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BSE 25 juin 2015 - no. 204

Documentation en Radioprotection d'EDF - DPI - Division Production Nucléaire


25 juin 2015 - no. 204


Projets de publication


LEURAUD K, RICHARDSON DB, CARDIS E et al. – Ionising radiation and risk of death from leukaemia and lymphoma in radiation-monitored workers (INWORKS) : an international cohort study. - Lancet haematology, online 22/06/2015, 6 p.

BLETTNER M – The merits and limits of pooling data from nuclear power worker studies. - Lancet haematology, online 22/06/2015, 2 p.


Vient de paraître


ORITA M, HAYASHIDA N, NAKAYAMA Y et al. - Bipolarization of risk perception about the health effects of radiation in residents after the accident at Fukushima nuclear power plant. – Plos One, 09/06/2015, 10, 6, e0129227, 9 p.

TSUBOKURA M, KATO S, MORITA T et al. - Assessment of the annual additional effective doses amongst minamisoma children during the second year after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant disaster. – Plos One, 08/06/2015, 10, 6, e0129114, 10 p.

BROWN AR, BOOTHMAN C, PIMBLOTT SM et al. - The impact of gamma radiation on sediment microbial processes. – Applied and environmental microbiology, 06/2015, 81, 12, 4014-4025.

FENG L, HE L, WANG Y et al. - Eight-year follow-up study of three individuals accidentally exposed to (60)Co radiation : Chromosome aberration and micronucleus analysis. – Mutation research-Genetic toxicology and environmental mutagenesis, 06/2015, 784-785, 10-14.

  • abstract

We assessed dose levels and the persistence of chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei in three individuals in the 8 year following accidental (60)Co radiation exposure. Venous blood samples were collected and used for analyses: traditional chromosome aberration (CA) measurement, G-banding, and the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay. For CA analysis, we scored dicentric chromosomes (dic) and rings (r) in peripheral blood lymphocytes. The radiation doses (Gy) suffered by the individuals were estimated as: 1.79-2.43 (A), 2.36-2.86 (B), 1.58-1.82 (C), based on CA analysis; and 1.8-2.34 (A), 2.52-2.98 (B), 1.53-1.77 (C), based on CBMN frequencies. G-banding analysis was used to record translocations (t), inversions (inv), and deletions (del). Following the accident, unstable CAs reduced gradually, but stable aberrations persisted. Unstable CAs and CBMN may be valuable biomarkers for dose estimation shortly after high-dose radiation accidents, while stable aberrations may be more useful for assessing long-term effects.

FRIDMAN M, LAM AKY, KRASKO O et al. - Morphological and clinical presentation of papillary thyroid carcinoma in children and adolescents of Belarus : The influence of radiation exposure and the source of irradiation. – Experimental and molecular biology, 06/2015, 98, 3, 527-531.

  • abstract

OBJECTIVE :The aims were to analyse the features of papillary thyroid carcinoma in a large cohort of children and adolescents in Belarus and to study the influence of radiation exposure as well as the source of irradiation on the morphological and clinical presentations of tumours.

DESIGN AND PATIENTS : The clinical and pathological features of 1086 young patients (age range=4 to 18 inclusive, followed up for ≥18years) with papillary thyroid carcinoma diagnosed during the years 1990 to 2010 were reviewed. The patients were divided into three groups: "external radiation-related", "post-Chernobyl" (internal irradiation-related) and "sporadic". Besides, patients from "post-Chernobyl" cohort (n=936) were further divided into the three equal subgroups according to the dates of surgery, which were corresponding to the early (4-9years), intermediate (10-12years) and long (14-18years) latency periods.

RESULTS : Patients in the "external radiation-related" group often showed extra-thyroidal extension in tumours sized ≤10mm (p=0.002). Distant metastases were more frequently (p=0.006) discovered in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma in post-Chernobyl group (104 of 936, 11.1%) when compared to juveniles from other two groups. Lateral nodal disease and distant metastases were often noted in post-Chernobyl patients operated during the early and intermediate latency periods only.

HATCH M, OSTROUMOVA E, BRENNER A et al. – Non-thyroid cancer in Northern Ukraine in the post-Chernobyl period : Short report. – Cancer epidemiology, 06/2015, 39, 3, 279-283.

