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BSE 30 octobre 2015 - no. 208

Nucléaire & Santé Actualités

Bibliographie Sélective Express

Documentation en Radioprotection d'EDF - DPI - Division Production Nucléaire

30 octobre 2015 - no. 208

 

Projet de publication

Article

TSUDA T, TOKINOBU A, YAMAMOTO E et al. - Thyroid cancer detection by ultrasound among residents ages 18 years and younger in Fukushima, Japan : 2011 to 2014. – Epidemiology, online 05/10/2015, 7 p.

 

 

Vient de paraître

Articles

MIURA S, AKAZAWA Y, KURASHIGE T et al. – The Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors' tumor tissue bank. - Lancet, 31/10/2015, 386, 10005, 1738-1739. (pas d’abstract disponible)

LITTLE MP – Ionising radiation in the workplace. Editorial. - British medical journal, 21/10/2015, 351, h5405, 2 p.

RICHARDSON DB, CARDIS E, DANIELS RD et al. - Risk of cancer from occupational exposure to ionising radiation : retrospective cohort study of workers in France, the United Kingdom, and the United States (INWORKS). - British medical journal, 21/10/2015, 351, h5359, 8 p.

AKIYAMA J, KATO S, TSUBOKURA M et al. – Minimal internal radiation exposure in residents living south of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant disaster. – PlosOne, 20/10/2015, 10, 10, e0140482, 10 p.

ASADUZZAMAN K, MANNAN F, KHANDAKER MU et al. - Assessment of natural radioactivity levels and potential radiological risks of common building materials used in Bangladeshi dwellings. - PlosOne, 16/10/2015, 10, 10, e0140667, 16 p.

LITTLE MP, KWON D, ZABLOTSKA LB et al. - Impact of uncertainties in exposure assessment on thyroid cancer risk among persons in Belarus exposed as children or adolescents due to the Chernobyl accident. - PlosOne, 14/10/2015, 10, 10, e0139826, 16 p.

HAYANO RS, TSUBOKURA M, MIYAZAKI M et al. – Whole-body counter surveys of over 2700 babies and small children in and around Fukushima Prefecture 33 to 49 months after the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. - Proceedings of the Japan Academy-series B, 09/10/2015, 91, 8, 440-446.

DERYABINA TG, KUCHMEL SV, NAGORSKAYA LL et al. – Long-term census data reveal abundant wildlife populations at Chernobyl. - Current biology, 05/10/2015, 25, 19, R824-R826.

 

AZIZOVA TV, GRIGORYEVA ES, HAYLOCK RG et al. - Ischaemic heart disease incidence and mortality in an extended cohort of Mayak workers first employed in 1948-1982. – British institute of radiology, 10/2015, 88, 1054, 20150169.

  • abstract

OBJECTIVE: Incidence and mortality from ischaemic heart disease (IHD) was studied in an extended cohort of 22,377 workers first employed at the Mayak Production Association during 1948-82 and followed up to the end of 2008.

METHODS: Relative risks and excess relative risks per unit dose (ERR/Gy) were calculated based on the maximum likelihood using Epicure software (Hirosoft International Corporation, Seattle, WA). Dose estimates used in analyses were provided by an updated "Mayak Worker Dosimetry System-2008".

RESULTS: A significant increasing linear trend in IHD incidence with total dose from external γ-rays was observed after having adjusted for non-radiation factors and dose from internal radiation {ERR/Gy = 0.10 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.04 to 0.17]}. The pure quadratic model provided a better fit of the data than did the linear one. No significant association of IHD mortality with total dose from external γ-rays after having adjusted for non-radiation factors and dose from internal alpha radiation was observed in the study cohort [ERR/Gy = 0.06 (95% CI: <0 to 0.15)]. A significant increasing linear trend was observed in IHD mortality with total absorbed dose from internal alpha radiation to the liver after having adjusted for non-radiation factors and dose from external γ-rays in both the whole cohort [ERR/Gy = 0.21 (95% CI: 0.01 to 0.58)] and the subcohort of workers exposed at alpha dose <1.00 Gy [ERR/Gy = 1.08 (95% CI: 0.34 to 2.15)]. No association of IHD incidence with total dose from internal alpha radiation to the liver was found in the whole cohort after having adjusted for non-radiation factors and external gamma dose [ERR/Gy = 0.02 (95% CI: not available to 0.10)]. Statistically significant dose effect was revealed in the subcohort of workers exposed to internal alpha radiation at dose to the liver <1.00 Gy [ERR/Gy = 0.44 (95% CI: 0.09 to 0.85)].

