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BSE 29 février 2016 - no. 212

Bibliographie Sélective Express

Documentation en Radioprotection d'EDF - DPI - Division Production Nucléaire


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Articles

BERRINGTON DE GONZALEZ A, SALOTTI JA, MCHUGH K et al. – Relationship between paediatric CT scans and subsequent risk of leukaemia and brain tumours : assessment of the impact of underlying conditions. - British journal of cancer, 16/02/2016, 114, 4, 388-394.

  • abstract

BACKGROUND: We previously reported evidence of a dose-response relationship between ionising-radiation exposure from paediatric computed tomography (CT) scans and the risk of leukaemia and brain tumours in a large UK cohort. Underlying unreported conditions could have introduced bias into these findings.

METHODS: We collected and reviewed additional clinical information from radiology information systems (RIS) databases, underlying cause of death and pathology reports. We conducted sensitivity analyses excluding participants with cancer-predisposing conditions or previous unreported cancers and compared the dose-response analyses with our original results.

RESULTS: We obtained information from the RIS and death certificates for about 40% of the cohort (n∼180 000) and found cancer-predisposing conditions in 4 out of 74 leukaemia/myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) cases and 13 out of 135 brain tumour cases. As these conditions were unrelated to CT exposure, exclusion of these participants did not alter the dose-response relationships. We found evidence of previous unreported cancers in 2 leukaemia/MDS cases, 7 brain tumour cases and 232 in non-cases. These previous cancers were related to increased number of CTs. Exclusion of these cancers reduced the excess relative risk per mGy by 15% from 0.036 to 0.033 for leukaemia/MDS (P-trend=0.02) and by 30% from 0.023 to 0.016 (P-trend<0.0001) for brain tumours. When we included pathology reports we had additional clinical information for 90% of the cases. Additional exclusions

from these reports further reduced the risk estimates, but this sensitivity analysis may have underestimated risks as reports were only available for cases.

CONCLUSIONS: Although there was evidence of some bias in our original risk estimates, re-analysis of the cohort with additional clinical data still showed an increased cancer risk after low-dose radiation exposure from CT scans in young patients.

SCHREURS AS, SHIRAZI-FARD Y, SHAHNAZARI M et al. – Dried plum diet protects from bone loss caused by ionizing radiation. - Scientific reports, 11/02/2016, 6, 21343, 11 p.

BAYSSON H, JOURNY N, ROUE T et al. – Exposition à la scanographie dans l’enfance et risque de cancer à long terme. Une synthèse des études épidémiologiques récentes. - Bulletin du cancer, 02/2016, 103, 2, 190-198.

  • abstract

Parmi les examens utilisant les rayonnements ionisants à des fins diagnostiques, la scanographie est de plus en plus utilisée, y compris chez les enfants. Cependant, la dose de rayonnements ionisants délivrée au cours des examens scanners est nettement plus élevée que celle délivrée en radiologie conventionnelle. Par ailleurs, les enfants sont considérés comme une population à risque pour la survenue de pathologies radio-induites. Avec une radiosensibilité plus importante que celle des adultes, et une espérance de vie plus longue, ils ont plus de risque de développer un cancer à long terme. Cinq études épidémiologiques sur le risque de cancer radio-induit après exposition au scanner dans l’enfance ont été publiées entre 2012 et 2015. Ces différentes études sont en faveur d’une augmentation du risque radio-induit pour les enfants exposés à plusieurs scanners. Cependant des biais méthodologiques liés à la prise en compte de l’indication des examens, à l’évaluation rétrospective des doses reçues et/ou à un manque de puissance statistique limitent la portée des résultats obtenus. L’existence de projets internationaux, tels que le projet européen EPI-CT (Epidemiological study to quantify risks for paediatric computerized tomography and to optimize dose), permettra d’apporter des éléments de réponse plus précis en portant une attention particulière à la reconstruction dosimétrique et à la prise en compte de biais potentiels. Les résultats d’ores et déjà obtenus confortent l’importance de la justification des actes et la nécessité de poursuivre l’optimisation des doses délivrées.

