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BSE 28 avril 2016 - no. 214

Documentation en Radioprotection d'EDF - DPI - Division Production Nucléaire

 


28 avril 2016 - no. 214

 

Projet de publication

 

LUCCIONI C, KORNEVICH O, ROZHKO A et al. - Health check-ups of children living in a Belarusdistrict contaminated after the Chernobyl accident. – Radioprotection, online 22/04/2016, 9 p.

 

Vient de paraître

 

Articles

MCCALL C – Chernobyl disaster 30 years on : lessons not learned. – Lancet, 23-29/04/2016, 387,10029, 1707-1708.

  • pas d’abstract disponible

EINOR D, BONISOLI-ALQUATI A, COSTANTINI D et al. – Ionizing radiation, antioxidant responseand oxidative damage : a meta-analysis. - Science of the total environment, 01/04/2016, 548-549,463-471.

  • abstract

One mechanism proposed as a link between exposure to ionizing radiation and detrimental effects on organisms is oxidative damage. To test this hypothesis, we surveyed the scientific literature on the effects of chronic low-dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) on antioxidant responses and oxidative damage. We found 40 publications and 212 effect sizes for antioxidant responses and 288 effect sizes for effects of oxidative damage. We performed a meta-analysis of signed and unsigned effect sizes. We found large unsigned effects for both categories (0.918 for oxidative damage; 0.973 for antioxidant response). Mean signed effect size weighted by sample size was 0.276 for oxidative damage and -0.350 for antioxidant defenses, with significant heterogeneity among effects for both categories, implying that ionizing radiation caused small to intermediate increases in oxidative damage and small to intermediate decreases in antioxidant defenses. Our estimates are robust, as shown by very high fail-safe numbers. Species, biological matrix (tissue, blood, sperm) and age predicted the magnitude of effects for oxidative damage as well as antioxidant response. Meta-regression models showed that effect sizes for oxidative damage varied among species and age classes, while effect sizes for antioxidant responses varied among species and biological matrices. Our results are consistent with the description of mechanisms underlying pathological effects of chronic exposure to LDIR. Our results also highlight the importance of resistance to oxidative stress as one possible mechanism associated with variation in species responses to LDIR-contaminated areas.

ANDREASSI MG, PICCALUGA E, GUAGLIUMI G et al. - Occupational health risks in cardiac catheterization laboratory workers. - Circulation cardiovascular interventions, 04/2016, 9, 4,

BARNARD SG, AINSBURY EA, QUINLAN RA et al. - Radiation protection of the eye lens in medical workers-basis and impact of the ICRP recommendations. – British journal of radiology, 04/2016, 89, 1060, 9 p .

CHODICK G, SIGURDSON AJ, KLEINERMAN RA et al. - The risk of cataract among survivors of childhood and adolescent cancer : a report from the childhood cancer survivor study. – Radiation research, 04/2016, 185, 4, 366-374.

  • abstract

With therapeutic successes and improved survival after a cancer diagnosis in childhood, increasing numbers of cancer survivors are at risk of subsequent treatment-related morbidities, including cataracts. While it is well known that the lens of the eye is one of the most radiosensitive tissues in the human body, the risks associated with radiation doses less than 2 Gy are less understood, as are the long- and short-term cataract risks from exposure to ionizing radiation at a young age. In this study, we followed 13,902 five-year survivors of childhood cancer in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study cohort an average of 21.4 years from the date of first cancer diagnosis. For patients receiving radiotherapy, lens dose (mean: 2.2 Gy; range: 0-66 Gy) was estimated based on radiotherapy records. We used unconditional multivariable logistic regression models to evaluate prevalence of self-reported cataract in relationship to cumulative radiation dose both at five years after the initial cancer diagnosis and at the end of follow-up. We modeled the radiation effect in terms of the excess odds ratio (EOR) per Gy. We also analyzed cataract incidence starting from five years after initial cancer diagnosis to the end of follow-up using Cox regression. A total of 483 (3.5%) cataract cases were identified, including 200 (1.4%) diagnosed during the first five years of follow-up. In a multivariable logistic regression model, cataract prevalence at the end of follow-up was positively associated with lens dose in a manner consistent with a linear dose-response relationship (EOR per Gy = 0.92; 95% CI: 0.65-1.20). The odds ratio for doses between 0.5 and 1.5 Gy was elevated significantly relative to doses <0.5 Gy (OR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.3-3.7). The results from this study indicate a strong association between ocular exposure to ionizing radiation and long-term risk of pre-senile cataract. The risk of cataract increased with increasing exposure, beginning at lens doses as low as 0.5 Gy. Our findings are in agreement with a growing body of evidence of an elevated risk for lens opacities in populations exposed to doses of ionizing radiation below the previously suggested threshold level of 2 Gy.

HAYES RB – Consequence assessment of the WIPP radiological release from february 2014. - Health physics, 04/2016, 110, 4, 342-360.

