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BSE 31 mai 2016 - no. 215

Documentation en Radioprotection d'EDF - DPI - Division Production Nucléaire

 


31 mai 2016 - no. 215

 

Projet de publication

Articles

 

SALTYBAEVA N, MARTINI K, FRAUENFELDER T et al. - Organ dose and attributable cancer risk in lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography. – PlosOne, 20/05/2016, 11, 5, e0155722, 11 p.

 

SHARLOW ER, LEIMGRUBER S, LIRA A et al. – A small molecule screen exposes mTOR signaling pathway involvement in radiation-induced apoptosis. - ACS chemical biology, 20/05/2016, 11, 5, 1428-1437.

  • abstract

Individuals are at risk of exposure to acute ionizing radiation (IR) from a nuclear accident or terrorism, but we lack effective therapies to mitigate the lethal IR effects. In the current study, we exploited an optimized, cell-based, high throughput screening assay to interrogate a small molecule library comprising 3437 known pharmacologically active compounds for mitigation against IR-induced apoptosis. Thirty-three library compounds significantly reduced apoptosis when administered 1 h after 4 Gy IR. Two- or three-dimensional computational structural analyses of the compounds indicated only one or two chemical clusters with most of the compounds being unique structures. The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) inhibitor, rapamycin, was the most potent compound, and it mitigated apoptosis by 50% at 200 ± 50 pM. Other mTOR inhibitors, namely everolimus, AZD8055, and torin 1, also suppressed apoptosis, providing additional pharmacological evidence for mTOR pathway involvement in regulating cell death after IR. Everolimus and torin 1 treatment after IR decreased the S phase population and enforced both G1 and G2 phase arrest. This prorogation of cell cycle progression was accompanied by decreased IR-induced DNA damage measured by γH2AX phosphorylation at Ser139. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of the respective mTORC1 and mTORC2 subunits, Raptor or Rictor, also mitigated IR-induced apoptosis. Collectively, this study suggests a central role for the mTOR signaling in the cytotoxic response to IR and offers a useful platform to probe for additional agents.

 

EVANGELIOU N, ZIBTSEV S, MYRONIUK V et al. – Resuspension and atmospheric transport of radionuclides due to wildfires near the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in 2015 : an impact assessment. - Scientific reports, 17/05/2016, 6, 26062, 14 p.

 

AZIZOVA TV, BANNIKOVA MV, GRIGORIEVA ES et al. – Risk of lower extremity arterial disease in a cohort of workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation over a prolonged period. - Radiation and environmental biophysics, 05/2016, 55, 2, 147-159.

  • abstract

In this study the incidence risk of lower extremity arterial disease (LEAD; international classification of diseases version 9 code 440.2) was assessed in a cohort of workers occupationally exposed to radiation over a prolonged period. The study cohort includes 22,377 workers of the Mayak Production Association (25 % of whom are females) first employed at one of the main facilities in 1948-1982 and followed up to the end of 2008. Dose estimates used in the study are provided by Mayak Worker Dosimetry System 2008. The mean total dose from external gamma-rays is 0.54 Gy for males and 0.44 Gy for females. The mean absorbed liver dose from internal alpha-radiation due to incorporated plutonium is 0.23 Gy in males and 0.44 Gy in females. Relative risks and excess relative risks per unit dose (ERR/Gy) are calculated based on maximum likelihood. A total of 943 cases of LEAD are registered in the study cohort during the follow-up of 512,801 person-years. A significant association of LEAD incidence with total dose from external gamma-rays (based on a linear model) was revealed, and the ERR/Gy is 0.27 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.11; 0.48). It turned out that a linear-exponential model provides a better fit of the data (∆AIC = 9.957).

Inclusion of an adjustment for internal alpha-radiation dose resulted in the reduction of the ERR/Gy to 0.19 (95 % CI 0.05; 0.39), but the risk remains significant. No association of

LEAD incidence with dose from internal alpha-radiation was found in the study worker cohort. It is concluded that this study provides evidence for an association of LEAD incidence with dose from external gamma-rays taking non-radiation factors into account.