DAUER LT, AINSBURY EA, DYNLACHT J et al. – Status of NCRP scientific committee 1-23 commentary on guidance on radiation dose limits for the lens of the eye. - Health physics, 02/2016, 110, 2, 182-184.

  • abstract

Previous National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) publications have addressed the issues of risk and dose limitation in radiation protection and included guidance on specific organs and the lens of the eye. NCRP decided to prepare an updated commentary intended to enhance the previous recommendations provided in earlier reports. The NCRP Scientific Committee 1-23 (SC 1-23) is charged with preparing a commentary that will evaluate recent studies on the radiation dose response for the development of cataracts and also consider the type and severity of the cataracts as well as the dose rate; provide guidance on whether existing dose limits to the lens of the eye should be changed in the United States; and suggest research needs regarding radiation effects on and dose limits to the lens of the eye. A status of the ongoing work of SC 1-23 was presented at the Annual Meeting, "Changing Regulations and Radiation Guidance: What Does the Future Hold?" The following represents a synopsis of a few main points in the current draft commentary. It is likely that several changes will be forthcoming as SC 1-23 responds to subject matter expert review and develops a final document, expected by mid 2016.

KIM J, BANG Y, LEE WJ – Living near nuclear power plants and thyroid cancer risk : A systematic review and meta-analysis. - Environmental international, 02/2016, 87, 42-48.

  • abstract

There has been public concern regarding the safety of residing near nuclear power plants, and the extent of risk for thyroid cancer among adults living near nuclear power plants has not been fully explored. In the present study, a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies was conducted to investigate the association between living near nuclear power plants and the risk of thyroid cancer. A comprehensive literature search was performed on studies published up to March 2015 on the association between nuclear power plants and thyroid cancer risk. The summary standardized incidence ratio (SIR), standardized mortality ratio (SMR), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random-effect model of meta-analysis. Sensitivity analyses were performed by study quality. Thirteen studies were included in the meta-analysis, covering 36 nuclear power stations in 10 countries. Overall, summary estimates showed no significant increased thyroid cancer incidence or mortality among residents living near nuclear power plants (summary SIR=0.98; 95% CI 0.87-1.11, summary SMR=0.80; 95% CI 0.62-1.04). The pooled estimates did not reveal different patterns of risk by gender, exposure definition, or reference population. However, sensitivity analysis by exposure definition showed that living less than 20km from nuclear power plants was associated with a significant increase in the risk of thyroid cancer in well-designed studies (summary OR=1.75; 95% CI 1.17-2.64). Our study does not support an association between living near nuclear power plants and risk of thyroid cancer but does support a need for well-designed future studies.

TENG CJ, HU YW, CHEN SC et al. – Use of radioactive iodine for thyroid cancer and risk of second primary malignancy : a nationwide population-based study. - Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 02/2016, 108, 2, 8 p.

  • abstract

BACKGROUND: Radioactive iodine (RAI) is widely used for the treatment of thyroid cancers. However, information on associations between RAI dose and second primary malignancy (SPM) is lacking.

METHODS: Patients without antecedent cancer age 20 years or older and newly diagnosed with thyroid cancer were recruited from the Taiwan National Health Insurance database between 1997 and 2010. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for the cancers were calculated to compare the incidence of thyroid cancer with the general population. The association between RAI dosage and cancer development was estimated using time-dependent Cox regression analysis. All statistical tests were two-sided.

RESULTS: A total of 692 cases of SPM were identified among 20 235 patients with thyroid cancer. Regarding the latter, 79.7% of the patients were women, the median age was 46 years, and the follow-up period included 134 178 person-years. The SIR for any SPM was 1.41 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.31 to 1.52). A statistically significantly higher SIR was observed in leukemia (2.74), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (2.38), prostate (2.30), lung and mediastinum (1.93), pancreas (1.83), kidney (1.81), breast (1.48), and colon-rectum (1.31) cancers. Cumulative RAI dose (per 30 mCi increase) conferred a strong risk for SPM (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 1.01, 95% CI = 1.01 to 1.02, P < .001) and leukemia (aHR =1.03, 95% CI = 1.02 to 1.04, P < .001) occurrences. A cumulative RAI dose greater than 150 mCi possessed a statistically significant risk for all cancer combined (aHR = 1.30) and leukemia (aHR = 6.03).