CONCLUSION: This study provides strong evidence of IHD incidence and mortality association with external γ-ray exposure and some evidence of IHD incidence and mortality association with internal alpha-radiation exposure.

 

ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: It is the first time the validity of internal radiation dose estimates has been shown to affect the risk of IHD incidence.

BRENNER DJ – Should we worry about inherited radiation risks ? - Lancet oncology, 10/2015, 16, 13, 1275-1276. (pas d’abstract disponible)

CHUMAK V, DROZDOVITCH V, KRYUCHKOV V et al. – Dosimetry support of the Ukrainian-American case-control study of leukemia and related disorders among Chornobyl cleanup workers. - Health physics, 10/2015, 109, 4, 296-301.

  • abstract

This paper describes dose reconstruction for a joint Ukrainian-American case-control study of leukemia that was conducted in a cohort of 110,645 male Ukrainian cleanup workers of the Chornobyl (Chernobyl) accident who were exposed to various radiation doses over the 1986-1990 time period. Individual bone-marrow doses due to external irradiation along with respective uncertainty distributions were calculated for 1,000 study subjects using the RADRUE method, which employed personal cleanup history data collected in the course of an interview with the subject himself if he was alive or with two proxies if he was deceased. The central estimates of the bone-marrow dose distributions range from 3.7 × 10 to 3,260 mGy, with an arithmetic mean of 92 mGy. The uncertainties in the individual stochastic dose estimates can be approximated by lognormal distributions; the average geometric standard deviation is 2.0.

FULLER N, LEREBOURS A, SMITH JT et al – The biological effects of ionising radiation on crustaceans : a review. - Aquatic toxicology, 10/2015, 167, 55-67.

  • abstract

Historic approaches to radiation protection are founded on the conjecture that measures to safeguard humans are adequate to protect non-human organisms. This view is disparate with other toxicants wherein well-developed frameworks exist to minimise exposure of biota. Significant data gaps for many organisms, coupled with high profile nuclear incidents such as Chernobyl and Fukushima, have prompted the re-evaluation of our approach toward environmental radioprotection. Elucidating the impacts of radiation on biota has been identified as priority area for future research within both scientific and regulatory communities. The crustaceans are ubiquitous in aquatic ecosystems, comprising greater than 66,000 species of ecological and commercial importance. This paper aims to assess the available literature of radiation-induced effects within this subphylum and identify knowledge gaps. A literature search was conducted pertaining to radiation effects on four endpoints as stipulated by a number of regulatory bodies: mortality, morbidity, reproduction and mutation. A major finding of this review was the paucity of data regarding the effects of environmentally relevant radiation doses on crustacean biology. Extremely few studies utilising chronic exposure durations or wild populations were found across all four endpoints. The dose levels at which effects occur was found to vary by orders of magnitude thus presenting difficulties in developing phyla-specific benchmark values and reference levels for radioprotection. Based on the limited data, mutation was found to be the most sensitive endpoint of radiation exposure, with mortality the least sensitive. Current phyla-specific dose levels and limits proposed by major regulatory bodies were found to be inadequate to protect species across a range of endpoints including morbidity, mutation and reproduction and examples are discussed within. These findings serve to prioritise areas for future research that will significantly advance understanding of radiation-induced effects in aquatic invertebrates and consequently enhance ability to predict the impacts of radioactive releases on the environment.

GLUZMAN DF, SKLYARENKO LM, KOVAL SV et al. - Myelodysplastic syndromes in Chernobyl clean-up workers. - Annals of hematology, 10/2015, 94, 10, 1639-1643.