  • abstract

The Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in Ukraine in 1986 led to widespread radioactive releases into the environment - primarily of radioiodines and cesium - heavily affecting the northern portions of the country, with settlement-averaged thyroid doses estimated to range from 10mGy to more than 10Gy. The increased risk of thyroid cancer among exposed children and adolescents is well established but the impact of radioactive contamination on the risk of other types of cancer is much less certain. To provide data on a public health issue of major importance, we have analyzed the incidence of non-thyroid cancers during the post-Chernobyl period in a well-defined cohort of 13,203 individuals who were <18 years of age at the time of the accident. The report is based on standardized incidence ratio (SIR) analysis of 43 non-thyroid cancers identified through linkage with the National Cancer Registry of Ukraine for the period 1998 through 2009. We compared the observed and expected number of cases in three cancer groupings: all solid cancers excluding thyroid, leukemia, and lymphoma. Our analyses found no evidence of a statistically significant elevation in cancer risks in this cohort exposed at radiosensitive ages, although the cancer trends, particularly for leukemia (SIR=1.92, 95% confidence interval: 0.69; 4.13), should continue to be monitored.

ROUE T, BAYSSON H, CAER-LORHO S et al. - Croisement des données d’incidence de cancer issues d’un service de santé au travail avec celles issues de registres de cancers. - Archives des maladies professionnelles et de l'environnement, 06/2015, 76, 3, 231-236.

  • résumé

Introduction : Le laboratoire d’épidémiologie de l’institut de radioprotection et de sûreté nucléaire (IRSN) en collaboration avec le groupe Areva conduit une étude de morbidité sur l’ensemble des travailleurs actifs du site Areva de La Hague. Les données de cette étude sont issues du système Chimed d’enregistrement des maladies mis en place par le service de santé au travail (SST) d’Areva. Dans ce contexte, une validation externe des données médicales du SST d’Areva a été réalisée grâce aux données du registre des cancers du département de la Manche et à celles du registre spécialisé des hémopathies malignes de la Basse-Normandie.

Matériels et méthodes : Un cas incident est un travailleur pour lequel une pathologie cancéreuse a été enregistrée par un médecin du travail dans la base de données Chimed entre le 01/01/1999 et le 31/12/2009. Le croisement entre la base de données Chimed et la base de données des registres des cancers permet de calculer la sensibilité (capacité à identifier les vrais positifs) et la valeur prédictive positive (probabilité qu’un travailleur classé comme malade ait vraiment la maladie).

Résultats : Les données ont été analysées pour 5211 travailleurs actifs. Après le croisement des deux bases de données, 30 cas de cancer sont présents simultanément dans les deux bases, 23 cas sont retrouvés uniquement dans la base de données des registres, 4 cas ont été enregistrés uniquement dans Chimed. En prenant comme référence les registres des cancers, la sensibilité du système Chimed est de 57 %. La valeur prédictive positive est de 89 %.

Discussion et conclusion : Étant donné sa faible sensibilité, il n’est pas recommandé d’utiliser la base de données Chimed comme seule source d’information pour la surveillance des cancers chez les travailleurs actifs d’Areva. La surveillance des cancers nécessite que des procédures standardisées et systématiques de codage et d’enregistrement des pathologies tumorales soient mises en place dans les SST.

SCHUBAUER-BERIGAN MK, DANIELS RD, BERTKE SJ et al. - Cancer mortality through 2005 among a pooled cohort of U.S. nuclear workers exposed to external ionizing radiation. – Radiation research, 06/2015, 183, 6, 620-631.

  • abstract

Nuclear workers worldwide have been studied for decades to estimate associations between their exposure to ionizing radiation and cancer. The low-level exposure of these workers requires pooling of large cohorts studied over many years to obtain risk estimates with appropriate latency and good precision. We assembled a pooled cohort of 119,195 U.S. nuclear workers at four Department of Energy nuclear weapons facilities (Hanford site, Idaho National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Savannah River site) and at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard. The cohort was followed at the start of the workers beginning their radiation work (at earliest, between 1944 and 1952) through 2005, and we compared its mortality to that of the U.S. population. We also conducted regression-modeling analysis to evaluate dose-response associations for external radiation exposure and outcomes: all cancers, smoking- and nonsmoking-related cancers, all lymphatic and hematopoietic cancers, leukemia (excluding chronic lymphocytic), multiple myeloma, cardiovascular disease and others. The mean dose observed among the cohort was 20 mSv. For most outcomes, mortality was below expectation compared to the general population, but mesothelioma and pleura cancers were highly elevated. We found an excess relative risk (ERR) per 10 mSv of 0.14% [95% confidence interval (CI): -0.17%, 0.48%] for all cancers excluding leukemia. Estimates were higher for nonsmoking-related cancers (0.70%, 95% CI: 0.058%, 1.5%) and lower for smoking-related cancers (-0.079%, 95% CI: -0.43%, 0.32%). The ERR per 10 mSv was 1.7% (95% CI: -0.22%, 4.7%) for leukemia, which was similar to the estimate of 1.8% (95% CI: 0.027%, 4.4%) for all lymphatic and hematopoietic cancers. The ERR per 10 mSv for multiple myeloma was 3.9% (95% CI: 0.60%, 9.5%). The ERR per 10 mSv for cardiovascular disease was 0.026% (-0.25%, 0.32%). Little evidence of heterogeneity was seen by facility, birth cohort or sex for most outcomes. The estimates observed here are similar to those found in previous large pooled nuclear worker studies and also (with the exception of multiple myeloma) to those conducted in the Life Span Study of Japanese atomic bomb survivors. The tendency of observed risks to persist many years after exposure for most outcomes illustrates the importance of continued follow-up of nuclear worker cohorts.