  • abstract

On 14 February 2014, a continuous air monitor (CAM) alarm at the exit of panel 7 in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) underground facility caused the mine ventilation to shift from unfiltered air over to HEPA filtration for its effluent. Subsequent measurements of the effluent at both pre- and post-HEPA filtration using representative sampling demonstrated that a release had occurred. Using modeling based on measured effluent activity, onsite dose estimates were calculated and later measured via bioassay to be less than 0,1 mSv from intakes of radioactivity. The maximum offsite dose potential to nearby dwellings was modeled to be 1 μSv or less, which was consistent with air samples being taken at those dwellings during the release, demonstrating impressive accuracy and precision. No worker or public dose limits have been exceeded, and the release was substantially below the annual release limits for the WIPP site.

MOLLER AP, MOUSSEAU TA – Are organisms adapting to ionizing radiation at Chernobyl ? - Trends in ecology and evolution, 04/2016, 31, 4, 281-289.

  • abstract

Numerous organisms have shown an ability to survive and reproduce under low-dose ionizing radiation arising from natural background radiation or from nuclear accidents. In a literature review, we found a total of 17 supposed cases of adaptation, mostly based on common garden experiments with organisms only deriving from typically two or three sampling locations. We only found one experimental study showing evidence of improved resistance to radiation. Finally, we examined studies for the presence of hormesis (i.e., superior fitness at low levels of radiation compared with controls and high levels of radiation), but found no evidence to support its existence. We conclude that rigorous experiments based on extensive sampling from multiple sites are required.

NELSON GA – Space radiation and human exposures, a primer. - Radiation research, 04/2016, 185, 4, 349-358.

CLINARD F, COLLANGE F, CATELINOIS O et al. - Residential radon concentrations in Franche-Comté, a high radon region of France. - Environnement, Risques et Santé, 03-04/2016, 15, 2, 126-134.

GRANZOTTO A, BENADJAOUD MA, VOGIN G et al. - Influence of nucleoshuttling of the ATM protein in the healthy tissues response to radiation therapy : toward a molecular classification of human radiosensitivity. - International journal of radiation, oncology, biology an physics, 01/03/2016, 94, 3, 450-460.

  • abstract

PURPOSE: Whereas post-radiation therapy overreactions (OR) represent a clinical and societal issue, there is still no consensual radiobiological endpoint to predict clinical radiosensitivity. Since 2003, skin biopsy specimens have been collected from patients treated by radiation therapy against different tumor localizations and showing a wide range of OR. Here, we aimed to establish quantitative links between radiobiological factors and OR severity grades that would be relevant to radioresistant and genetic hyperradiosensitive cases.

METHODS AND MATERIALS: Immunofluorescence experiments were performed on a collection of skin fibroblasts from 12 radioresistant, 5 hyperradiosensitive, and 100 OR patients irradiated at 2 Gy. The numbers of micronuclei, γH2AX, and pATM foci that reflect different steps of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) recognition and repair were assessed from 10 minutes to 24 hours after irradiation and plotted against the severity grades established by the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group.

RESULTS: OR patients did not necessarily show a gross DSB repair defect but a systematic delay in the nucleoshuttling of the ATM protein required for complete DSB recognition. Among the radiobiological factors, the maximal number of pATM foci provided the best discrimination among OR patients and a significant correlation with each OR severity grade, independently of tumor localization and of the early or late nature of reactions.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results are consistent with a general classification of human radiosensitivity based on 3 groups: radioresistance (group I); moderate radiosensitivity caused by delay of nucleoshuttling of ATM, which includes OR patients (group II); and hyperradiosensitivity caused by a gross DSB repair defect, which includes fatal cases (group III).

BODGI L, FORAY N – The nucleo-shuttling of the ATM protein as a basis for a novel theory of radiation response : resolution of the linear-quadratic model. - International journal of radiation biology, 03/2016, 92, 3, 117-131.

  • abstract

Purpose For 50 years, cellular radiosensitivity has been defined in vitro as the lack of clonogenic capacity of irradiated cells and its mathematical link with dose has been described by the target theory. Among the numerous formulas provided from the target theory, the linear-quadratic (LQ) model empirically describes cell survival as a negative exponential of a second degree polynomial dose-function in which αD is the linear component and βD(2) is the quadratic one. The LQ model is extensively used in radiobiology (to describe survival curves) and in radiotherapy (the α/β ratio indicates whether tissue reactions can occur early or late after the treatment). However, no biological interpretation of the LQ parameters was proposed to explain together the radiation response in a wide dose range, the radiosensitivity of some genetic syndromes caused by the mutation of cytoplasmic proteins and the hyper-radiosensitivity phenomenon specific to low-dose. The model From a solid amount of experimental data, we hypothesized that the major forms of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) are cytoplasmic dimers and that ionizing radiation induce ATM monomerization. The resulting ATM monomers diffuse into nucleus to facilitate double-strand-breaks (DSB) recognition and repair. Such hypotheses lead to a coherent molecular interpretation of the LQ model by considering the yield of recognized but unrepaired (α-type) DSB and the non-recognized (β-type) DSB. The notion of cell tolerance to unrepaired DSB was introduced by considering that not all DSB are lethal. Cell survival and DSB repair and signaling immunofluorescence data from 42 normal skin fibroblast and 18 tumor human cell lines were used to verify the validity of this biomathematical model proposed. Results Our model is validated at different levels by one of the widest spectrum of radiosensitivity. That mathematical developments of the present model imply that β is a Lorentzian function of α was confirmed experimentally. Our model is also relevant to describe the hypersensitivity to low-dose phenomenon. Conclusions Our model provides a very general picture of human radiosensitivity, independently of the dose, the cell type and the genetic status.NACHALON Y, KATZ O, ALKAN U et al. - Radiation-induced thyroid cancer : gender-related disease characteristics and survival. - Annals of otology, rhinology, and laryngology, 03/2016, 125, 3, 242-246. (abstract en PJ7)