  • abstract

The studies of the recent decades posed the question of the association between radiation exposure and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). This association has been proved in secondary MDS originating upon exposure to chemotherapeutics and/or radiation therapy. The long-term study in Japanese atomic (A)-bomb survivors demonstrated the significant linear dose-response for MDS confirming the link between radiation exposure and this form of hematopoietic malignancies. All these findings provide the strong basis for studying MDS in the persons exposed to radiation following the Chernobyl disaster, especially those in the cohort of Chernobyl clean-up workers of 1986-1987. The data on MDS among Chernobyl clean-up workers (1986-1987) diagnosed in 1996-2012 at the reference laboratory of RE Kavetsky Institute of Experimental Pathology, Oncology and Radiobiology are summarized. MDS cases were diagnosed in 23 persons (21 males and 2 females) having been exposed to radiation as clean-up workers of 1986-1987. Refractory anemia (RA) has been detected in 13, refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts (RARS)-in 2, and refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB)-in 8 patients. The median age of those MDS patients was 62.0 years. In addition, 5 cases of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) were recorded in the group of Chernobyl clean-up workers with the median time of 14.8 years from 1986-1987 to diagnosis. The association between radiation exposure and MDS is discussed. The suggested life-long risk for myelodysplastic syndromes among A-bomb survivors in Japan highlights the importance of the continuing follow-up studies in the affected populations in the post-Chernobyl period.

GRANT EJ, FURUKAWA K, SAKATA R et al. – Risk of death among children of atomic bomb survivors after 62 years of follow-up : a cohort study. - Lancet oncology, 10/2015, 16, 13, 1316-1323.

  • abstract

BACKGROUND: No clear epidemiological hereditary effects of radiation exposure in human beings have been reported. However, no previous studies have investigated mortality into middle age in a population whose parents were exposed to substantial amounts of radiation before conception. We assessed mortality in children of the atomic bomb survivors after 62 years of follow-up.

METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, we assessed 75 327 singleton children of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and unexposed controls, born between 1946 and 1984, and followed up to Dec 31, 2009. Parental gonadal doses of radiation from the atomic bombings were the primary exposures. The primary endpoint was death due to cancer or non-cancer disease, based on death certificates.

FINDINGS: Median follow-up was 54·3 years (IQR 45·4-59·3). 5183 participants died from disease. The mean age of the 68 689 surviving children at the end of follow-up was 53·1 years (SD 7·9) with 15 623 (23%) older than age 60 years. For parents who were exposed to a non-zero gonadal dose of radiation, the mean dose was 264 mGy (SD 463). We detected no association between maternal gonadal radiation exposure and risk of death caused by cancer (hazard ratio [HR] for 1 Gy change in exposure 0·891 [95% CI 0·693-1·145]; p=0·36) or risk of death caused by non-cancer diseases (0·973 [0·849-1·115]; p=0·69). Likewise, paternal exposure had no effect on deaths caused by cancer (0·815 [0·614-1·083]; p=0·14) or deaths caused by non-cancer disease (1·103 [0·979-1·241]; p=0·12). Age or time between parental exposure and delivery had no effect on risk of death.

INTERPRETATION: Late effects of ionising radiation exposure include increased mortality risks, and models of the transgenerational effects of radiation exposure predict more genetic disease in the children of people exposed to radiation. However, children of people exposed to the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki had no indications of deleterious health effects after 62 years. Epidemiological studies complemented by sensitive molecular techniques are needed to understand the overall effects of preconception exposure to ionising radiation on human beings.

 

FUNDING: Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, US Department of Energy.

GUDZENKO N, HATCH M, BAZYKA D et al. - Non-radiation risk factors for leukemia : a case-control study among Chornobyl cleanup workers in Ukraine. – Environmental research, 10/2015, 142, 72-76.

  • abstract

BACKGROUND: Occupational and environmental exposure to chemicals such as benzene has been linked to increased risk of leukemia. Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption have also been found to affect leukemia risk. Previous analyses in a large cohort of Chornobyl clean-up workers in Ukraine found significant radiation-related increased risk for all leukemia types. We investigated the potential for additional effects of occupational and lifestyle factors on leukemia risk in this radiation-exposed cohort.

