year following exposure. The estradiol level decreased significantly during the first 3 y; progesterone was lowest in the second year; and levels of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone increased, especially in the first year. The lenses in both eyes appeared opaque 6 mo after the exposure, resulting in a gradual deterioration in visual acuity. In Case 2 (8 y old), the levels of testosterone and estradiol were normal. In Case 3, the levels of testosterone and estradiol were also normal, but the sperm count was 0 from 6 mo to 1 y, and the proportion of abnormal sperm was increased from 3-5 y after the accident. The lenses in Case 3 also began to turn opaque in the ninth year after the accident. In Case 1, the ovarian function was reduced, leading to amenorrhea and early menopause. In Case 3, the sperm count was reduced and the number of abnormal sperm was increased due to testicular damage by radiation. Radiation-induced cataracts occurred in both Case 1 and Case 3.


MOSKALEV A, SHAPOSHNIKOV M, PLYUSNINA E et al. – Exhaustive data mining comparison of the effects of low doses of ionizing radiation, formaldehyde and dioxins. - BMC Genomics, 19/12/2014, 15, suppl 12, S5, 7 p.


COATES R - Radiation protection : where are we after Fukushima ? - Journal of radiological protection, 12/2014, 34, 4, E13-E1625.


CULLINGS HM, PIERCE DA, KELLERER AM – Accounting for neutron exposure in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. - Radiation research, 12/2014, 182, 6, 587-598.

  • Abstract

The Japanese atomic bomb survivors that were directly exposed to both γ rays and neutrons have been followed by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF). The estimation of the γ-ray risks requires some adjustment for the greater biological effect of the neutrons per unit dose. Because the small neutron doses and the predominant γ-ray doses are highly correlated, the neutron relative biological effectiveness (RBE) cannot be reliably estimated from the survivors' data and information from radiobiology must be invoked. As data became available on neutron doses, RERF has used a constant neutron RBE value of 10, even though radiobiological studies indicate that the RBE values appear to have considerably larger values at low doses. The approximation RBE = 10 assumes that if the RBE is variable it takes roughly this value in the range of total dose most relevant for linear risk estimation, namely about 1 Gy. We consider some possible RBE functions to explain the correct use and the impact of a dose-dependent RBE. However, we do not advocate any particular choice or even that a variable RBE be employed. Rather we show that the assumed neutron RBE, within a wide range of choices, is far less important to the outcome of risk assessment of the RERF data than generally believed. Some of these misperceptions have been related to the consideration of variable RBE functions, and without due attention to the fact that in the case of the A-bomb survivors' data, the mixed field of neutrons and γ rays must be considered. Therefore, the RBE value of neutrons is much lower than the RBE in pure neutron fields that are used in radiobiological experiments. Thus, applying the pure neutron field RBE to the mixed-field A-bomb radiation can lead to an overestimation of the actual neutron RBE for moderate total dose levels of 1 Gy by a factor of more than four. While in a pure neutron exposure the RBE depends on the neutron dose, in the mixed field it depends on both components of exposure, and in particular, we show that in the RERF setting the RBE depends mainly on the accompanying γ-ray dose.


HAYANO RS, WATANABE YN, NOMURA S et al. - Whole-body counter survey results 4 months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident in Minamisoma City, Fukushima. - Journal of radiological protection, 12/2014, 34, 4, 787-799.


IVANOV VK, KASHCHEEV VV, CHEKIN SY et al. – Estimating the lifetime risk of cancer associated with multiple CT scans. - Journal of radiological protection, 12/2014, 34, 4, 825-841.

  • Abstract

Multiple CT scans are often done on the same patient resulting in an increased risk of cancer. Prior publications have estimated risks on a population basis and often using an effective dose. Simply adding up the risks from single scans does not correctly account for the survival function. A methodology for estimating personal radiation risks attributed to multiple CT imaging using organ doses is presented in this article. The estimated magnitude of the attributable risk fraction for the possible development of radiation-induced cancer indicates the necessity for strong clinical justification when ordering multiple CT scans.


LIU JJ, FREEDMAN DM, LITTLE MP et al. – Work history and mortality risks in 90,268 US radiological technologists. - Occupational and environmental medicine, 12/2014, 71, 12, 819-835.

  • Abstract

OBJECTIVES: There have been few studies of work history and mortality risks in medical radiation workers. We expanded by 11 years and more outcomes our previous study of mortality risks and work history, a proxy for radiation exposure.

METHODS: Using Cox proportional hazards models, we estimated mortality risks according to questionnaire work history responses from 1983 to 1989 through 2008 by 90,268 US radiological technologists. We controlled for potential confounding by age, birth year, smoking history, body mass index, race and gender.