 

OSTROUMOVA E, HATCH M, BRENNER A et al. – Non-thyroid cancer incidence in Belarusian residents exposed to Chernobyl fallout in childhood and adolescence : Standardized Incidence Ratio analysis, 1997-2011. - Environmental research, 05/2016, 147, 44-49.

  • abstract

BACKGROUND: While an increased risk of thyroid cancer from post-Chernobyl exposure to Iodine-131 (I-131) in children and adolescents has been well-documented, risks of other cancers or leukemia as a result of residence in radioactively contaminated areas remain uncertain.

METHODS: We studied non-thyroid cancer incidence in a cohort of about 12,000 individuals from Belarus exposed under age of 18 years to Chernobyl fallout (median age at the time of Chernobyl accident of 7.9 years). During 15 years of follow-up from1997 through2011, 54 incident cancers excluding thyroid were identified in the study cohort with 142,968 person-years at risk. We performed Standardized Incidence Ratio (SIR) analysis of all solid cancers excluding thyroid (n=42), of leukemia (n=6) and of lymphoma (n=6).

RESULTS: We found no significant increase in the incidence of non-thyroid solid cancer (SIR=0.83, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 0.61; 1.11), lymphoma (SIR=0.66, 95% CI: 0.26; 1.33) or leukemia (SIR=1.78, 95% CI: 0.71; 3.61) in the study cohort as compared with the sex-, age- and calendar-time-specific national rates. These findings may in part reflect the relatively young age of study subjects (median attained age of 33.4 years), and long latency for some radiation-related solid cancers.

CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence of statistically significant increases in solid cancer, lymphoma and leukemia incidence 25 years after childhood exposure in the study cohort; however, it is important to continue follow-up non-thyroid cancers in individuals exposed to low-level radiation at radiosensitive ages.

 

SUZUKI S, NAKAMURA I, SUZUKI S et al. – Inappropriate suppression of thyrotropin concentrations in young patients with thyroid nodules including thyroid cancer : the Fukushima Health Management Survey. - Thyroid, 05/2016, 26, 5, 717-725.

  • abstract

BACKGROUND: Serum thyroid hormone concentration is regulated through the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. This study aimed to clarify the relationships between thyroid hormone regulation and ultrasonographic findings in subjects with thyroid nodules detected during thyroid ultrasound examination for the Fukushima Health Management Survey.

METHODS: As of October 31, 2014, a total of 296,253 subjects, who had been living in Fukushima Prefecture at the time of the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident and were aged ≤18 years on March 11, 2011, participated in two concurrent screening programs. In the primary screening, thyroid nodules were detected in 2241 subjects. A secondary confirmatory thyroid ultrasound examination and blood sampling for thyroid function tests were performed on 2004 subjects. The subjects were reassessed and classified into disease-free subjects (Group 1), subjects with cysts only (Group 2), subjects with nodules (Group 3), and subjects with malignancy or suspected malignancy (Group 4). Serum concentrations of free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4), thyrotropin (TSH), thyroglobulin, and the fT3/fT4 ratio were classified according to the diagnoses.

RESULTS: Inverse relationships between age and log TSH values (Spearman's correlation r = -0.311, p = 0.015), serum fT3 concentration (r = -0.688, p < 0.001), and the fT3/fT4 ratio (r = -0.520, p < 0.001) were observed in Group 1. When analysis of covariance with Bonferroni post hoc comparisons was used in the four groups, the log TSH values were significantly lower in both Group 3 and Group 4 compared with Group 1 and Group 2 after correcting for age (p < 0.001; Group 1 vs. Group 3, p = 0.016; Group 1 vs. Group 4, p = 0.022; Group 2 vs. Group 3, p = 0.001; Group 2 vs. Group 4, p = 0.008). However, no significant differences were observed between the four groups regarding levels of fT3, fT4, fT3/fT4 ratio, and thyroglobulin (p = 0.304, 0.340, 0.208, and 0.583, respectively).