METHODS: In a case-control study of chronic lymphocytic and other leukemias among Chornobyl cleanup workers, we collected data on a range of non-radiation exposures. We evaluated these and other potential risk factors in analyses adjusting for estimated bone marrow radiation dose. We calculated Odds Ratios and 95% Confidence Intervals in relation to lifestyle factors and occupational hazards.

RESULTS: After adjusting for radiation, we found no clear association of leukemia risk with smoking or alcohol but identified a two-fold elevated risk for non-CLL leukemia with occupational exposure to petroleum (OR=2.28; 95% Confidence Interval 1.13, 6.79). Risks were particularly high for myeloid leukemias. No associations with risk factors other than radiation were found for chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

 

CONCLUSIONS: These data - the first from a working population in Ukraine - add to evidence from several previous reports of excess leukemia morbidity in groups exposed environmentally or occupationally to petroleum or its products.

PEKHAM EC, SCHEURER ME, DANYSH HE et al – Residential radon exposure and incidence of childhood lymphoma in Texas, 1995-2011. - International journal of environmental research and public health, 10/2015, 12, 10, 12110-12126.

ROUSSE C, CHAUVET B – Recommandations pour les visites d’inspection de l’Autorité française de sûreté nucléaire. - Cancer/Radiothérapie, 10/2015, 19, 6-7, 634-637.

  • résumé

L’Autorité de sûreté nucléaire (ASN) est en charge du contrôle de la radioprotection en radiothérapie depuis 2002. Les contrôles s’opèrent sur la base des exigences inscrites dans les Codes de la santé publique et du travail ainsi que des référentiels de l’établissement contrôlé, définis dans son système de management de la qualité et de la sécurité des soins, en application de la décision no 2008-DC-0103 de l’ASN. Après avoir contrôlé le déploiement du système de management de la qualité, les contrôles ont porté sur la vérification de l’adéquation entre les procédures et leur mise en oeuvre, en sélectionnant des étapes du processus basées sur le retour d’expérience des événements déclarés à l’ASN. La connaissance des thématiques d’inspection, communiquées aux centres lors du lancement d’une campagne permet aux centres d’anticiper les demandes des inspecteurs. N’étant pas habilités à l’accès à des informations couvertes par le secret médical lorsqu’ils n’ont pas la qualité de médecin, les documents consultés doivent être expurgés de toute information permettant d’identifier les patients. Des échanges en amont de l’inspection doivent permettre de faciliter la mise à disposition des documents susceptibles d’être consultés. Enfin, les centres doivent organiser avec les inspecteurs des temps d’échanges avec les différents professionnels. Les progrès accomplis par les centres et les conclusions d’un groupe de travail associant les professionnels vont conduire à une évolution du contrôle. Ils seront pris en compte lors de l’élaboration d’un nouveau programme d’inspection pour la période 2016–2019. L’implémentation des évaluations des pratiques cliniques conduira également, à terme, à faire évoluer les pratiques d’inspection.

 

BERNIER MO, JOURNY N, BAYSSON H et al. – Potential cancer risk associated with CT scans : review of epidemiological studies and ongoing studies. - Progress in nuclear energy, 09/2015, 84, 116-119.

  • abstract

Introduction : The increasing use of computed tomography (CT) scans in paediatric population raises the question of a possible health impact of ionizing radiation exposure associated with CT scans.

Material and methods : Three cohort studies have been recently published that have assessed the risk of cancer related to CT examinations of children and young adults. The methodology and results of these studies are presented, as are ongoing studies and the perspectives they provide.

Results : The UK cohort included over 176, 000 young people, who underwent one or more CT scans between 1985 and 2002. The Australian study compared the risk of cancer and leukaemia in a population of 680, 000 young people exposed to CT scans between 1985 and 2005 to non-exposed people of similar ages. The third study, from Taiwan, compared the risk of malignant or benign brain tumour in a cohort of 24,418 children exposed to CT scans under 18 years of age between 1998 and 2006 to non–exposed people of similar ages. The British and Australian studies showed a significant dose–response relation between the exposure to CT and leukaemia or brain tumour. These results are consistent with predictions from A-bomb survivors' data. The Taiwanese study failed to show an overall increased risk of cancer, but observed that the risk of benign brain tumour was significantly increased. However, uncertainties in dosimetric estimation and potential bias linked to underlying medical conditions should be considered.