CONCLUSIONS: An increased risk of SPM was observed for thyroid cancer patients, especially with cumulative RAI doses over 150 mCi.

BELHARET M, ESTOURNEL C, CHARMASSON S - Ecosystem model-based approach for modeling the dynamics of 137Cs transfer to marine plankton populations : application to the western North Pacific Ocean after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident. – Biogeosciences, 25/01/2016, 13, 499-516.

CHEVALLIER MA, RANNOU A, VILLAGRASA C et al. – Risk of eye lens radiation exposure for members of the public. - Radiation protection dosimetry, 2016, 168, 1, 11-18.

  • abstract

In 2011, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) reviewed its recommendation concerning the equivalent dose limit for the eye lens, lowering it to 20 mSv in a year, for occupational exposure in planned exposure situations. The ICRP's statement does not contain any explicit recommendations regarding the organ dose limit for the eye lens for public exposure. For the moment, no change is proposed. But, to be coherent in the overall approach, the current equivalent limit for the public might be lowered. A similar yardstick than in the former recommendation may be used, that is to say a reduction of 10 times lower than that for occupational exposure. In this context, additional data on potential scenarios for public exposure of the eye lens are necessary. This paper, mainly based on a literature study, aims to provide, as far as possible, an exhaustive list of the situations in which members of the public can be exposed at the level of the eye lens. Once these situations have been defined, some calculations, made to assess the associated doses to the eye lens, are presented. This literature study did not reveal any current situations where members of the public would receive significant radiation doses to the eye lens. Indeed, the situations in which the dose to the eye lens might reach around 1 mSv per year for the public are extremely rare.

KHVOSTUNOV IK, SNIGIRYOVA GP, MOISEENKO VV et al. - A follow-up cytogenetic study of workers highly exposed inside the Chernobyl sarcophagus. – Radiation protection dosimetry, 2015, 167, 4, 405-418.

  • abstract

Data are presented on some of the engineers and scientists who regularly entered highly radioactive areas of the sarcophagus chamber constructed around the ruins of the Chernobyl reactor. Previous investigations on six of them by unstable chromosomal aberrations, quartz fibre electrometers and, in some cases, tooth electron spin resonance have all indicated high doses accumulated over several years of work inside the sarcophagus. Here, the authors present the data on eleven of the men who agreed to be monitored cytogenetically although two have since died aged 45 and 66 y. The present data were combined with the previous to examine the time-courses of these individuals' changes in their aberration frequencies. As expected, dicentric aberrations showed a clear drop down to 2-3 per 100 cells since the men ceased working inside the sarcophagus. In contrast, the translocation yields remained at a high level showing no tendency to decrease and so proved reliable for retrospective biodosimetry. These data are particularly useful in demonstrating the value of FISH long after high but protracted and fractionated exposure.

 

Comptes-rendus de congrès

ICRP 2015. 3rd International symposium on the system of radiological protection. Séoul (Corée du Sud), 20-22 octobre 2015. – nb p.

Commission Européenne – Fukushima : Lessons learned and issues. Radiation protection no. 183. EU Scientific seminar 2014. Luxembourg, 18 novembre 2014. – European Union, 2016, 84 p.

1st critical workshop on the effect of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident on the ecosystem and on humans. Kyoto (Japon), 10-11 août 2014. – Journal of radiation research, 2015, 56, S1, i1-i63.

 

Dossiers

IRSN – Radon : mobiliser la société civile. – Repères, 02/2016, no. 28, 10-16.

PROSITON – Hiroshima-Nagasaki, 70 ans après. Vol. 1. – Prosinfo, 12/2015, no. 20, 2-13.

 

Fiches

IRSN – Contamination oculaire, comment réagir ? – Repères, 02/2016, no. 28, 17-19.

SFRP – Cristallin : limites réglementaires, mesure, dosimétrie et suivi médical (Fiches techniques). – 01/2016, 8 p.

 

Normes

AFNOR – Symbole de base pour les rayonnements ionisants. – 06/02/2016, NF EN ISO 361, 9 p.