CONCLUSION: TSH suppression can be present in response to illness, including thyroid nodules, in young subjects. Low TSH levels may be associated with the finding of papillary thyroid cancer as well as with thyroid nodules in children and adolescents.

 

TSUDA T, TOKINOBU A, YAMAMOTO E et al. - Thyroid cancer detection by ultrasound among residents ages 18 years and younger in Fukushima, Japan : 2011 to 2014. – Epidemiology, 05/2016, 27, 3, 316-322. (voir aussi Letters to the Editor, e17-e23)

 

VAN DILLEN T, DEKKERS F, BIJWAARD H et al. – Modeling lung carcinogenesis in radon-exposed miner cohorts : accounting for missing information on smoking. - Risk analysis, 05/2016, 36 , 5, 954-967.

  • abstract

Epidemiological miner cohort data used to estimate lung cancer risks related to occupational radon exposure often lack cohort-wide information on exposure to tobacco smoke, a potential confounder and important effect modifier. We have developed a method to project data on smoking habits from a case-control study onto an entire cohort by means of a Monte Carlo resampling technique. As a proof of principle, this method is tested on a subcohort of 35,084 former uranium miners employed at the WISMUT company (Germany), with 461 lung cancer deaths in the follow-up period 1955-1998. After applying the proposed imputation technique, a biologically-based carcinogenesis model is employed to analyze the cohort's lung cancer mortality data. A sensitivity analysis based on a set of 200 independent projections with subsequent model analyses yields narrow distributions of the free model parameters, indicating that parameter values are relatively stable and independent of individual projections. This technique thus offers a possibility to account for unknown smoking habits, enabling us to unravel risks related to radon, to smoking, and to the combination of both. 

 

VEIGA LH, HOLMBERG E, ANDERSON H et al. – Thyroid cancer after childhood exposure to external radiation : an updated pooled analysis of 12 studies. - Radiation research, 05/2016, 185, 5, 473-484.

  • abstract

Studies have causally linked external thyroid radiation exposure in childhood with thyroid cancer. In 1995, investigators conducted relative risk analyses of pooled data from seven epidemiologic studies. Doses were mostly <10 Gy, although childhood cancer therapies can result in thyroid doses >50 Gy. We pooled data from 12 studies of thyroid cancer patients who were exposed to radiation in childhood (ages <20 years), more than doubling the data, including 1,070 (927 exposed) thyroid cancers and 5.3 million (3.4 million exposed) personyears. Relative risks increased supralinearly through 2-4 Gy, leveled off between 10-30 Gy and declined thereafter, remaining significantly elevated above 50 Gy. There was a significant relative risk trend for doses <0.10 Gy (P < 0.01), with no departure from linearity (P = 0.36). We observed radiogenic effects for both papillary and nonpapillary tumors. Estimates of excess relative risk per Gy (ERR/Gy) were homogeneous by sex (P = 0.35) and number of radiation treatments (P = 0.84) and increased with decreasing age at the time of exposure. The ERR/Gy estimate was significant within ten years of radiation exposure, 2.76 (95% CI, 0.94- 4.98), based on 42 exposed cases, and remained elevated 50 years and more after exposure. Finally, exposure to chemotherapy was significantly associated with thyroid cancer, with results supporting a nonsynergistic (additive) association with radiation.

 

VIAU M, PEREZ AF, BODGI L et al. - Effets de répétitions de doses d’irradiation et réparation de l’ADN : importance du facteur individuel et de l’intervalle de temps entre les doses. Cancer/Radiothérapie, 05/2016, 20, 3, 217-225.