Nucléaire & Santé Actualités

Bibliographie Sélective Express

SINGH VK, ROMAINE PLP, SEED TM - Medical countermeasures for radiation exposure and related injuries : characterization of medicines, FDA-approval status and inclusion into the strategic national stockpile. – Health physics, 06/2015, 108, 6, 607-630.

THIERRY-CHEF I, RICHARDSON DB, DANIELS RD et al. – Dose estimation for a study of nuclear workers in France, the United Kingdom and the United States of America : methods for the International Nuclear Workers Study (INWORKS). - Radiation research, 06/2015, 183, 6, 632-642.

  • abstract

In the framework of the International Nuclear Workers Study conducted in France, the UK and the U.S. (INWORKS), updated and expanded methods were developed to convert recorded doses of ionizing radiation to estimates of organ doses or individual personal dose equivalent [Hp(10)] for a total number of 308,297 workers, including 40,035 women. This approach accounts for differences in dosimeter response to predominant workplace energy and geometry of exposure and for the recently published ICRP report on dose coefficients for men and women separately. The overall mean annual individual personal dose equivalent, including zero doses, is 1.73 mSv [median = 0.42; interquartile range (IQR): 0.07, 1.59]. Associated individual organ doses were estimated. INWORKS includes workers who had potential for exposure to neutrons. Therefore, we analyzed neutron dosimetry data to identify workers potentially exposed to neutrons. We created a time-varying indicator for each worker, classifying them according to whether they had a positive recorded neutron dose and if so,

whether their neutron dose ever exceeded 10% of their total external penetrating radiation dose. The number of workers flagged as being exposed to neutrons was 13% for the full cohort, with 15% of the cohort in France, 12% of the cohort in the UK and 14% in the U.S. We also used available information on in vivo and bioassay monitoring to identify workers with known depositions or suspected internal contaminations. As a result of this work, information is now available that will allow various types of sensitivity analyses.

YASUI S - Fact-finding survey in response to the manipulation of personal alarm dosimeter collection efficiency : lessons learned about post-emergency radiation protection from the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi APP accident. – Journal of occupational and environmental hygiene, 06/2015, 12, 6, D96-D102.

  • abstract

During emergency work at TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Atomic Power Plant on December 1, 2011 a subcontractor demanded that its contracted workers cover their personal alarm dosimeters (PAD) with 3-cm-thick lead plates to lower dosimeter readings. As a response, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) conducted a fact-finding survey to identify similar cases and devise measures to prevent a recurrence of this incident. To screen the suspected cases, the MHLW extracted: a) cases in which a PAD reading was at least 15% higher than the reading obtained from a radio-photolumine-scence dosimeter (RPD), where the dose was greater than 5 mSv in a month (1813 data points), and b) dose data in which PAD readings were less than 50% of the expected dose, where exposure dose may exceed 1 mSv in a day (56 workers, 17,148 data points). From these screenings, the MHLW identified 50 instances from TEPCO and nine primary contractors, including four general contractors, two plant manufacturers, and three plant maintenance companies as the subjects of the due diligence study of exposure data, including interviews. The results of the survey provide lessons that can also be applied to transition from emergency radiation protection to normal operation, as the application of emergency dose limits had ceased on December 16, 2011, in the affected plant. Based on the results of the survey, the MHLW provided administrative guidance documents to TEPCO and 37 primary contractors. The major points of these documents include: a) identification of recorded dose values by comparison of PAD readings to RPD readings, b) storage and management of RPDs and control badges, c) circulation management of PADs and access control to the affected plant, d) estimation of planned doses and setting of alarm values of PADs, e) actions to be taken by contractors if worker dose limits are reached, and f) physical measures to prevent recurrence of the incident.

KREUZER M, AUVINEN A , CARDIS E et al. - Low-dose ionising radiation and cardiovascular diseases. Strategies for molecular epidemiological studies in Europe. – Mutation research-Reviews in mutation research, 04-06/2015, 764, 90-100.