 

Conclusion and perspectives : Further studies with more accurate dosimetry and assessment of potential bias and uncertainties are needed. Ongoing national studies and the European collaborative EPI-CT study will help to better understand the relation between low-level radiation exposure and cancer and to support recommendations for patients' radiation protection.

 

Compte-rendu de congrès

AIEA, OMS – Radiation protection in medicine. Setting the scene for next decade. Bonn (Allemagne), 3-7 décembre 2013. – AIEA, 09/2015, 450 p.

 

Ouvrage

REUSS P – Parlons nucléaire en 30 questions. – La Documentation française, 2015, 2nde éd., 104 p.

 

Rapports

EPRI - Remote monitoring technology guide for radiation protection. Field implementation of remote monitoring, 2015 revision. - 29/10/2015, EPRI 3002005480, 112 p.

WISE-Paris – L’option nucléaire contre le changement climatique. Risques associés, limites et frein aux alternatives. – 10/2015, 24 p.

UNSCEAR – Developments since the 2013 UNSCEAR Report on the levels and effects of radiation exposure due to the nuclear accident following the great east-Japan earthquake and tsunami. A 2015 white paper to guide the Scientific Committee’s future programme of work. - 2015, 51 p.

EPRI – Sampling and measurement of tritium in soil. - 22/10/2015, EPRI 3002005565, 56 p.

 

AEN – Données sur l’énergie nucléaire 2015. – OCDE, 2015, NEA no.7246, 106 p.

IRSN - Guide pratique pour la réalisation des études dosimétriques de poste de travail présentant un risque d’exposition aux rayonnements ionisants (version 4). – 10/2015, IRSN PRP-HOM 2015-00009, 65 p.

AIEA - Inventory of radioactive material resulting from historical dumping, accidents and losses at sea. – 10/2015, IAEA TECDOC Series No. 1776, 48 p.

ICRP – Publication 130 : Occupational intakes of radionuclides. Part 1. – Annals of the ICRP, 2015, 44, 2, 188 p.

  • contents et abstract

This report is the first in a series of reports replacing Publications 30 and 68 to provide revised dose coefficients for occupational intakes of radionuclides by inhalation and ingestion. The revised dose coefficients have been calculated using the Human Alimentary Tract Model (Publication 100) and a revision of the Human Respiratory Tract Model (Publication 66) that takes account of more recent data. In addition, information is provided on absorption into blood following inhalation and ingestion of different chemical forms of elements and their radioisotopes. In selected cases, it is judged that the data are sufficient to make material-specific recommendations. Revisions have been made to many of the models that describe the systemic biokinetics of radionuclides absorbed into blood, making them more physiologically realistic representations of uptake and retention in organs and tissues, and excretion.

The reports in this series provide data for the interpretation of bioassay measurements as well as dose coefficients, replacing Publications 54 and 78. In assessing bioassay data such as measurements of whole-body or organ content, or urinary excretion, assumptions have to be made about the exposure scenario, including the pattern and mode of radionuclide intake, physical and chemical characteristics of the material involved, and the elapsed time between the exposure(s) and measurement.

This report provides some guidance on monitoring programmes and data interpretation.

BAYLON C, BRUNT R, LIVINGSTONE D – Cyber security at civil nuclear facilities. Understanding the risks. – Chatham House, 09/2015, 53 p.

 disponible sur le site http://www.chathamhouse.org

YOUNGMAN MJ - PHE facility for rapid monitoring of internal contamination in people. – Public Health England, 07/2015, PHE-CRCE-019, 26 p.

 

Autres informations

Congrès

2016 ISOE ALARA Symposium. Fort Lauderdale (Floride-USA), 10-13 janvier 2016.

ICRP Symposium on radiological protection dosimetry. Historical review and current activities. Tokyo, 18 février 2016.

2016 ISOE International Symposium on occupational exposure management at nuclear facilities. Bruxelles (Belgique), 1-3 juin 2016.

 

 

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