RESULTS: There were 9566 deaths (3329 cancer and 3020 circulatory system diseases). Mortality risks increased significantly with earlier year began working for female breast (p trend=0.01) and stomach cancers (p trend=0.01), ischaemic heart (p trend=0.03) and cerebrovascular diseases (p trend=0.02). The significant trend with earlier year first worked was strongly apparent for breast cancer during baseline through 1997, but not 1998-2008. Risks were similar in the two periods for circulatory diseases. Radiological technologists working ≥5 years before 1950 had elevated mortality from breast cancer (HR=2.05, 95% CI 1.27 to 3.32), leukaemia (HR=2.57, 95% CI 0.96 to 6.68), ischaemic heart disease (HR=1.13, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.33) and cerebrovascular disease (HR=1.28, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.69). No other work history factors were consistently associated with mortality risks from specific cancers or circulatory diseases, or other conditions.

CONCLUSIONS: Radiological technologists who began working in early periods and for more years before 1950 had increased mortality from a few cancers and some circulatory system diseases, likely reflecting higher occupational radiation exposures in the earlier years.


SAKATA R, GRANT EJ, FURUKAWA K et al. - Long-term effects of the rain exposure shortly after the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. - Radiation research, 12/2014, 182, 6, 599-606.

  • Abstract

The "black rain" that fell after the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki has been generally believed to contain radioactive materials. During 1949-1961 the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission conducted surveys that included a query about exposure to the rain that fell a short time after the bombings. This article presents the first report of those data in relation to possible adverse health outcomes. This study looked at Life Span Study subjects who were in either city at the time of bombing and had an estimated direct radiation dose from the bombs (n = 86,609). The mortality data from 1950-2005 and cancer incidence data from 1958-2005 were used. Excess relative risks (ERRs) of subjects who were exposed to rain compared to those who reported no rain exposure were calculated using a Poisson regression model. In Hiroshima 11,661 subjects (20%) reported that they were exposed to rain, while in Nagasaki only 733 subjects (2.6%) reported rain exposure. To avoid outcome dependent biases (i.e., recall of exposure after a health outcome has already occurred), the primary analyses were based on events that occurred during 1962-2005. No significant risks due to rain exposure were observed for death due to all causes, all solid cancer or leukemia in Hiroshima. In Nagasaki there was no significantly elevated rain exposure-associated risks for 1962-2005, however, for 1950-2005 there was a weak association for all-cause mortality (ERR = 0.08; 95% confidence interval 0.00006, 0.17; P = 0.05). For incidence of solid cancer and leukemia, no significantly elevated rain exposure risks were observed in either city. These results failed to show deleterious health effects from rain exposure. While these data represent the most extensive set of systematically collected data on rain exposure of the atomic bomb survivors, they are limited by substantial uncertainties regarding exposures and missing individual data, so cautious interpretation is advised.


GLUGLA M - Les systèmes de détritiation d’ITER. – Rayonnements ionisants, 10-12/2014, 4, 6-15. (pas de résumé disponible)


JEFROY F, HERY M – Recours à la sous-traitance : l’expérience de l’IRSN et de l’INRS. – Hygiène et sécurité, 09/2014, 236, 44-48.



AFNOR - Mesurage de la radioactivité dans l'environnement - Air - Radon 220 : méthode de mesure intégrée pour la détermination de l'activité volumique moyenne avec des détecteurs passifs solides de traces nucléaires. – 26/12/2014, NF ISO 16641, 27 p.

  • Résumé

Le présent document décrit uniquement les méthodes de mesure intégrées du radon 220 impliquant un prélèvement passif. Il fournit des informations sur le mesurage de l’activité volumique moyenne du radon 220 dans l’air, basé sur un prélèvement passif, de mise en oeuvre facile et peu coûteuse, ainsi que sur les conditions d’utilisation des dispositifs de mesure. Le présent document traite des échantillons prélevés sans interruption sur des périodes comprises entre quelques mois à un an. Ce type de mesure peut être également appliqué pour déterminer l’activité volumique du radon 222.



Institute of medicine, National Research Council – Research on health effects of low-level ionizing radiation exposure. Opportunities for the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute. – National Academies Press, 2014, 179 p.


National Research Council – Analysis of cancer risks in populations near nuclear facilities. Phase 2. Pilot planning. – 2014, 35 p.


CE – Medical radiation exposure of the European population. Part 1/2. Radiation protection no. 180. – 12/2014, 181 p.


CE – Diagnostic reference levels in thirty-six European countries. Part 2/2. Radiation protection no. 180. – 12/2014, 73 p.



INRS – Les maladies professionnelles. Régime général (coll. Aide-mémoire juridique). – 12/2014, TJ19, 77 p.



Autres informations


SEPR, AIRP, SFRP, SPR - 2nd European workshop on the ethical dimensions of the radiological protection system. Madrid (Espagne), 4-6 février 2015.


ICRP 2015. 3rd International symposium on the system of radiological protection. Séoul (Corée du sud), 20-22 otobre 2015.



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