  • résumé

L’effet du fractionnement de la dose d’irradiation est une question récurrente qui reste globalement irrésolue car aucun modèle ne permet aujourd’hui de déduire l’effet clinique par la seule donnée de la dose cumulée et des caractéristiques radiobiologiques des tissus irradiés. Cette question importante est abordée différemment en radioprotection, radiothérapie, radiologie ou épidémiologie. Une meilleure compréhension de la réponse moléculaire aux radiations rend aujourd’hui possible une approche nouvelle pour identifier les paramètres qui conditionnent l’effet du fractionnement. En particulier, l’intervalle de temps entre les doses apparaît comme un facteur essentiel puisqu’il permettra, ou non, la réparation de certains dommages radio-induits de l’ADN comme les dommages de bases, les cassures simple-brin ou les cassures double-brin dont les rythmes de réparation sont respectivement de l’ordre de la seconde, de la minute ou de l’heure : l’effet de fractionnement variera alors suivant les statuts fonctionnels de ces voies de réparation, que ce soit pour les tissus sains comme pour les tumeurs.

 

AITSI-SELMI A, MURRAY V - The Chernobyl disaster and beyond : implications of the Sendai framework for disaster risk reduction 2015-2030. – PlosMed, 25/04/2016, 13, 4, e1002017, 4 p.

 

LITTLE MP, WAKEFORD R, BOUVILLE A et al. - Measurement of Fukushima-related radioactive contamination in aquatic species. - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 05/04/2016, 113, 14, 3720-3721. (pas d’abstract disponible)

 

OKAMURA H, IKEDA S, MORITA T et al. - Risk assessment of radioisotope contamination for aquatic living resources in and around Japan. - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 05/04/2016, 113, 14, 3838-3843.

 

BARBOSA-LORENZO R, BARROS-DIOS J, RAICES ALDREY M et al. - Residential radon and cancers other than lung cancer : a cohort study in Galicia, a Spanish radon-prone area. Letter to the Editor. – European journal of epidemiology, 04/2016, 31, 4, 437-441. (pas d’abstract disponible)

 

MILDER C, SAKATA R, SUGIYAMA H et al. – Initial report for the Radiation Effects Research Foundation F1 Mail Survey. - Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention, 2016, 17, 3, 1313-1323.

 

Communication de congrès

ROUE T, JOURNY N, BAYSSON H et al. – Estimation de l’incidence des leucémies et des tumeurs cérébrales dans la cohorte « Enfant-scanner » en présence de risques concurrents et d’une exposition dépendante du temps. 10ème Conférence Francophone d'Épidémiologie Clinique. Strasbourg, 25-27 mai 2016. - Revue d’épidémiologie et de santé publique, 05/2016, 64, S3, S161.

  • introduction

Parmi les examens utilisant les rayonnements ionisants à des fins diagnostics, la scanographie est de plus en plus utilisée, y compris chez les enfants. Ces derniers ayant une radiosensibilité plus importante que les adultes, et une espérance de vie plus longue, ils ont plus de risque de développer un cancer à long terme. Plusieurs études épidémiologiques récentes ont montré une augmentation des risques de leucémie et de tumeurs du système nerveux central (SNC) après une exposition aux examens scanners dans l’enfance et à l’âge adulte. Dans ces études, les risques de cancer ont été estimés sans tenir compte des événements concurrents, à savoir la survenue d’autres types de cancer et la survenue de décès non cancer.

 

Comptes-rendus de congrès

ICRP – Proceedings of the 3rd international symposium on the system of radiological protection. Séoul (Corée du sud), 20-22 octobre 2015. – Annals of the ICRP, 2016, 45, 1S, 1-372.

 

Dossiers

World nuclear association – Fukushima accident. – 04/2016, 22 p.

 

La maintenance des centrales nucléaires. – Revue générale nucléaire, 01-02/2016, no.1, 11-49.