  • abstract 

It is well established that high-dose ionising radiation causes cardiovascular diseases. In contrast, the evidence for a causal relationship between long-term risk of cardiovascular diseases after moderate doses (0.5-5Gy) is suggestive and weak after low doses (<0.5Gy). However, evidence is emerging that doses under 0.5Gy may also increase long-term risk of cardiovascular disease. This would have major implications for radiation protection with respect to medical use of radiation for diagnostic purposes and occupational or environmental radiation exposure. Therefore, it is of great importance to gain information about the presence and possible magnitude of radiation-related cardiovascular disease risk at doses of less than 0.5Gy. The biological mechanisms implicated in any such effects are unclear and results from epidemiological studies are inconsistent. Molecular epidemiological studies can improve the

understanding of the pathogenesis and the risk estimation of radiation-induced circulatory disease at low doses. Within the European DoReMi (Low Dose Research towards Multidisciplinary Integration) project, strategies to conduct molecular epidemiological studies in this field have been developed and evaluated. Key potentially useful European cohorts are the Mayak workers, other nuclear workers, uranium miners, Chernobyl liquidators, the Techa river residents and several diagnostic or low-dose radiotherapy patient cohorts. Criteria for informative studies are given and biomarkers to be investigated suggested. A close collaboration between epidemiology, biology and dosimetry is recommended, not only among experts in the radiation field, but also those in cardiovascular diseases.

LA VECCHIA C, MALVEZZI M, BOSETTI C et al. - Thyroid cancer mortality and incidence : a global overview. - International journal of cancer, 01/05/2015, 136, 9, 2187-2195.

  • abstract

In most areas of the world, thyroid cancer incidence has been appreciably increasing over the last few decades, whereas mortality has steadily declined. We updated global trends in thyroid cancer mortality and incidence using official mortality data from the World Health Organization (1970-2012) and incidence data from the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents (1960-2007). Male mortality declined in all the major countries considered, with annual percent changes around -2/-3% over the last decades. Only in the United States mortality declined up to the mid 1980s and increased thereafter. Similarly, in women mortality declined in most countries considered, with APCs around -2/-5% over the last decades, with the exception of the UK, the United States and Australia, where mortality has been declining up to the late 1980s/late 1990s to level off (or increase) thereafter. In 2008-2012, most countries had mortality rates (age-standardized, world population) between 0.20 and 0.40/100,000 men and 0.20 and 0.60/100,000 women, the highest rates being in Latvia, Hungary, the Republic of Moldova and Israel (over 0.40/100,000) for men and in Ecuador, Colombia and Israel (over 0.60/100,000) for women. In most countries, a steady increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer (mainly papillary carcinomas) was observed in both sexes. The declines in thyroid cancer mortality reflect both variations in risk factor exposure and changes in the diagnosis and treatment of the disease, while the increases in the incidence are likely due to the increase in the detection of this neoplasm over the last few decades.

LI C, HAUCK B, FRASER A et al. - Managing children during a radiological or nuclear emergency-Canadian perspectives. – Health physics, 05/2015, 108, suppl.2 au no. 5, S54-S59.

  • abstract

Children have a higher chance of being contaminated by radioactive materials during a radiological or nuclear (RN) emergency. They are more sensitive to radiation health effects and suffer more significant psychosocial impacts than adults during emergency response. This paper presents a summary of recommendations on effective management of children during an RN emergency. These recommendations intend to be additional considerations for existing RN response protocols and procedures implemented at local, state/provincial, or national level.


Comptes-rendus de congrès

ICRP – Proceedings of the 2nd international symposium on the system of radiological protection. Abu Dhabi (UAE), 22-24 octobre 2013. – Annals of the ICRP, 06/2015, 44, suppl. 1, 1-356.

CECHAK T, FRONKA A, SOHRABI M et al. - 8th international conference on high levels of natural radiation and radon areas. Prague (République tchèque), 1-5 septembre 2014. – Radiation protection dosimetry, 06/2015, 164, 4, 457-618.

ASN – Séminaire pluraliste sur l’évaluation économique du risque d’accident nucléaire. Paris, 24 octobre 2014. – 06/2015, 32 p.



MARIGNAC Y, BESNARD M – Nucléaire français : l’impasse industrielle. – WISE, 23/06/2015, 72 p.

AIEA - Protection of the public against exposure indoors due to radon and other natural sources of radiation. Specific Safety Guide no. SSG-32. – 05/2015, 112 p.

AIEA – Stratégie nationale visant à la reprise de contrôle des sources orphelines et au renforcement du contrôle des sources vulnérables. Guide de sûreté particulier no. SSG-19. – 05/2015, 128 p.

EPRI – Effect of zinc on corrosion product release. Literature review and assessment. – 05/2015, report 3002005413, 216 p.

ASN - Rapport du groupe de travail issu du GPMED. Recommandations du groupe de travail sur les conditions de mise en oeuvre des « nouvelles techniques et pratiques » en radiothérapie. – 11/2014, 72 p.


Autres informations


ICRP - International workshop on the Fukushima dialogue initiative « Rehabilitation of living conditions after the nuclear accident ». Fukushima (Japon), 12-13 décembre 2015.


SFRP – Contamination interne : quels défis pour demain ? Paris, 6 octobre 2015.



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