 

Dossiers

IRSN – Tchernobyl, 30 ans après. – 21/04/2016, nb p.

IRSN - Radioactivité : tous exposés différemment. – Repères, 04/2016, no. 29, 10-16.

PROSITON – Hiroshima-Nagasaki, 70 ans après. Vol. 2. – Prosinfo, 03/2016, no. 21, 2-9.

 

Fiche

INRS – Installation de contrôle des bagages/colis par rayonnement X. – INRS, 11/2015, ED4443,2 p.

 

Normes

AFNOR – Dosimétrie pour les expositions au rayonnement cosmique à bord d'un avion civil -Partie 3 : mesurages à bord d'avions. - 02/04/2016, NF ISO 20785-3, 25 p.

  • résumé 

Le présent document donne les principes de base permettant de mesurer l’équivalent de dose ambiant aux altitudes de vol pour l’évaluation de l’exposition au rayonnement cosmique à bord d’un avion.

AFNOR – Sources de référence - Étalonnage des contrôleurs de contamination de surface -Émetteurs alpha, bêta et photoniques. - 03/03/2016, NF ISO 8769, 23 p.

  • résumé 

Le présent document spécifie les caractéristiques de sources de référence de contamination de surface radioactive, traçables à des étalons nationaux de mesurage, permettant l'étalonnage des contrôleurs de contamination de surface. Il se rapporte aux émetteurs alpha, aux émetteurs bêta et aux émetteurs de photons dont l'énergie photonique maximale est inférieure ou égale à 1,5 MeV. Il ne décrit pas les modes opératoires qu'implique l'utilisation de ces sources de référence pour l'étalonnage des contrôleurs de contamination de surface. Ces modes opératoires sont spécifiés dans la NF EN 60325.

Il spécifie également des rayonnements de référence pour l'étalonnage des contrôleurs de contamination de surface provenant de sources de grande surface convenablement spécifiées et caractérisées, sans exception, en termes de flux d'émission de surface, l'évaluation de ces grandeurs étant traçable à des étalons nationaux.

 

Numéros de revue

INVS – Epidémiologie du cancer de la thyroïde, données actuelles. - Bulletin épidémiologique hebdomadaire, 26/04/2016, no. 11-12, 197-220.

Fukushima, five years on. – Clinical oncology, 04/2016, 28, 4, 231-276.

 

Ouvrages

LENOIR Y – La comédie atomique : l’histoire occultée des dangers du nucléaire. – Editions La découverte, 04/2016, 320 p.

BOURNET G – Franckushima. Essai graphique sur la catastrophe de Fukushima.– Lutopiquant édition, 03/2016, 256 p.

 

Rapports

IRSN – Constat radiologique : rémanence de la radioactivité d’origine artificielle. – 2016, 130 p.

Commission européenne – Nuclear Illustrative Programme (PINC). – 04/04/2016, COM(2016)177 final, 10 p. + 47 p.

Conseil supérieur de la santé (Belgique) - Accidents nucléaires, environnement et santé après Fukushima. Planification d'urgence. – 03/02/2016, Avis CSS no. 9235, 122 p.

ACRO - Fukushima cinq ans après : quel impact sanitaire ? – 02/2016, 24 p.

BOILLEY D - Fukushima cinq ans après, retour à l’anormale. – ACRO, 02/2016, 76 p.

ACRO – Plans d’urgence nucléaire en France. Forces et faiblesses. – 30/01/2016, 80 p.

 

Autres informations

Formation

CEPN, Institute of radiology – Belarus, NERIS - Training course on Late phase nuclear accident preparedness and management. 3rd édition. Gomel (Biélorussie), 19-23 juin 2017.

 

Site Web

Nuclearplanet

Lancée il y a six ans par le Forum nucléaire suisse, la carte du monde des installations nucléaires, « Nuclearplanet », fait peau neuve. L’application offre désormais de nouvelles fonctionnalités et une nouvelle interface pour permettre aux internautes francophones, germanophones et anglophones d’identifier la majorité des sites nucléaires à travers la planète.

 

 

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