  • sommaire

Dans son rapport public annuel, la Cour des comptes se penche sur la situation et les défis de la maintenance nucléaire. Pour les experts de la rue Cambon, l’objectif de 50 % de production d’électricité nucléaire en 2025, fixé par la loi transition énergétique, impliquerait la fermeture d’un tiers du parc en exploitation, l’équivalent de 17 à 20 réacteurs. Si la Cour recommande au gouvernement d’identifier les conséquences industrielles et financières de l’application de la loi sur le programme de maintenance « Grand carénage » (voir page 26), elle suggère qu’en l’état, ce programme soit « intégralement révisé » pour éviter les « dépenses inutiles ». Décryptage avec Didier Migaud, premier président de la Cour des comptes.

 

Guide

WATSON SJ, DUANE R, COLE D et al. – Radiation recovery guidance and tools. User guide. Supplement of the UK Recovery handbooks for radiation incidents. – Public Health England, 05/2016, 106 p.

 

Norme

AFNOR – Instrumentation pour la radioprotection - Systèmes dosimétriques intégrés passifs pour la surveillance de l'individu, du lieu de travail et de l'environnement des rayonnements photoniques et bêta. - 20/05/2016, NF EN 62387, 96 p.

  • résumé et sommaire

Le présent document s’applique à toutes sortes de systèmes dosimétriques passifs utilisés pour la mesure – des équivalents de dose individuels Hp (10) (pour la dosimétrie du corps entier), – des équivalents de dose individuels Hp (3) (pour la dosimétrie des cristallins), – des équivalents de dose individuels Hp (0,07) (pour la dosimétrie du corps entier et pour la dosimétrie d'extrémités), – de l’équivalent de dose ambiant H*(10) (pour la dosimétrie de l'environnement), ou – de l’équivalent de dose directionnel H ’(0,07) (pour la dosimétrie de l'environnement). 

 

Numéro de revue

ASN – Les 10 ans de l’ASN. La loi TECV. 14 ans de contrôle de la radioprotection. - Contrôle, 04/2016, no. 200, 52 p.

 

Rapports

IRSN - Constat radiologique minier du bassin versant de la Dordogne sur la base d’une démarche pluraliste menée avec les acteurs du territoire. – 05/2016, 52 p.

 

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine – Lessons learned from the Fukushima nuclear accident for improving safety and security of U.S. nuclear plants. Phase 2. – National Academies Press, 05/2016, 239 p.

 

AIEA – Nuclear accident knowledge taxonomy (Coll. Nuclear energy series no. NG-T-6.8). –05/2016, 52 p.

 

ASN – La sûreté nucléaire et la radioprotection en France en 2015. - 04/2016, 538 p.

 

Cour des comptes – L’imagerie médicale. – 04/2016, 163 p.

 

OMS – 1986-2016 : Chernobyl at 30. An update. – 25/04/2016, 7 p.

 

OMS – Communicating radiation risks in paediatric imaging. – 22/04/2016, 94 p.

 

AIEA – Criteria for radionuclide activity concentrations for food and drinking water. IAEA-TECDOC-1788. – 04/2016, 63 p.

 

NCRP – Commentary no. 25. Potential for central nervous system effects from radiation exposure during space activities Phase 1 : overview. – 2016, 86 p.

 

FOURNEL J, DURANTHON JP, VO VAN QUI JL et al. - Le financement du contrôle de la sûreté nucléaire et de la radioprotection. – IGF/ CGEDD/ CGE, 12/2015, 30 p.

 

Autres informations

Congrès

ICRS-13 & RPSD-2016 – 13th International Conference on Radiation Shielding and 19th Topical meeting of the radiation protection and Shielding Division of the ANS. Paris, 3-6 octobre 2016.

 

ATSR – 5th Forum européen de radioprotectique. Techniques, méthodes de démantèlement et radioprotection. La Grande Motte, 5-7 octobre 2016.

 

Journées

SFRP – Exposition au radon domestique. Paris, 12 septembre 2016.

 

SFEN – Actualités du cycle du combustible. Paris, 24 novembre 2016.

 

 

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