  • résumé

Le présent document spécifie le symbole à utiliser pour indiquer la présence réelle ou possible de rayonnements ionisants et pour identifier les objets, dispositifs, matières ou mélanges de matières émettant un rayonnement ionisant.

Dans le cadre du présent document, on entend par rayonnements ionisants les rayonnements X et gamma, les particules alpha et beta, les électrons à grande vitesse, les neutrons, les protons et les autres particules nucléaires ; par contre, sont exclues les ondes sonores ou radio, ou la lumière visible, infrarouge ou ultraviolette.

Le présent document ne spécifie pas les niveaux de rayonnement à partir desquels le symbole doit être utilisé.

AFNOR – Radioprotection. Procédures pour la surveillance des doses au cristallin, à la peau et aux extrémités. – 06/02/2016, NF EN ISO 15382, 36 p.

  • résumé 

Le présent document fournit des procédures de surveillance des doses à la peau, aux extrémités et au cristallin. Il fournit des recommandations pour déterminer si des dosimètres sont nécessaires et s'assurer que la surveillance individuelle est adaptée à la nature de l'exposition, en prenant en compte les aspects pratiques. Lorsque des réglementations nationales existent, elles stipulent des exigences qui doivent également être respectées.

Le présent document spécifie des procédures de surveillance individuelle de l'exposition aux rayonnements de la peau, des extrémités (mains, doigts, poignets, avant-bras, pieds et chevilles) et du cristallin dans les situations d'exposition planifiées. Il concerne les pratiques impliquant un risque d'exposition à des photons dont l'énergie est comprise entre 8 keV et 10 MeV et à des électrons et positrons dont l'énergie est comprise entre 60 keV et 10 MeV.

Le présent document fournit des lignes directrices pour la conception d'un programme de surveillance permettant de s'assurer du respect des limites légales de dose individuelle. Il se rapporte aux grandeurs dosimétriques opérationnelles appropriées et fournit des recommandations sur le type et la fréquence de surveillance individuelle ainsi que sur le type et l'emplacement du dosimètre. Il décrit enfin différentes méthodes permettant d'évaluer et d'analyser les doses à la peau, aux extrémités et au cristallin.

L'exposition due à des champs de rayonnements alpha ou neutroniques ne relève pas du domaine d'application du présent document.

 

Ouvrage

HUTIN JP – La maintenance des centrales nucléaires. – Lavoisier Tec & Doc, 01/2016, 896 p.

 

Rapports

AEN – Five years after the Fukushima Daiichi accident. Nuclear safety improvements and lessons learnt. – OCDE, 02/2016, NEA no. 7284, 80 p.

IRSN – Déchets radioactifs de très faible activité : la doctrine doit-elle évoluer ? – 02/2016, IRSN/DG/2016-00002, 19 p.

Cour des comptes – Rapport public annuel 2016. Tome 1. Chapitre II. La maintenance des centrales nucléaires : une politique remise à niveau, des incertitudes à lever. – 02/2016, 111-143.

GULSON AD, HOLROYD JR – Guidance on the safe use of hand-held dental X-ray equipment. – Public Health England, 02/2016, PHE-CRCE-023, 37 p.

ANDRA – Note de positionnement sur la réversibilité. – 01/2016, 32 p.

AIEA – Identification des zones vitales des installations nucléaires (Coll. Sécurité nucléaire no. 16). – 12/2015, 56 p.

 

Réglementation

Ministère de l’écologie… - Ordonnance no. 2016-128 du 10 février 2016 portant diverses dispositions en matière nucléaire. – JORF, 11/02/2016, no. 35, texte 8, 28 p.

Ministère de l’écologie… - Rapport au Président de la République relatif à l’ordonnance no. 2016-128 du 10 février 2016 portant diverses dispositions en matière nucléaire. – JORF, 11/02/2016, no. 35, texte 7, 8 p.

 

Résumé de congrès

ICRP Symposium on radiological protection dosimetry. Historical review and current activities. Tokyo (Japon), 18/02/2016. – 02/2016, 14 p.

 

Autres informations

Congrès

2016 ISOE International Symposium on occupational exposure management at nuclear facilities. Bruxelles (Belgique), 1-3 juin 2016.

 

 

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